Presentation on theme: "Causes of WW1 IGCSE History – Grade 10 WW1 Facts 10 million killed or MIA - 22 million wounded 60% chance of being killed or wounded (91% if in Austrian."— Presentation transcript:
Causes of WW1 IGCSE History – Grade 10
WW1 Facts 10 million killed or MIA - 22 million wounded 60% chance of being killed or wounded (91% if in Austrian army) 260 killed every hour Half of the dead of Great War have no known grave. The Spanish Influenza of 1918 killed 51 million people worldwide! During the summer and fall of 1914, France lost as many men on the battlefield as the U.S. would lose in all of the C20th.
Some famous solders Earnest Hemingway (wounded) Winston Churchill (Admiral of GB navy) Mohandas Ghandi (GB Recruitment Officer) JRR Tolkein (wounded) Wilfred Owen (died in last week of war) Wilfred Owen Adolf Hitler (Corporal in Austrian army) Only 3 WW1 veterans survive today
Causes of WW1 MAINS Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism Significant individuals Assassination Assassination of Franz FerdinandFranz Ferdinand
Long-term Causes of WW1 Complete Big Brother of Europe (The House of Cards)
1879 Dual Alliance Between Germany and Austria-Hungary Defensive alliance: – Either to remain neutral if other attacked – Either to aid military if other attacked by Russia This was Bismarck trying to solidify Prussia/German position in Europe.
1882 Triple Alliance Between Germany, Austria & Italy Others would come to aid if one of the three attacked by two countries Others would come to aid if Germany and/or Italy attacked only by France In 1902 Italy made similar secret pact with France.
1887 Reinsurance Treaty 1887 secret treaty between Russia & Germany Each would remain neutral if other goes to war (unless Germany attacks France or Russia attacks Austria). Germany refused to renew it in 1890 This made Russia suspicious and made her focus on alliance with France and GB.
1894 Franco-Russian Alliance – Either provide military assistance to other in event of war against any member of Triple Alliance 1902 Anglo-Japan treaty – Saw end to GBs Splendid Isolation. – Japan to help GB with rise of Russia & Germany in Asia
1904 Entente Cordiale Between GB and France Not a military pact However cleared up issues over Asian and African territories – Notably GB to get Egypt and France to get Morocco. Kaiser Wilhelm II (Germany) was sure there was a secret military pact behind this. He was wrong.
1907 Triple Entente 1907 Anglo-Russian Entente – Like Entente Cordiale this was not military – Merely cleared relations between two countries, and resolved disputed territories in central Asia (Afghanistan, Iran & Tibet) Led to what became known as Triple Entente: GB, France & Russia No military obligation (although KWII thought so), but possible moral obligation to help in war.
Map of Europe after alliances
Complete worksheet on relations between European nations prior to WW1
2. Rise of Germany 1888 – year of 3 Kaisers Wilhelm (William) I dies Frederick III (son) takes over. Dies after 2 month – throat cancer Kaiser Wilhelm II (Grandson) takes over
Kaiser Wilhelm II Very different to Grandfather – KWII was young, ambitious, hands-on, aggressive, megalomaniac, quick-tempered – sacks Bismarck & employs policy of Weltpolitik (world policy) 1.Build German navy to exceed GBs 2.Make Germany into imperial power 3.Make Germany important in foreign affairs
Naval plans GB had largest navy in world and ruled the seas – essential for economics & empire GB and Germany entered into naval race – especially for Drednoughts. Germany would never catch up: – By 1914 Germany had 97 warships vs GBs 189. – One of the main factors Germany lost WW1
Empire of Germany He also wanted his own empire – A place in the sun. Realised virtually all countries worth having were part of France or GB. Therefore he had to dismantle Entente Cordiale – from there he could then start to take imperial possessions from each country By 1905 KWII believed Germany had been encircled by Triple Entente = First and second Moroccan crisis
Medium-term Causes of WW1
1. First Morocco Crisis (Tangier Crisis) Under Entente Cordiale Morocco given to France March 1905 KWII sails to Morocco and gives speech supporting Moroccan independence At Algeciras Conference GB & Russia gives backing to France and Germany humiliatingly backs-down Heightens mistrust between Entente Cordiale members and German imperial ambitions.
2. Second Morocco Crisis (Agadir Crisis) 1911 Moroccan Government asks French army for help to squash a revolt – which is does Germany unexpectedly sends warship Panther to Moroccan port Agadir Again GB and Russia again give France support Germany will allow France Morocco if Germany gets Republic of Congo from France France agrees Germany looks like aggressor.
3. Rise of militarism Germany was expanding military. After Agadir, so did others Germany0.4m2.2m France0.5m1.25m Russia0.6m1.3m Britain0.2m0.7m
4. Rise of Nationalism – Balkans Crisis
Balkans Up to 1877 Balkans was part of Ottoman Empire Following various wars = Treaty of Berlin 1878: – Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria & Romania given independence – Bosnia-Herzegovina under influence of Austria- Hungary Crisis showed potential for problems. It combined nationalism of the countries themselves with imperialist plans of Russia and Austria-Hungary
Serbia Hated Austria for being given B-H. Wanted B-H and all Slavs and Croats as part of Greater Serbia (Yugoslavia) Austria never allow this as it would dismantle empire – In 1908 A-H annexed B-H. This concerned Serbia as they felt they were next Killed King and replaced with very pro- Russia leader – 1903 Serbia-Russian Military Alliance
Ethnic Groups in Balkans
First Balkan War (1912) 1912 Serbia led Balkan League (Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece & Montenegro) -aim was to kick Turkey out of Balkans. Serbia also wanted Albania (to give it a port – essential for eco growth) – Following victory A-H pressure ensures Serbia not given port Second Balkan War (1913) – Bulgaria attacks Serbia. Serbia easily wins (with help) – Again A-H pressure ensures Serbia does not get a port
Short-term Causes of WW1
1. Final EventsFinal Events Against advice, 28 th June 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to A-H throne) visits Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia. Shot and killed (along with wife) by Gavrilo Princip – Serbian Nationalist. Ferdinands car registration was – date of end of WW1
Read text of Murder at Sarajevo
2. Ultimatum A-H claims Serbian Government behind assassination – In fact not the case at all (was Black Hand) Germany offers A-H help whatever happens (known as blank cheque) 23 July 1914 A-H gives Serbia ultimatum with 10 demands and 2 days to respond.
3. War declaration Serbia agrees to ultimatum, except a few minor issues. Not good enough for A-H 28 July 1914 – Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
4. International response 29 JulyRussia declares war on G » Due to Serbia-Russian Alliance 1 AugGermany declares war on Russia » Due to Triple Alliance 3 AugGermany declares war on France » Part of Schlieffen Plan – fatally goes through Belgium 4 AugGB declares war on Germany » Due to 1837 Treaty of London which protects Belgium 24 AugJapan declares war on Germany » Due to Anglo-Japan Alliance 4 SeptItaly declares war on Germany » Ignores Triple Alliance as they feel war is offensive not defensive
Countries at war Recap of causes of WW1Recap of causes of WW1 – iTunes 11:50
The Schlieffen Plan Germanys military plan to defeat France and Russia. Knock out blow aimed at France first. Defeat France in six weeks as thats how long it would take Russia to get ready. Avoid French defences by invasion of Belgium. Germans thought Britain would not intervene.
Significant Individuals A family Affair? – King George V (GB), Kaiser Wilhlem II (Ger) & Tsar Nicholas II (Rus) all first cousins All had Queen Victoria as Grandmother
Kaiser Wilhelm II Built up German army and navy Aggressive foreign policy Intelligent but rash Determined to make Germany a top nation. Distrusted by other powers Germany must have its place in the sun The world belongs to the strong.
Tsar Nicolas II Not intelligent – incapable of running such a large country Humiliated in Japan-Russia war In some ways welcomed war to restore Russian pride. Facing increasing political pressure at home Not fit to run a village post office. (Leon Trorsky)
George V Only came to throne 1911 Introverted, all about duty Tried to act as peace-maker in run-up to war Changed royal family surname from Saxe-Coburg- Gotha to Windsor the Old Country must wake up if she intends to maintain her old position of pre- eminence.
Count Berchtold Austrian Prime Minister. During the July Crisis, decided on a very tough ultimatum for Serbia Were the Serbs to agree to all the demands, this would not be to my liking
Bethmann Hollweg German Prime Minister Gave very strong support to Austria during the July crisis while Kaiser was cruising on his yacht The Austrian demands are moderate. Any interference by Britain, France and Russia would be followed by incalculable consequences
Gottlieb von Jagow German Foreign Minister Felt that the Serbia problem would be localised – i.e. not lead to international war. Mistrusted by the Triple Entente The war was caused by these damned sytems of alliances.
Activities 1. Who was to blame? – Divide paper into two – points for responsibilty lies with and doesnt like with different countries: GB Fr Ger Aus Ser Russ
Newspaper report Different countries reporting on death of assassination: – GB – Ger – Aus – Serbia – Russia