2 WW1 Facts 10 million killed or MIA - 22 million wounded 60% chance of being killed or wounded (91% if in Austrian army)260 killed every hourHalf of the dead of Great War have no known grave.The Spanish Influenza of 1918 killed 51 million people worldwide!During the summer and fall of 1914, France lost as many men on the battlefield as the U.S. would lose in all of the C20th.
4 Some famous solders Earnest Hemingway (wounded) Winston Churchill (Admiral of GB navy)Mohandas Ghandi (GB Recruitment Officer)JRR Tolkein (wounded)Wilfred Owen (died in last week of war)Adolf Hitler (Corporal in Austrian army)Only 3 WW1 veterans survive today
5 Causes of WW1MAINS Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism Significant individuals Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
6 Complete Big Brother of Europe (The House of Cards) Long-term Causes of WW1Complete Big Brother of Europe (The House of Cards)
8 1879 Dual Alliance Between Germany and Austria-Hungary Defensive alliance:Either to remain neutral if other attackedEither to aid military if other attacked by RussiaThis was Bismarck trying to solidify Prussia/German position in Europe.
9 1882 Triple Alliance Between Germany, Austria & Italy Others would come to aid if one of the three attacked by two countriesOthers would come to aid if Germany and/or Italy attacked only by FranceIn 1902 Italy made similar secret pact with France.
10 1887 Reinsurance Treaty 1887 secret treaty between Russia & Germany Each would remain neutral if other goes to war (unless Germany attacks France or Russia attacks Austria).Germany refused to renew it in 1890This made Russia suspicious and made her focus on alliance with France and GB.
11 1894 Franco-Russian Alliance Either provide military assistance to other in event of war against any member of Triple Alliance1902 Anglo-Japan treatySaw end to GB’s ‘Splendid Isolation’.Japan to help GB with rise of Russia & Germany in Asia
12 1904 Entente Cordiale Between GB and France Not a military pact However cleared up issues over Asian and African territoriesNotably GB to get Egypt and France to get Morocco.Kaiser Wilhelm II (Germany) was sure there was a secret military pact behind this. He was wrong.
13 1907 Triple Entente 1907 Anglo-Russian Entente Like Entente Cordiale this was not militaryMerely cleared relations between two countries, and resolved disputed territories in central Asia (Afghanistan, Iran & Tibet)Led to what became known as Triple Entente: GB, France & RussiaNo military obligation (although KWII thought so), but possible moral obligation to help in war.
16 Complete worksheet on relations between European nations prior to WW1
17 2. Rise of Germany 1888 – year of 3 Kaisers Wilhelm (William) I dies Frederick III (son) takes over. Dies after 2 month – throat cancerKaiser Wilhelm II (Grandson) takes over
18 Kaiser Wilhelm II Very different to Grandfather KWII was young, ambitious, hands-on, aggressive, megalomaniac, quick-tempered.1890 – sacks Bismarck & employs policy of Weltpolitik (world policy)Build German navy to exceed GB’sMake Germany into imperial powerMake Germany important in foreign affairs
20 Naval plansGB had largest navy in world and ruled the seas – essential for economics & empireGB and Germany entered into naval race – especially for Drednoughts.Germany would never catch up:By 1914 Germany had warships vs GB’s 189.One of the main factors Germany lost WW1
21 Empire of GermanyHe also wanted his own empire – “A place in the sun”.Realised virtually all countries worth having were part of France or GB. Therefore he had to dismantle Entente Cordiale – from there he could then start to take imperial possessions from each countryBy 1905 KWII believed Germany had been encircled by Triple Entente= First and second Moroccan crisis
25 1. First Morocco Crisis (Tangier Crisis) Under Entente Cordiale Morocco given to FranceMarch 1905 KWII sails to Morocco and gives speech supporting Moroccan independenceAt Algeciras Conference GB & Russia gives backing to France and Germany humiliatingly backs-downHeightens mistrust between Entente Cordiale members and German imperial ambitions.
26 2. Second Morocco Crisis (Agadir Crisis) 1911 Moroccan Government asks French army for help to squash a revolt – which is doesGermany unexpectedly sends warship Panther to Moroccan port AgadirAgain GB and Russia again give France supportGermany will allow France Morocco if Germany gets Republic of Congo from FranceFrance agreesGermany looks like aggressor.
27 3. Rise of militarismGermany was expanding military. After Agadir, so did othersGermany 0.4m 2.2mFrance 0.5m 1.25mRussia 0.6m 1.3mBritain 0.2m 0.7m
29 Balkans Up to 1877 Balkans was part of Ottoman Empire Following various wars = Treaty of Berlin 1878:Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria & Romania given independenceBosnia-Herzegovina under influence of Austria-HungaryCrisis showed potential for problems. It combined nationalism of the countries themselves with imperialist plans of Russia and Austria-Hungary
30 SerbiaHated Austria for being given B-H. Wanted B-H and all Slavs and Croats as part of Greater Serbia (Yugoslavia)Austria never allow this as it would dismantle empire – In 1908 A-H annexed B-H. This concerned Serbia as they felt they were next.1903 Killed King and replaced with very pro-Russia leader1903 Serbia-Russian Military Alliance
32 First Balkan War (1912) Second Balkan War (1913) 1912 Serbia led Balkan League (Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece & Montenegro)aim was to kick Turkey out of Balkans. Serbia also wanted Albania (to give it a port – essential for eco growth)Following victory A-H pressure ensures Serbia not given portSecond Balkan War (1913)Bulgaria attacks Serbia. Serbia easily wins (with help)Again A-H pressure ensures Serbia does not get a port
34 1. Final EventsAgainst advice, 28th June 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to A-H throne) visits Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia.Shot and killed (along with wife) by Gavrilo Princip – Serbian Nationalist.Ferdinand’s car registration was – date of end of WW1
36 2. Ultimatum A-H claims Serbian Government behind assassination In fact not the case at all (was ‘Black Hand’)Germany offers A-H help whatever happens (known as ‘blank cheque’)23 July 1914 A-H gives Serbia ultimatum with 10 demands and 2 days to respond.
37 3. War declarationSerbia agrees to ultimatum, except a few minor issues.Not good enough for A-H28 July 1914 – Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
39 4. International response 29 July Russia declares war on GDue to Serbia-Russian Alliance1 Aug Germany declares war on RussiaDue to Triple Alliance3 Aug Germany declares war on FrancePart of Schlieffen Plan – fatally goes through Belgium4 Aug GB declares war on GermanyDue to 1837 Treaty of London which protects Belgium24 Aug Japan declares war on GermanyDue to Anglo-Japan Alliance4 Sept Italy declares war on GermanyIgnores Triple Alliance as they feel war is offensive not defensive
40 Countries at warRecap of causes of WW1 – iTunes 11:50
41 The Schlieffen PlanGermany’s military plan to defeat France and Russia.“Knock out blow” aimed at France first.Defeat France in six weeks as that’s how long it would take Russia to get ready.Avoid French defences by invasion of Belgium.Germans thought Britain would not intervene.
42 Significant Individuals A family Affair?King George V (GB), Kaiser Wilhlem II (Ger) & Tsar Nicholas II (Rus) all first cousinsAll had Queen Victoria as Grandmother
43 Kaiser Wilhelm II Built up German army and navy Aggressive foreign policyIntelligent but rashDetermined to make Germany a top nation.Distrusted by other powers“Germany must have its place in the sun”“The world belongs to the strong.”
44 Tsar Nicolas IINot intelligent – incapable of running such a large countryHumiliated in Japan-Russia warIn some ways welcomed war to restore Russian pride.Facing increasing political pressure at home“Not fit to run a village post office.” (Leon Trorsky)
45 George V Only came to throne 1911 Introverted, all about duty Tried to act as peace-maker in run-up to warChanged royal family surname from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor“the Old Country must wake up if she intends to maintain her old position of pre-eminence.”
46 Count Berchtold Austrian Prime Minister. During the July Crisis, decided on a very tough ultimatum for Serbia“Were the Serbs to agree to all the demands, this would not be to my liking”
47 Bethmann Hollweg German Prime Minister Gave very strong support to Austria during the July crisis while Kaiser was cruising on his yacht“The Austrian demands are moderate. Any interference by Britain, France and Russia would be followed by incalculable consequences”
48 Gottlieb von Jagow German Foreign Minister Felt that the Serbia problem would be localised – i.e. not lead to international war.Mistrusted by the Triple Entente“The war was caused by these damned sytems of alliances.”
49 Activities 1. Who was to blame? Divide paper into two – points for responsibilty lies with and doesn’t like with different countries:GBFrGerAusSerRuss
50 Newspaper reportDifferent countries reporting on death of assassination:GBGerAusSerbiaRussia