Presentation on theme: "Field Study and Energy-Plus Benchmarks for Energy Saver Homes Authors Dr. William Miller, Dr. Som Shrestha and Ken Childs of ORNL Eric Stannard of Univ."— Presentation transcript:
Field Study and Energy-Plus Benchmarks for Energy Saver Homes Authors Dr. William Miller, Dr. Som Shrestha and Ken Childs of ORNL Eric Stannard of Univ. of Tennessee SUMMER STUDY ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN BUILDINGS August 16, 2012 William (Bill) Miller, Ph.D
N Pair of Homes Two-story with Basement Pair of Homes Two-story on Crawlspace Project consists of four houses with different equipment and envelope systems Wolf Creek Subdivision, Oak Ridge, TN Structural Insulated Panel SIPStrategy Advanced Framing OVF Strategy Dynamic Insulation- Phase Change Material PCMStrategy Exterior Insulation Finishing EIFSStrategy
ZEBRAlliance established to promote Cost-Effective Energy Efficiency in Buildings Functions as a public-private research project to promote an energy-efficiency education campaign Miller, et al. 2009 Advanced Residential Envelopes for Two Pair of Energy-Saver Homes, ACEEE Summer Study, 2009.
Objectives DOE Building Technologies (BT) program Residential Building Integration Accelerate progress toward Zero-Energy-Home (ZEH) Whole-house 50% saver homes in mixed humid climate DOE BT: Building Envelope R&D Showcase different envelope approaches Best practices portfolio: materials and construction DOE BT: Analysis Tools and Designs Data acquisition for Foundation Heat Exchanger (FHXs) Benchmark FHX data against analytical tools DOE BT: Space Conditioning and Refrigeration Characterize HVAC, Water heating and Appliance systems Accelerate for-sale status to better penetrate market
Demonstration Homes in Oak Ridge, TN SIP and OVF Pair of Homes Blower Door Tests Tracer Gas Experiments IR Thermography Diagnostics
Construction Verified Using IR Thermography SIP Kaushik Biswas, Kosny and Miller. Thermal Integrity Assessment of Building Envelopes of Experimental Houses Using Infrared Thermography, InfraMotion 2010, Las Vegas, Nevada. FLIR Systems S65 HS IR Camera ASTM Standard C1060 ΔT >10°C for 4 hrs No Irradiance for 3 hrs Wind Speed < 15 mph Min -7.2 Max 1.2 Min -4.4 Max -1.5 M in -7.8 M ax -5.9 Min -11.1 Max 4.6 Min -3.7 Max -0.7 SIP House OVF House SIP House OVF House Min -11.5 Max 2.0 Min -6.1 Max -3.4 Min -5.7 Max 2.0 Min -7.4 Max 1.8 Min -5.9 Max -2.8 Min -7.9 Max 1.,3
Revenue Meter Readings Verify all Homes used 50% less energy than Home Built to IECC 2006 1 International Energy Conservation Code (2006). 2 Air exchanges per hour (ACH) measured by blower door testing conducted at 50 Pa. 3 Tracer gas test using concentration decay method and R-134a refrigerant. Measured values in summer/winter 2011.
SIP House Equipment Characteristics WAHP: 2-ton (7kW) capacity –Cooling COP 4.0 high- stage –Heating COP 5.4 high- stage –2-Stage scroll compressor –Rated as per ANSI/AHRI/ISO 13256-1 –Brine Pump (1/6)hp (147 W) WWHP: 1.5-ton (5.3 kW) –COP 3.1 (based on EWT 32 o F (0 o C)and load EWT 100 o F (37.8 o C) –1-Speed rotary compressor –Brine Pump (1/6)hp (147W) –DHW Pump (1/25)hp (30W) Water Tank: 80 gal (303L) –~60 g/d (220L/d) water @ 120 o F (49 o C)
Heating Capacity vs. Entering Water Temperature (EWT) M. Ally, J. Munk, V. Baxter, A. Gehl ASHRAE Summer Meeting San Antonio, TX, June 23-27, 2012 High Stage: 5% of total run time
Cooling Capacity versus EWT M. Ally, J. Munk, V. Baxter, A. Gehl ASHRAE Summer Meeting San Antonio, TX, June 23-27, 2012 High Stage: 3% of total run time
Exterior Insulation Finishing System The EIFS has 2x4 stick-built wood-framing, 16-in on center with 5-in of EPS exterior insulation on all exterior walls to reduce thermal bridging losses. A trowel applied weather resistive barrier minimizes the infiltration and/or exfiltration heat and moisture loads. Crawlspace of the home is insulated and sealed (not vented to the outdoor ambient).
Weather Resistive Barrier Performance After a full year of exposure to the elements both WRB systems are adequately protecting the sheathing on the south-facing wall
E+ Model of PCM Home Phase Change Material (PCM) Home
Exterior Double Wall Assembly 2 by 4 studs ZIP Panel Gypsum board Fabric Mesh PCM - Cellulose Cellulose 24 OC PCM applied in the insulation will provide thermal buffering in wall
Summer Temperatures Measured in the East and South Wall of the PCM Home
Temperatures Measured in Blown Fiber Insulation in the Attic of the PCM Home Winter Field Data Summer Field Data
E+ Benchmarks of Attic Floor Heat Flux SIP and OVF Homes have cathedral ceilings PCM and EIFS Homes have conventional ventilated attics E+ predicted roof heat flux (W/m 2 ) better for summer data than for winter Avg Seasonal Differences SIPOVFEIFS Summer (W/m 2 )0.220.250.54 Winter (W/m 2 )1.730.280.85
E+ Benchmarks of East Wall Heat Flux Winter data shows continual heat loss to the cold outdoors E+ predicted SIP and OVF wall flux better than EIFS (low-e foil) E+ differences between measured and predicted east wall heat flux (W/m 2 ) Avg Seasonal Differences SIPOVFEIFS Summer (W/m 2 )0.300.11NA Winter (W/m 2 )0.240.36NA Rising Sun Heating Wall
Conclusions HERS scores and revenue meter data prove all homes consume only about half the energy consumed by conventional IECC (2006) compliant house Driving rains do not penetrate the WRB which provide good protection from moisture intrusion E+ (v7.0) predicted heat flux through the roofs and attics matched better with summer field measured data compared to that in winter –does an acceptable job in matching the trends in summer and winter PCM in East Tennessees climate showed the PCM fully active in an east oriented wall but only partially active in the south-facing wall South WallEast Wall Fully Active 1 Partially Active 2 Fully Active 1 Partially Active 2 Days out of Year013031140 Percent of Days out of Year 0%36%8%38%
Actual and Standard costs for the Four ZEBRA Houses