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Green House Gases: An Introduction Prepared for Philazine by Philip Woodard – 2008 – all rights reserved ©

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Presentation on theme: "Green House Gases: An Introduction Prepared for Philazine by Philip Woodard – 2008 – all rights reserved ©"— Presentation transcript:

1 Green House Gases: An Introduction Prepared for Philazine by Philip Woodard – 2008 – all rights reserved ©

2 Definition Earth gets energy from the Sun mostly from visible light Half of this energy is passed through Earths atmosphere since the atmosphere is transparent to visible light Energy that reaches the Earth is absorbed by the surface as heat Earth's surface radiates heat energy back out as infrared waves Greenhouse gases, not transparent to infrared, trap and absorb earths returning infrared radiations This delicate system prevents the wild swings in temperature between day and night that planets with no green house gases experience

3 The Problem is the Balance Too many green house gases and the earth warms up –Venus, with lots of CO 2, heats up to 872 F Too few green house gases and the earth cools off, and day and night temperatures swing more wildly

4 THE GREENHOUSE GASES Water vapor Carbon Dioxide Methane Nitrous Oxide NF 3 Ozone CFC-12 CFC-11

5 Rise in Greenhouse Gases

6 U.S. Energy Consumption

7 Global Energy Consumption -- 2000

8 Rise in Greenhouse Gases International Energy Commission estimates Green House Gas emissions must rise by 45 percent by the year 2030 last 650,000 years 6.1 6.1 Held steady at 180 to 300 ppm over the last 650,000 years By the end of the 21st century, CO2 concentrations will rise to 490 ppm to 1260 ppm (75-350% above the pre-industrial concentration)

9 Man and the Rise of CO 2 The concentration of CO 2 in our atmosphere today far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years Held steady at 180 to 300 ppm over the last 650,000 years By the end of the 21st century, CO 2 concentrations will rise to 490 ppm to 1260 ppm (75-350% above the pre-industrial concentration)

10 Man and the Rise of CO 2 Carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere highest for the last 20 million years 10.1 10.1 Melting permafrost in the arctic will add 1 billion to 2 billion tons of extra carbon per year 10.2 10.2 –Cars and light trucks in the U.S. emit about 300 million tons per year

11 Spike in CO 2 Since 2000 Three percent rise in CO 2 levels every year since 2000 China has been responsible for most of this global growth Largely from building coal power plants in poorer internal provinces The rate of atmospheric CO 2 rise is increasing The rare of increase during the 1960s was about a third of the rate of increase in the 2000s

12 Man and the Rise of Methane The amount of methane in the air has jumped by nearly 28 million tons from June 2006 to October 2007 More than 5.6 billion tons of methane in the air Methane comes from landfills, natural gas, coal mining, animal waste, and decaying plants trapped in the Arctic permafrost –Thousands of years ago billions of tons of methane were created by decaying Arctic plants and frozen in permafrost wetlands and trapped in the ocean floor As the Arctic warms, this methane will be freed and worsen warming –Methane is more than 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide on a per molecule basis in trapping atmospheric heat waves Scientists are concerned that what they are seeing could be the start of the release of the Arctic methane

13 Man and the Rise of NF 3 None in atmosphere naturally Nitrogen trifluoride has quadrupled in the last decade and increased 30-fold since 1978 Used as a cleaning agent in manufacturing liquid crystal displays, computer monitors, and thin-film solar panels

14 Rises in Greenhouse Gases: 5000 Years

15 Major Carbon Emitters: 2007

16 Increase in Some Green House Gases Gas Preindustrial Level Current Level Increase since 1750 Carbon Dioxide 280 ppm 384 ppm 104 ppm Methane700 ppm1745 ppm1045 ppm Nitrous Oxide 270 ppb314 ppb44 ppb CFC12-- 553 ppt

17 Where They Come From In 2008, a white paper from the Chinese government admitted Chinas contributions of green house gases had exceeded those of the United States 17.1.1 From 1990 to 2007, overall U.S. green house gas emissions have rise by 14.7 percent. the United States 17.1.1

18 In the U.S.

19 Farm Animals Contribute 18 Percent 16.1 16.1 More emissions than from cars, buses and airplanes Global meat consumption is expected to double again between 2000 and 2050

20 Farm Animal Emissions Producing a pound of beef creates 11 times as much greenhouse gas emission as a pound of chicken 100 times more than a pound of carrots In the U.S., agriculture accounted for just 7.4 percent of greenhouse gas emissions in 2006, according to the EPA

21 Emissions Are Rising

22

23 All the Trends Point to a Change Northern Hemisphere Temps Population CO 2 Concentrations Water Use Species Extinctions GDP Loss of Rain Forest and Woodlands Paper Consumption Motor Vehicles Fisheries Exploitation Ozone Depletion Foreign Investment

24 Longevity of Green House Gases Water vapor stays in the atmosphere for days Other greenhouse gases take many years to leave the atmosphere –CO 2 has an affective lifetime of tens of thousands of years –Methane has an atmospheric lifetime of 13½ years –Nitrous oxide has an atmospheric lifetime of 120 years –CFC-12 has an atmospheric lifetime of 100 years

25 Endnotes 6.1 International Energy Commission, World Energy Outlook 2008, www.worldenergy outlook.org BACKInternational Energy BACK 10.1 Adam Morton, Rising Ocean Temperatures Near Worst- Case Predictions,WA Times, July 10, 2009 BACKWA Times, BACK 10.2 Sharon Begley, Climate-Change Calculus Worst-Case Predictions,Newsweek, August 3, 2009 BACKNewsweek, BACK 17.1 Clifford Coonan, China Catches up with US in Green- house Gas Emissions Irish Times, November 1, 2008 BACKClifford Coonan BACK 17.2 Website, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, USEPA, August, 2008, USEPA #430-R-08-005 BACKWebsite BACK 16.1 Elisabeth Rosenthal, As More Eat Meat, New York Times, December 3, 2008. BACKElisabeth Rosenthal, BACK


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