6World Energy Use U.S. share of world energy consumption: 26% US people U.S. share of world CO2 emissions: 24%U.S. share of world population: %Ratio - per capita consumption of energy in developed vs. developing countries: 10 timesSources: The Energy Information Administration; The United Nations Energy CommitteeUS peopleUS energy/CO2
14“Passive”10x(roughly more efficient than what we build today)
15The Passive House Standard: 1-2-3-CATEGORY:Space Specific Heatingor Cooling Demand per year:Total Primary Energy Use per year:Airtightness:AVERAGE U.S. NEWCONSTRUCTION (2007):36.6 kBTU/ft2yr(56.64 kBTU/ft2yr)n50 = 3ACH to 5 ACHPASSIVE HOUSE:(4.75 kBTU/ft2yr)< 1.39 kWh/ft2yr(up to 90% better)(38 kBTU/ft2yr)< kWh/ft2yr(up to 70% better)n50 < 0.6 ACH
16A BTU is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.(about 5,000 BTU/hour to heat a 1500 square foot passive house on the coldest day of the year, vs a typical house is 100,000 BTU furnace
17The Passive House Standard: Watt this means:Heat your 1500 sf house with 1500w or the energy of (15) 100w light bulbs on the coldest hour of the year
19(no Photovoltaic .i.e. solar electric panels, roughly here (solar hot water potentially) (WITH Photovoltaic .i.e. solar electric panels, can be negative HERS score or PLUS ENERGY
20Eugene LEGER HOUSEThe Leger House looked like a conventional American home, heatedonly by its own water heater!1979
21William Shurcliff, 1979 Press Release: “1. Truly superb insulation. Not just thick, but clever and thorough.Excellent insulation is provided even at the most difficult places: sills,headers, foundation walls, windows, electric outlet boxes, etc.2. Envelope of house is practically airtight. Even on the windiest days the rate of air change is very low.3. No provision of extra-large thermal mass. (Down with Trombe walls!Down with water-filled drums and thick concrete floors!)4. No provision of extra-large south windows. Use normal number and size of south windows — say 100 square feet.5. No conventional furnace. Merely steal a little heat, when and if needed, from the domestic hot water system. Or use a minuscule amount of electrical heating.”
22“6. No conventional distribution system for such auxiliary heat. Inject the heat at one spot and let it diffuse throughout the house.7. No weird shape of house, no weird architecture.8. No big added expense. The costs of the extra insulation and extracare in construction are largely offset by the savings realized from not having huge areas of expensive Thermopane [windows], not havinghuge well-sealed insulating shutters for huge south windows, and nothaving a furnace or a big heat distribution system.9. The passive solar heating is very modest — almost incidental.10. Room humidity remains near 50 percent all winter. No need forhumidifiers.11. In summer the house stays cool automatically. There is no tendency for the south side to become too hot — because the south window area is small and the windows are shaded by eaves”.
23Larger developments followed in Canada in 1980 with 14 superinsulated homes, and then with 140 superinsulated homes in Minnesota in the US.Canada sponsors the R2000 program with free training for builders and small subsidies to offset cost and requirement for an airtightness test: a blower-door test. Over 1000 homes were built.Conservative estimate of total superinsulated homes 1985 in the US and Canada is 10,000.