Uthman (r) Assassination, Legacy, and views A.S. Hashim, MD From wikipedia.com
Sources of Reference ibn Hisham, Uthman bin Affan, the Third Khalifa of Islam by, Abdul Basit. Hilya al-Awliya, Abu Nuaym, Uthman ibn Affan: The Man With Two Lights (Part Two) The Murder of the Khalifa Uthman, M. Hinds, The Arabs in History, Oxford University Press, 2002 Encyclopædia Britannica The Early Islamic Conquests, Fred Donner, Princeton 1981 A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims The Cambridge History of Islam, Bernard Lewis, The Succession to Muhammad Makers of Arab History By Philip Khuri Hitti.
In this Slide Show Ibn al-Musayyib relates Manner of Assassination The funeral Uthmans Burial Legacy Views: Bernard Lewis, Views: David Samuel Margoliouth Views: E. A. Belyaev Views: Ali Asgher Razwy
Uthman Assassinated The Funeral The burial Uthmans Legacy Views of Western Writers The Assassination The Tragedy
Ibn al-Musayyib relates: Ibn al-Musayyib relates that: a group of seven hundred Egyptians came to complain to Uthman about their governor Ibn Abi Sarhs tyranny, so Uthman said: "Choose someone to govern you." They chose Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, so Uthman wrote credentials for him and they returned. On their way back, at three days distance from Medina, a black slave caught up with them with the news that he carried orders from Uthman to the governor of Egypt. They searched him and found a message from Uthman to Ibn Abi Sar'h ordering the killing of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and some of his friends.
Ibn al-Musayyib relates: Continued They returned to Medina and besieged Uthman. Uthman acknowledged that: the camel, the slave, and the seal on the letter belonged to him, but Uthman swore that he had never written nor ordered the letter to be written. It was discovered that the letter had been hand-written by Marwan ibn al-Hakam. Uthman was besieged for twenty-two days during which he refused both to give up Marwan or to resign. He was killed on the last day of Dhul Hijjah, on the day of Jumu'ah, by several men who had crept into his house.
Manner of Assassination The gate of Uthmans house was guarded by Al-Hasan, Al-Husain, Abdullah ibn Zubair, Marwan and a few other persons. Open fighting now began between the rebels and the supporters of Uthman. There were some casualties among the rebellious. Among the supporters of Uthman Al-Hasan, Marwan and some other persons were wounded. Some rebels led by Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr climbed the houses of the neighbors and then jumped into the house of Uthman. leaving the guards on the gate unaware of what was going on inside.
Manner of Assassination Uthman was reading the Holy Quran, and his wife Na'ila was by his side. Some rebels entered the room of Uthman, but they could not decide what to do. The atmosphere must have been very tense, quite ominous. Then Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr entered the room, and he took hold of Uthmans beard. Shaken, Uthman said to him, You are like a nephew to me, and you would be a betrayal to the memory of your father Abu Bakr if you contemplate a violence against me. As a result, Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr wavered, and he walked out of the room without harming Uthman.
Interesting Narration أورد ابن حجر من طريق كنانة مولى صفية بنت حيي: قلت: «فهل تدمّى (أي تلطخ وتلوث) محمد بن أبي بكر من دمه بشيء؟». قال: «معاذ الله! دخل عليه فقال له عثمان: لست بصاحبي. وكلمه بكلام فخرج ولم يرز (أي لم يُصِب) من دمه بشيء». قلت: «فمن قتله؟». قال: «رجل من أهل مصر يقال له جبلة، فجعل يقول: «أنا قاتل نعثل» (يقصد عثمان). قلت: «فأين عثمان يومئذ؟». قال: «في الدار». وقال كنانة كذلك: «رأيت قاتل عثمان في الدار رجلاً أسود من أهل مصر يقال له جبلة، باسط يديه، يقول: أنا قاتل نعثل».
Interesting Narration وعن الربيع بن مالك بن أبي عامر، عن أبيه قال: كنت أحد حملة عثمان بن عفان حين توفي كنت أحد حملة عثمان بن عفان حين توفي حملناه على باب، وإن رأسه يقرع الباب لإسراعنا به، وإن بنا من الخوف لأمرًا عظيمًا، حتى واريناه في قبره في حش كوكب. وأرسل عليّ إلى من أراد أن يرجم سريره ممن جلس على الطريق لما سمع بهم فمنعهم عنه. ونزل في قبره، بيان وأبو جهم وحبيب، وقيل: شهد جنازته علي وطلحة وزيد بن ثابت، وكعب بن مالك، وعامة من أصحابه. وعن الحسن قال: شهدت عثمان بن عفان دفن في ثيابه بدمائه، وفي البخاري أنه لم يغسل.
Manner of Assassination Seeing this, some of the rebellious struck blows at the head of Uthman. Na'ila threw herself on the body of Uthman to protect him. She was pushed aside, and further blows were struck on Uthman till he was dead. Raising her hand to protect Uthman: Naila had two of her fingers chopped off Some slaves of Uthman fell on the person whose blows had killed Uthman and killed him. His name is subject of debate. There was some fighting between the rebellious and the supporters of Uthman. There were casualties on both the sides. Chaos prevailed for some time. When the women raised loud lamentations over the dead body of Uthman, the rebellious left the house.
Soon After the Assassination After the assassination of Uthman, the rioters were keen that he be denied burial. When some of the rioters came forward to the body of Uthman, his two widows, Na'ilah and Ramlah bint Sheibah, covered him, and raised loud cries which deterred the rioters. When the women raised loud lamentations over the body of Uthman, the rebels left the house and the supporters of Uthman at the gate hearing it, entered, but it was too late. Thereafter the rioters maintained a presence around the house in order to prevent the dead body from being carried to the graveyard.
The funeral After the body of Uthman had been in the house for three days: Na'ila, Uthman's wife, approached some of his supporters to help in his burial, but only about a dozen people responded. but only about a dozen people responded. The body was lifted at dusk, and because of the blockade, no coffin could be procured. The body was not washed before burial. Thus Uthmans body was carried to the graveyard in the clothes that he was wearing at the time of his assassination.
Uthmans Funeral According to one account: when the rioters came to know that the body was being carried to the graveyard they gathered to stone the funeral, but Ali forbade them, or to resort to any such act, and they withdrew. According to another account, permission was obtained from Ali to bury the body. Yet a third account states that the body was carried to the graveyard in secret.
Uthmans Burial It was related by Abu Karib, who had been an official in charge of Uthman's treasury: Uthman was buried at twilight. Only Marwan b. al-Hakam, three of his free men, and his fifth daughter were present at his funeral. His daughter wailed in mourning and raised her voice in lament for him. The people took stones and hooted: Nathal نعثل meaning Bushy- bearded old man! She was nearly stoned. Then they said, "(Go to] the compound, the compound." And thus he was interred in a compound outside [Medina]. He was buried in the Jewish graveyard behind Jannat al-Baqi.
Uthmans Burial The funeral prayers were led by Jabir bin Muta'am, and the body was lowered into the grave without much of a ceremony. After burial, Na'ila the widow of Uthman and Ayesha the daughter of Uthman wanted to speak, but they were advised to remain quiet due to possible danger from the rioters. but they were advised to remain quiet due to possible danger from the rioters. Some decades later, the Umayya rulers destroyed the wall of the Jewish cemetery and widened the Muslim graveyard to make his tomb inside.
Legacy Islamic history, particularly Sunni history, remembers Uthman in positive terms, calling him handsome, generous, and plain rather than luxurious. Uthman was well known for his reported generosity. During Muhammad's time, while in Medina, he financed : the project for the construction of the Al-Masjid al- Nabawi and purchased the well Beer Rauma, which he dedicated to the free use of all Muslims. Uthmans generosity continued after he became Khalifa.
Legacy Islamic history, particularly Sunni history, remembers Uthman in positive terms, Uthman apparently led a simple life even after becoming the Khalifa of the Rashidoon Empire, though it would have been easy for a successful businessman such as him to lead a luxurious life. The Khalifas were paid for their services from the public treasury, but Uthman did not take any salary for his services, as he was independently wealthy. Uthman also developed a custom to free slaves every Friday, look after the widows and orphans, and give unlimited charity.
Legacy Uthman wasn't completely plain and simple, Uthman built a Palace for himself in Medina, known as Al-Zawar, with a notable feature being doors of precious wood. though Uthman paid for the Palace with his own money, Shi'a Muslims consider this as his first step towards ruling like a King. Uthman's sister Amna bint Affan was married to Abdul Rahman bin Awf, one of the close companions of Muhammad.
Views: Bernard Lewis, Uthman soon fell under the influence of the dominant Meccan families and one after another of the high posts of the Empire went to members of those families. The weakness and nepotism of Uthman brought to a head the resentment which had for some time been stirring obscurely among the Arab warriors. The Muslim tradition attribute the breakdown which occurred during his reign to the personal defects of Uthman. But the causes lie far deeper and the guilt of Uthman lay in his failure to recognize, control, or remedy them.
Views: David Samuel Margoliouth Uthman was no fighting man, as his subsequent history proved, for he shirked one battlefield, ran away from another, and was killed, priest-like, ostentatiously reading the Koran
Views: E. A. Belyaev Uthman's acquisitiveness and business talents gained full scope when he became Khalifa. He built himself a stone house in Medina with doors of precious wood and acquired much real estate in that city, including gardens and water sources. He had a large income from his fruit plantations in Wadi-ul-Qura, Hunain and other places, That were valued at 100,000 Dinars, besides large herds of horses and camels on these estates. Multiplying his riches at the expense of the Muslim treasury,
Views: E. A. Belyaev Uthman also gave free use of the Treasury to some of the closest companions of Muhammad, attempting to justify his illegal actions by associating these most authoritative veteran Moslems with his own depredations. The "companions" applauded the Khalifa Uthman for his generosity and magnanimity, no doubt for solid reasons of self-interest.
Views: E. A. Belyaev Zubair ibn al-Awwam, for example, one of the better known amongst them, built tenement houses in Kufa, Basra, Fustat and Alexandria. His property was estimated at 50,000 Dinars, in addition to which he possessed 1000 horses and 1000 slaves. Another Companion, Talha ibn Ubaidullah, built a large tenement house in Kufa and acquired estates in Iraq which brought in a daily 1000 Dinars; he also built a luxurious house of brick and precious wood in Medina
Views: E. A. Belyaev Abdul Rahman ibn Auf, also an outstanding Companion, and Brother-in- Law of Uthman: also built himself a rich and spacious dwelling; his stables contained 100 horses and his pastures 1000 camels and 10,000 sheep, and one quarter of the inheritance he left after his death was valued at 84,000 Dinars..
Views: Ali Asgher Razwy Uthman's election as Khalifa was a triumph of capitalism. Omar had conceived the plan of "Shura" (electoral committee), and he had charged Abdul Rahman bin Auf with the duty of implementing it. As chairman of the committee, Abdul Rahman made it a condition- precedent: that a candidate for Khilaafah would obey not only the Book of God and would follow the Sunnah of His Messenger, but also, would follow the regulations of Abu Bakr and Omar. He thus put the deeds of Abu Bakr and Omar at par with the Book of God and the Sunnah of His Apostle. He thus put the deeds of Abu Bakr and Omar at par with the Book of God and the Sunnah of His Apostle.
Views: Ali Asgher Razwy Uthman loved the members of his own clan, the Benu Umayya, to a point where his love became an obsession. The Umayya were the arch-enemies of Islam, and they had fought against its Prophet for more than two decades. Now suddenly, Uthman made them masters of the empire of the Muslims. He himself became their puppet, and they took the reins of the government in their own hands. The real rulers of the empire, in the Khilaafah of Uthman, were Marwan (the cousin and son-in-law of Uthman) and Hakam bin Abul- Aas (Uthman's uncle and Marwan's father).
Views: Ali Asgher Razwy Uthman opened the gates of the public treasury to his relatives. He gave them rich presents, vast estates and high ranks. Then, as if he had not done enough for them, he forbade the citizens of Medina to graze their camels and cattle in the pastures around the city. These pastures had been made a public endowment by the Prophet but according to the new ordinance of Uthman, only those animals could graze in them which belonged either to himself or to the Banu Umayya.
In Conclusion Discussed in this slide show are: Ibn al-Musayyib relates Manner of Assassination The funeral and the burial Legacy Views: Bernard Lewis, Views: David Samuel Margoliouth Views: E. A. Belyaev Views: Ali Asgher Razwy
Finally we quote the Quran: By the Token of Time Verily Man is in loss, Except those who believe and do good works, and exhort one another to Truth and exhort one another to patience. بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ وَالْعَصْرِ إِنَّ اِلانسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ إِلا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ