3 M = Maturation / Biology Evaluate learning objective to determine if ‘target’ behavior / skill is likely to improve as a result of biological development and experience without significant teacher or peer involvement(e.g. minor articulation problems, grasping of objects, dressing skills, response to peer communication bids)
4 E = Environmental Support Evaluate learning objective to determine if ‘target’ behavior / skill is likely to improve as a result of child access to materials or teacher ‘engineering’ of learning (or home) environment’. Will securing items in a variety of containers and placing out of child’s reach result in increased opportunities for fine motor skill development and communication (e.g. seeking desired toy/item with or w/o request for assistance)?
5 P = Peer Intervention/Support Evaluate learning objective to determine if ‘target’ behavior / skill is likely to improve as a result of child interaction with competent peers. Teacher organization of ‘peer buddies’ and cooperative activity groups will increase opportunities for imitation learning (via peer modeling). Also peer ‘expectations’ for social interaction and communication may provide ‘motivation’ to target child to improve skill or behavior
6 I = Intensive/Direct Intervention Evaluate learning objective to determine if ‘target’ behavior / skill requires IMMEDIATE intervention and/or will enhance child’s acceptance in learning community. Examples would include aggressive behavior, very limited communication skills, very limited personal mobility, and toilet training (if developmental indicators present). Child would not be expected to make reasonable progress toward acquisition of this skill/behavior without DIRECT and consistent teacher intervention.
7 Benefits of Matrices in Planning Intervention ECE teacher, parents and administrators can see the link between daily schedule, daily routines and priority IEP objectivesINCIDENTAL and DIRECT instruction opportunities can be identifiedAppropriate strategies and opportunity for instruction linked with opportunitiessystematic planning includes awareness of teaching opportunities and selection of appropriate teaching strategies. Analysis of daily schedules and routines in search of ‘opportunities’ for learning/teaching is a valuable planning tool for the IECSE and her ECE partnerPlanning Matrices index IEP objectives with typical activities in the classroom environment OR with specific activities in an ‘activity’ plan (e.g.. a special learning activity created by the teacher, such as a group art activity)The matrix model that ‘references’ IEP objectives (either M, E, P or I level objectives) with classroom routines is most appropriate (see example on next slide…)
8 Activity-Based Intervention Matrix adapted from Grisham-Brown & Hemmeter, 1998adapted from Grisham-Brown and Hemmeter, 1998
9 Activity-Based Intervention Matrix A DAILY SCHEDULEOF ACTIVITIESIEP Objective #1:Making Choices (Level E, P)Center TimeBlock center or housekeeping?Classroom ChoresWater plants or feed fish?Snack/Cooking ActivityPudding or milkshakes?Small Group-ArtWhich art materials to use?Going to Park with ParentsSlide or swing?# Opportunities: 5adapted from Grisham-Brown & Hemmeter, 1998adapted from Grisham-Brown and Hemmeter, 1998
10 Activity-Based Intervention Matrix B HOME - SCHEDULEIEP Objective #1:Making Choices (Level E, P)BreakfastBlock center or housekeeping?Laundry w MomWater plants or feed fish?Lunchtime PreparationPudding or milkshakes?Reading TimeWhich art materials to use?Playing with my BrotherSlide or swing?# Opportunities: 5adapted from Grisham-Brown & Hemmeter, 1998adapted from Grisham-Brown and Hemmeter, 1998
11 Activity-Based Intervention Matrix C DAILY SCHEDULEOF ACTIVITIESIEP Objective #2:Reach and Grasp (Level M, E)Center TimeBuild tower w/ blocksClassroom ChoresReach for/grasp attendance slip – place on desk in officeSnack/Cooking ActivityReach for/grasp cooking utensilsSmall Group-ArtReach for/grasp built-up paintbrush handleGoing to Park with ParentsReach/grasp to hold onto swing/side of slide# Opportunities: 5adapted from Grisham-Brown & Hemmeter, 1998adapted from Grisham-Brown and Hemmeter, 1998
12 Activity-Based Intervention Matrix D HOME SCHEDULEIEP Objective #2:Reach and Grasp (Level M, E)BreakfastBuild tower w/ blocksLaundry w MomReach for/grasp attendance slip – place on desk in officeHoliday Baking w MomReach for/grasp cooking utensilsGluing Stuff w MomReach for/grasp built-up paintbrush handlePlay Games with my BrotherReach/grasp to hold onto swing/side of slide# Opportunities: 5adapted from Grisham-Brown & Hemmeter, 1998adapted from Grisham-Brown and Hemmeter, 1998
13 Activity-Based Intervention Matrix E DAILY SCHEDULEOF ACTIVITIESIEP Objective #3: Initiate Social Interaction (Level P, I)Center TimeGreet other children – vocalize or eye contact`Classroom ChoresInitiate contact with office personnelSnack/Cooking ActivityEye contact w/ peers – their turn to stirSmall Group-ArtInitiate interaction w/ adult – ask for assistanceGoing to Park with ParentsEye contact/vocalize – to let know what she wants to be pushed# Opportunities: 5adapted from Grisham-Brown & Hemmeter, 1998adapted from Grisham-Brown and Hemmeter, 1998
14 Activity-Based Intervention Matrix F DAILY SCHEDULEOF ACTIVITIESIEP Objective #4: Cause/Effect (Use of Switch) (Level E,P or I)Classroom ChoresUse switch to turn on toy (dump blocks center ‘building site’)Snack/Cooking ActivitySwitch to activate blender etcSmall Group-ArtGoing to Park with ParentsSwitch to turn on music box# Opportunities: 3adapted from Grisham-Brown & Hemmeter, 1998adapted from Grisham-Brown and Hemmeter, 1998
15 DiscussionGail is 4-year old with mild cognitive delay. She needs help in using words to express her needs.How would you use a consultative approach to help her teacher recognize opportunities for Gail to practice use of words skill throughout the day? How would you help her mother recognize opportunities at home?
16 DiscussionJaron is 5-year old with mild autism (PDD-NOS). He needs to use Boardmaker pictures to improve his activity transition skills in preparation for kindergarten.How would you use a consultative approach to help his teacher to recognize / create opportunities for Jaron to practice this skill throughout the day? Could you do the same for his parents? How?
17 DiscussionMichael is 4-year old with Down Syndrome and mild CD. He needs to improve his verbal communication with peers with the use of American Sign Language.How would you use a consultative approach to help his teacher or parent to recognize / create opportunities for Michael to practice this skill throughout the day?
18 Critical Factors in Effectiveness of Consultation Process Time Demands (e.g. caseload, travel, planning time)Create released time (volunteer relief, university students, subs)Schedule meetingsEstablish consultation logs / information exchange (e.g. listserv)Administrative SupportLetters of Introduction‘Contract’
19 Factors that Affect Consultation Process continued… Administrative Support of LEA and ECE Program AdministratorsThis can be addressed, initially, through formal ‘Letters of Introduction’ParentPartner Teacher/ConsulteeIECSE/CC AdministratorIECSE Supervisor/CC AdministratorNotes to Trainers:If a consultative approach to itinerant ECSE service delivery is to be successful, there MUST be shared understanding of the roles and responsibilities of ALL professionals. Not only must ECE and itinerant ECSE as well as ECE program administrators (e.g., child care center directors) and ECSE supervisors understand and agree upon roles and responsibilities, but parents must also understand the importance of consultation as a legitimate way of supporting children’s development.
20 Components of a Formal Agreement for IECSE Services Formal Agreement should include:Description of services including emphasis on consultation modelName/contact information for immediate supervisor of ICESE professionalName, credentials and experience of IECSE teacher
21 continued…Relationship between IECSE collaboration with ECE partner and addressing of child IEP requirementsAnticipated frequency and duration of scheduled visitsInteractive professional development ‘contact’ (IECSE professional & ECE professional)
22 continued…Need for meetings with ECE partner teacher/consultee re: child progressPlans for communication with parents re: child progressDescription of related responsibilities of IECSE professionalSample IECSE Services Contract
23 DiscussionWhat are the benefits of communicating, before itinerant services begin, the role and responsibilities of the Itinerant ECSE teacher to:Director of the ‘receiving’ preschool or child care center?Parent of the child receiving Itinerant ECSE services?Notes to Trainers:Use these discussion questions to stimulate dialogue and help participants understand the importance of developing common expectations before itinerant services are provided.
24 Discussion…continued What are the benefits of communicating, before itinerant services begin, the role and responsibilities of the Itinerant ECSE teacher to:ECE partner teacher/consultee?What are the limitations of failing to communicate the role and responsibilities of the Itinerant ECSE teacher?Notes to Trainers:Use these case studies to facilitate discussion in small groups.
25 What Helps Make Consultation Work? What Are The Major Challenges?How Can We Address The Problems?What Are Some Possible Solutions?
26 WHAT MAKES CONSULTATION WORK? Positive relationship/rapport with the partner teacherWorking as a team, collaboratingCommunication with parentsExplicating role of itinerant teacher
27 KEY POINTS - OHIO Focus groups Relationship between IECSE and ECE teachersSystems Elements
28 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IECSE AND ECE TEACHERS Educational Backgrounds/ExperiencesPersonal/Professional Characteristics‘Working Together’
29 Educational backgrounds & experiences of the teachers Gap between education levels lack of knowledge/familiarity with jargon -- need to adjust consultation style, strategies (e.g., ‘cheat sheet’ re: jargon, acronyms)“Because I’m new, some don’t take me seriously.”Hiring practices; training“It is important to have trust, rapport and longevity between ECE teachers and itinerants.”29
30 Personal / Professional Characteristics “Consultation works best with teachers who are open to growth and new ideas.”“It seems like newer teachers are more receptive; [they] are like a sponge and want new ideas.” - partner teachers want IECSEs to be the ‘expert’ even though IECSEs often reject the label“I’m so laid back and the teachers are used to me just coming in and going with the flow. Maybe I need to be more assertive. They’re so busy that I hate to make demands on them.”
31 ‘Working Together’Student needs direct instruction because partner teacher cannot or will not implement interventionRespite – break for the teacher“Consultation does not work as effectively in a chaotic environment. A teacher who has less noise volume and teaches children to behave responsibly, has a better grasp and is able to implement ideas.”
32 OASIS OF EXCELLENCEWhen itinerant teacher feels that she/he is the only one who can deliver quality instruction, therefore they must take advantage of the time they are there
33 Consider ….If child is achieving IEP goals under pull-out and small group instruction of IECSE teacher, why adopt a more complex model of intervention such as consultation?There are factors other than the effect of massed teaching sessions (60-90 minutes), once per week, that may account for child progress …Children with special needs may be ‘learning’ skills and behaviors as a result of other factors that are addressed in the MEPI model (see next slide) for analysis of learning factorsAdjust consultation skills -Who do we hire to be itinerant teachers? – need to be proactive in who is hired; Responsibility to train if not experienced33
34 Working Together continued: “The teacher is not comfortable. She is threatened or thinks she will be criticized.”“I always try to validate what teachers are doing. I let them know that I’m learning from them too. I write positive comments regarding things that I’ve observed the teacher doing in notes to parents, on the IEP.”“Have lots of back-up plans so if they shoot me down, I have something else to try.”teachers are resistant, feeling like they are being critiqued34
35 “Using this [consultative] approach gives you credibility to the [ECE] teacher because they see you know them.”“It’s consistency that makes it work….”“teacher follows through, asks questions, etc.”
36 Challenges to Consultation TIME!!Tradition of Direct ServicesProfessional Preparation of ECE/SPED TeachersPersonal Comfort and Professional Expectations of IECSE TeachersAdministrative Support
37 TIME!Just 5 minutes?already too busy!I'm late! I'm Late!
38 TraditionIf direct approach has been always used in the past, transitioning to consultative approach is difficultLack of knowledge about itinerant services in general, especially at administration levelIntroductory letters to parents, ECE administrators, teachersDescribe/explain role of itinerant
39 Professional Preparation Most IECSE teachers were not exposed to CONSULTATION / COACHING models or skill training as undergraduate students
40 Personal Comfort and Professional Expectations Most IECSE teachers expect to work with children vs. other adults. They define the role of teacher as direct instruction of children not coaching of other adultsSome IECSE teachers are uncomfortable working with a number of adult partners vs. children
41 Administrative Support “Itinerants don’t get support that classroom teachers get.”Training/Professional DevelopmentEvaluationPIECESKnowledge and Skills Inventory for Consultants (Buysse & Wesley, 2007)Monitoring Child Progress on IEPData responsibility, legal perspective
42 PIECES: Performance Indicators for ECE Specialists Designed for two primary purposes:Provide SUPERVISORS with tool to support high quality Itinerant ECSE service delivery and guide professional developmentProvide Itinerant ECSE teachers with tool to enhance reflective practice and guide professional developmentDeveloped by a team of ECSE supervisors, Itinerant ECSE teachers, and Higher Education faculty
43 Parts of the PIECESPart A: Requisite knowledge and skills related to ECSE service deliveryPart B: Communication skills and specialized knowledge related to coaching and information sharing in order to develop family, professional, and community relationships that support learning in the pre-K LREPart C: Specialized knowledge to coordinate and facilitate integrated service delivery (embedded instruction) to support learning in the LRE
44 Identifying Critical Knowledge and Skills for IECSE Teachers Each Part is organized around specific performance indicators that have been described with the use of observable examples
45 Rubrics to Assess Knowledge and Skill Level Each indicator is described using a continuum of rubrics: Basic, Proficient or DistinguishedA 2-page checklist provides an easy-to-read overview of the Itinerant ECSE teacher’s performance in each of the 3 major parts and subsections of PIECES
46 Part A: Requisite K & S Related to ECSE Service Delivery Knowledge of the organizational context of the child’s environmentAbility to design and implement child-focused interventions
47 Part B: Requisite K & S Related to Coaching and Information Sharing Ability to build a collaborative teamAbility to establish and implement a plan for regular communication among team membersDemonstrates appropriate use of specific interpersonal communication skills to establish ongoing relationships with families and providers.Helps others develop skills and use strategies via a coaching model.Provides information to support the child’s success in the community-based program.
48 Part C: Requisite K&S to Coordinate &Facilitate Integrated Service Delivery Coordinates and monitors service delivery.Designs and implements professional development (PD) activities.
49 For Discussion…Evan Is Too Aggressive Jill is an itinerant ECSE teacher working with Mary Jo, an early childhood teacher who is Evan’s teacher.Evan is 5 years old and has autism.Evan has been on Jill’s caseload for 4 months and in Mary Jo’s classroom for a month.
50 Evan Is Too Aggressive cont… Mary Jo is concerned because Evan has limited verbal skills which creates ‘problems’ (e.g. screaming, scratching, pushing) in his interaction with his peersJill and Mary Jo are meeting to discuss Evan’s progress and the topic of Evan’s ‘negative behavior’ is at the top of the agenda!
51 Evan Is Too Aggressive cont… What should Jill say and do during this visit with Mary Jo to help Evan to be successful in this early childhood environment?
52 Evan Is Too Aggressive cont… Prepare to discuss recommendations with the rest of the group, including specifics related to:Information that might help Mary JoSkills that Mary Jo may need to learnExpectations for IEP-focused interventions to be managed by Mary Jo
53 Evan Is Too Aggressive cont… Role play the situation with a partner and be prepared to discuss the things that Jill should say and do to provide Mary Jo with the professional support that she needs (and expects).
54 Evan Is Too Aggressive cont’d… How would your recommendations be affected by this information re: Mary Joe and Jill (Itinerant ECSE Teacher)Scenario #1Mary Jo is 40-year old ECE teacher who holds BS Degree in ECE and has 10 years of experienceJill is 24-year old with BS in ECE and 2 years experience as Itinerant ECSE
55 Evan Is Too Aggressive cont’d… How would your recommendations be affected by this information re: Mary Joe and Jill (Itinerant ECSE Teacher)Scenario #2Mary Jo is 30-year old with AA Degree in Child Care Technology and has 2 years of experience in PreK.Jill is 26-year old with BS in ECE, M.Ed.in ECSE and 3 years experience as Itinerant ECSE
56 Evan Is Too Aggressive cont’d… How would your recommendations be affected by this information re: Mary Joe and Jill (Itinerant ECSE Teacher)Scenario #3Mary Jo is 29-year old with H.S. Degree and has 7 years of experience in PreKJill is 40-year old with BS in ELEM ED, 4 years experience as Grade 4-5 teacher and 2 years experience as Itinerant ECSE
57 Evan Is Too Aggressive cont… How would your recommendations be affected by this information re: Mary Joe and Jill (Itinerant ECSE Teacher)Scenario #4Mary Jo is 45-year old with High School degree and CDA and has 16 years of experience in Head StartJill is 35-year old with BS in SPED, 4 years experience as Middle School SPED teacher, and this is her 1st year as Itinerant ECSE teacher
58 Evan Is Too Aggressive cont’d… How would your recommendations be affected by this information re: Mary Joe and Jill (Itinerant ECSE Teacher)Scenario #5Mary Jo is 35-year old with High School degree 12 years of experience in PreK.Jill is 52-year old with Master’s degree in ECSE,10 years of experience in classroom-based ECSE and 9 years of experience year as Itinerant ECSE teacher