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Causes of WW1 IGCSE History – Grade 10.

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1 Causes of WW1 IGCSE History – Grade 10

2 WW1 Facts 10 million killed or MIA - 22 million wounded
60% chance of being killed or wounded (91% if in Austrian army) 260 killed every hour Half of the dead of Great War have no known grave. The Spanish Influenza of 1918 killed 51 million people worldwide! During the summer and fall of 1914, France lost as many men on the battlefield as the U.S. would lose in all of the C20th.

3 Countries involved

4 Some famous solders Earnest Hemingway (wounded)
Winston Churchill (Admiral of GB navy) Mohandas Ghandi (GB Recruitment Officer) JRR Tolkein (wounded) Wilfred Owen (died in last week of war) Adolf Hitler (Corporal in Austrian army) Only 3 WW1 veterans survive today

5 Causes of WW1 MAINS Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism Significant individuals Assassination of Franz Ferdinand

6 Complete Big Brother of Europe (The House of Cards)
Long-term Causes of WW1 Complete Big Brother of Europe (The House of Cards)

7 1. Rise of Alliances 1879 Dual Alliance 1882 Triple Alliance
1894 France-Russia Convention 1902 Anglo-Japan Treaty 1904 Entente Cordiale 1907 Anglo-Russian Entente 1907 Triple Entente

8 1879 Dual Alliance Between Germany and Austria-Hungary
Defensive alliance: Either to remain neutral if other attacked Either to aid military if other attacked by Russia This was Bismarck trying to solidify Prussia/German position in Europe.

9 1882 Triple Alliance Between Germany, Austria & Italy
Others would come to aid if one of the three attacked by two countries Others would come to aid if Germany and/or Italy attacked only by France In 1902 Italy made similar secret pact with France.

10 1887 Reinsurance Treaty 1887 secret treaty between Russia & Germany
Each would remain neutral if other goes to war (unless Germany attacks France or Russia attacks Austria). Germany refused to renew it in 1890 This made Russia suspicious and made her focus on alliance with France and GB.

11 1894 Franco-Russian Alliance
Either provide military assistance to other in event of war against any member of Triple Alliance 1902 Anglo-Japan treaty Saw end to GB’s ‘Splendid Isolation’. Japan to help GB with rise of Russia & Germany in Asia

12 1904 Entente Cordiale Between GB and France Not a military pact
However cleared up issues over Asian and African territories Notably GB to get Egypt and France to get Morocco. Kaiser Wilhelm II (Germany) was sure there was a secret military pact behind this. He was wrong.

13 1907 Triple Entente 1907 Anglo-Russian Entente
Like Entente Cordiale this was not military Merely cleared relations between two countries, and resolved disputed territories in central Asia (Afghanistan, Iran & Tibet) Led to what became known as Triple Entente: GB, France & Russia No military obligation (although KWII thought so), but possible moral obligation to help in war.

14 Map of Europe after alliances


16 Complete worksheet on relations between European nations prior to WW1

17 2. Rise of Germany 1888 – year of 3 Kaisers Wilhelm (William) I dies
Frederick III (son) takes over. Dies after 2 month – throat cancer Kaiser Wilhelm II (Grandson) takes over

18 Kaiser Wilhelm II Very different to Grandfather
KWII was young, ambitious, hands-on, aggressive, megalomaniac, quick-tempered. 1890 – sacks Bismarck & employs policy of Weltpolitik (world policy) Build German navy to exceed GB’s Make Germany into imperial power Make Germany important in foreign affairs

19 L’enfant Terrible

20 Naval plans GB had largest navy in world and ruled the seas – essential for economics & empire GB and Germany entered into naval race – especially for Drednoughts. Germany would never catch up: By 1914 Germany had warships vs GB’s 189. One of the main factors Germany lost WW1

21 Empire of Germany He also wanted his own empire – “A place in the sun”. Realised virtually all countries worth having were part of France or GB. Therefore he had to dismantle Entente Cordiale – from there he could then start to take imperial possessions from each country By 1905 KWII believed Germany had been encircled by Triple Entente = First and second Moroccan crisis

22 Empires 1914

23 Africa 1900

24 Medium-term Causes of WW1

25 1. First Morocco Crisis (Tangier Crisis)
Under Entente Cordiale Morocco given to France March 1905 KWII sails to Morocco and gives speech supporting Moroccan independence At Algeciras Conference GB & Russia gives backing to France and Germany humiliatingly backs-down Heightens mistrust between Entente Cordiale members and German imperial ambitions.

26 2. Second Morocco Crisis (Agadir Crisis)
1911 Moroccan Government asks French army for help to squash a revolt – which is does Germany unexpectedly sends warship Panther to Moroccan port Agadir Again GB and Russia again give France support Germany will allow France Morocco if Germany gets Republic of Congo from France France agrees Germany looks like aggressor.

27 3. Rise of militarism Germany was expanding military. After Agadir, so did others Germany 0.4m 2.2m France 0.5m 1.25m Russia 0.6m 1.3m Britain 0.2m 0.7m

28 4. Rise of Nationalism – Balkans Crisis

29 Balkans Up to 1877 Balkans was part of Ottoman Empire
Following various wars = Treaty of Berlin 1878: Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria & Romania given independence Bosnia-Herzegovina under influence of Austria-Hungary Crisis showed potential for problems. It combined nationalism of the countries themselves with imperialist plans of Russia and Austria-Hungary

30 Serbia Hated Austria for being given B-H. Wanted B-H and all Slavs and Croats as part of Greater Serbia (Yugoslavia) Austria never allow this as it would dismantle empire – In 1908 A-H annexed B-H. This concerned Serbia as they felt they were next. 1903 Killed King and replaced with very pro-Russia leader 1903 Serbia-Russian Military Alliance

31 Ethnic Groups in Balkans

32 First Balkan War (1912) Second Balkan War (1913)
1912 Serbia led Balkan League (Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece & Montenegro) aim was to kick Turkey out of Balkans. Serbia also wanted Albania (to give it a port – essential for eco growth) Following victory A-H pressure ensures Serbia not given port Second Balkan War (1913) Bulgaria attacks Serbia. Serbia easily wins (with help) Again A-H pressure ensures Serbia does not get a port

33 Short-term Causes of WW1

34 1. Final Events Against advice, 28th June 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to A-H throne) visits Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia. Shot and killed (along with wife) by Gavrilo Princip – Serbian Nationalist. Ferdinand’s car registration was – date of end of WW1

35 Read text of Murder at Sarajevo

36 2. Ultimatum A-H claims Serbian Government behind assassination
In fact not the case at all (was ‘Black Hand’) Germany offers A-H help whatever happens (known as ‘blank cheque’) 23 July 1914 A-H gives Serbia ultimatum with 10 demands and 2 days to respond.

37 3. War declaration Serbia agrees to ultimatum, except a few minor issues. Not good enough for A-H 28 July 1914 – Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia


39 4. International response
29 July Russia declares war on G Due to Serbia-Russian Alliance 1 Aug Germany declares war on Russia Due to Triple Alliance 3 Aug Germany declares war on France Part of Schlieffen Plan – fatally goes through Belgium 4 Aug GB declares war on Germany Due to 1837 Treaty of London which protects Belgium 24 Aug Japan declares war on Germany Due to Anglo-Japan Alliance 4 Sept Italy declares war on Germany Ignores Triple Alliance as they feel war is offensive not defensive

40 Countries at war Recap of causes of WW1 – iTunes 11:50

41 The Schlieffen Plan Germany’s military plan to defeat France and Russia. “Knock out blow” aimed at France first. Defeat France in six weeks as that’s how long it would take Russia to get ready. Avoid French defences by invasion of Belgium. Germans thought Britain would not intervene.

42 Significant Individuals
A family Affair? King George V (GB), Kaiser Wilhlem II (Ger) & Tsar Nicholas II (Rus) all first cousins All had Queen Victoria as Grandmother

43 Kaiser Wilhelm II Built up German army and navy
Aggressive foreign policy Intelligent but rash Determined to make Germany a top nation. Distrusted by other powers “Germany must have its place in the sun” “The world belongs to the strong.”

44 Tsar Nicolas II Not intelligent – incapable of running such a large country Humiliated in Japan-Russia war In some ways welcomed war to restore Russian pride. Facing increasing political pressure at home “Not fit to run a village post office.” (Leon Trorsky)

45 George V Only came to throne 1911 Introverted, all about duty
Tried to act as peace-maker in run-up to war Changed royal family surname from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor “the Old Country must wake up if she intends to maintain her old position of pre-eminence.”

46 Count Berchtold Austrian Prime Minister.
During the July Crisis, decided on a very tough ultimatum for Serbia “Were the Serbs to agree to all the demands, this would not be to my liking”

47 Bethmann Hollweg German Prime Minister
Gave very strong support to Austria during the July crisis while Kaiser was cruising on his yacht “The Austrian demands are moderate. Any interference by Britain, France and Russia would be followed by incalculable consequences”

48 Gottlieb von Jagow German Foreign Minister
Felt that the Serbia problem would be localised – i.e. not lead to international war. Mistrusted by the Triple Entente “The war was caused by these damned sytems of alliances.”

49 Activities 1. Who was to blame?
Divide paper into two – points for responsibilty lies with and doesn’t like with different countries: GB Fr Ger Aus Ser Russ

50 Newspaper report Different countries reporting on death of assassination: GB Ger Aus Serbia Russia

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