Presentation on theme: "Group IV project Done by… Niraj Merchant Vasudha Agarwal Siddhartha Rajgarhia Anchit Nayyar Aarisha Shah Sanjay Bhatia Aditya Khosla Pranav Bajoria."— Presentation transcript:
Group IV project Done by… Niraj Merchant Vasudha Agarwal Siddhartha Rajgarhia Anchit Nayyar Aarisha Shah Sanjay Bhatia Aditya Khosla Pranav Bajoria
Topic Area The change in rural traditions due to modernization with special emphasis on The various uses of the faeces of Bovine species and their transformation with the establishment of the reliance refinery in Jamnagar
Cow dung used to cool houses
Aim: Comparing and contrasting the building material used in small-scale housing present in farming communities present in Jamnagar in terms of temperature
Materials Used Cement Samples Cow Dung Samples Weight Scale (± 0.01 grams) Digital Thermometer(± 0.01 o C) Beakers Stirrers Spatulas
A Mud House coated with Cow Dung
Results The outside(sun) temperature range as measured ranges : o C The temperature measured inside the cement house:32.4 o C The temperature measured inside the house coated with cow dung : 31.3 o C
Analysis Looking from the data mentioned above we can easily conclude that the temperature in the cow dung house was much less than the temperature measured inside the cement house. The cement house was able to keep the insides around 3.1 degrees cooler than the outside atmospheric temperature which is a very significant amount However, the cow dung on the cow dung house was able to keep the house 4.2 degrees cooler than the outside atmospheric temperature. According to the data presented, the cow dung house was 1.1 degree cooler than the cement house – a very significant difference.
Methods Used – 2 To measure specific heat capacity, equal masses of samples of cow dung samples were used. Their solutions were then poured into beakers and placed above Bunsen Burner. Due to the lack of technological difficulties only a relative specific heat capacity can be determined
Results Apparatus Used 50 grams of each material 100 grams of water Initial Temperature of Cow Dung Solution: Initial Temperature of Cement Solution: Terminal Temperature of Cow Dung Solution: Terminal Temperature of Cement Solution: 34.2 Changes in Temperature: 1) Cow Dung Solution: 1.82 C 2) Cement Solution: 2.30 C
Analysis Specific Heat Capacity of a Substance is the amount of energy required to raise the mass of one kilogram of a substance by one degrees Celsius. The greater the specific heat capacity of a substance, the lesser its increase in temperature. Thus, the substance with a greater increase would have the lesser specific heat capacity.
The Formula Formula of Energy Supplied: Q = mass * specific heat capacity * change in temperature Since the beakers were kept above the Bunsen Burner for the same amount of time: Equation for cement = Equation for Cow Dung m * c 1 * T 1 = m * c 2 * T 2 Since T 1 > T 2 Then c 1 < c 2 Proving it to be a worse method for heat insulation
Conclusion Cow dung provides as a useful insulator in comparison to its rather rigid alternative, cement Although cement is more durable and proves useful under conditions of harsh weather, mud huts provide a cooler environment. The temperature difference between cement houses and mud houses is not significant enough to warrant the use of dung to reinforce the walls
Evaluation With Better Equipment in the labs, we could have used a calorimeter to determine a better value for specific heat capacity
Cow Dung as a fertilizer
Aim of Research To qualitatively analyze the feasibility of cow dung as a fertilizer by identifying the free radicals present in its solution
Hypothesis Excessive amounts of Ammonium and Nitrate ions will be found in the samples in the cow dung.
Method Collection of samples Dissolution of cow dung Calibration of selective electrodes Testing the radicals using loggerpro Sedimentation
Results The concentration of the nitrate (NO 3 - ) radical exceeded the maximum range of the sensor The concentration of the Ammonium (NH 4 + ) ion was also extremely high The Calcium sensor had an error in calibration and hence this concentration could not be measured When allowed to settle large amounts of insoluble inorganic matter were found in the cow dung
Analysis The presence of: Nitrosofying bacteria Nitrifying Bacteria Lead to the presence of Ammonium and Nitrate ions.
Evaluation The introduction of Cement housing has lead to an increased crop yield as this resource (cow dung) can now be put to an alternative use. However the presence of some Sulphide (S 2- ) ions will cause the soil to become acidic.
Harmful effects of cow dung
Introduction Effects of cow dung on human health in terms of :- 1. As a coating of the houses 2. As a domestic fuel
Hypothesis Dry cow dung will contain certain micro-organisms such as fungi When cow dung is used as a cooking fuel it has detrimental effects on human health
Results and Evaluation Unclear results due to low magnification of microscope provided Shortage of resources and time Ideal solution to cultivate bacteria and fungi using agar
Widespread use of cow dung as cooking gas Due to the population explosion Fuel shortages results in the burning of Gobar as fuel 2 cows for every Indian Extensive availability and religious significance of cows 75% of cow dung is used as fuel for cooking
55.65% of cow dung is methane Effects of Methane Respiratory Ailments eg - Asthma Irritation of the eye eg - Cataract Global Warming
Multinational investments Reliance refinery set-up in 1998 Since then 70% of villagers have switched to LPG fuel The surplus used as manure will increase crop yield