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How I Built a Carbon-Neutral House Chandu Visweswariah March 15, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "How I Built a Carbon-Neutral House Chandu Visweswariah March 15, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 How I Built a Carbon-Neutral House Chandu Visweswariah March 15, 2010

2 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission2 of 56 Summary We built a carbon-neutral house in Croton- on-Hudson, NY We have been living in the house since May, 2009 including one tough winter No carbon products involved or burned for our houses energy needs No oil, no propane, no natural gas, no electricity produced from coal (or nuclear plants) Carbon-neutral house == Carbon-neutral home No compromises on comfort No attempt to construct the house in a sustainable manner/sustainable materials Adds too much to the cost!

3 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission3 of 56 Agenda and purpose 1.Geothermal heating, cooling and domestic hot water 2.Photovoltaic solar panels 3.Other considerations 4.$$$ (costs, incentives, pay back periods) Outside the scope of this discussion Global warming and its effects Energy policy and dependence on foreign oil The travails of building a house

4 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission4 of 56 The only political chart today* *New York Times, 03/14/10

5 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission5 of 56 1. Geothermal

6 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission6 of 56 Intuition Ever been inside a cave in the summer? The cave is cooler than the air outside During the winter, that same constant cave temperature is warmer than the air outside Same principle behind ground source heat pumps (GHPs) In the winter, they move heat from the earth into your house; in the summer, they pull heat from your home and discharge it into the ground

7 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission7 of 56 Geothermal principles The earth is at a constant 12.6 o C (53 o F) year-round after about 2 m (6) of depth* Depends on soil, rocky earth is better Geothermal heating and cooling takes advantage of this abundant reservoir of heat in the winter and coolness in the summer We will discuss three main parts Energy exchange with the earth Heat pump and refrigerant Distribution in the house *7 o C (45 o F) to 18 o C (75 o F) depending on latitude

8 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission8 of 56 Winter Basic idea (one example) Summer Hot puron Cold puron Hot puron Drawing courtesy of Prof. Andrew Chiasson, Oregon Instititute of Technology

9 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission9 of 56 Energy exchange with the earth Closed loop Vertical loop Horizontal loop Pond loop Open loop With underground water aquifer Energy exchange material Direct exchange (DX): Puron under pressure in copper pipes Indirect exchange: Glycol+water mixture (also called anti-freeze or brine) in PEX tubing

10 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission10 of 56 Closed vertical loop 6 m (20) bore spacing (7.5 m (25) in our case), 91 m (300) deep Each well or set of wells used for one zone Courtesy of Prof. Andrew Chiasson, Oregon Instititute of Technology

11 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission11 of 56 Closed horizontal loop Courtesy of Prof. Andrew Chiasson, Oregon Instititute of Technology

12 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission12 of 56 Closed pond loop Courtesy of Prof. Andrew Chiasson, Oregon Instititute of Technology

13 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission13 of 56 Pond loop photos Copper pipe HDPE pipe

14 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission14 of 56 Open loop Courtesy popularmechanics.com

15 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission15 of 56 How a heat pump works Low pressure Low boiling point: gas Accepts latent heat Low temperature Compressor High pressure High boiling point: liquid Gives out latent heat High temperature Expansion valve Courtesy etccreations.com Condensor Evaporator

16 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission16 of 56 How a heat pump works, part 2 http://www.dimplex.de/animationen/kreislauf.php?lang=en

17 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission17 of 56 How a heat pump works, part 3 http://www.dimplex.de/animationen/waermepumpe-passiv.php?lang=en

18 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission18 of 56 Domestic hot water Desuperheater In summer, take heat that is extracted from the house to heat hot water Heat water for free! In winter, utilize the same mechanism used to heat water for house heating to heat water for domestic use Reduce water-heating costs by ½ Can also heat water directly by solar power

19 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission19 of 56 Refrigerant Direct exchange Copper pipes with puron under pressure More efficient Allows for domestic hot water Indirect exchange Glycol + water mixture (also known as anti-freeze or brine) PEX piping Less efficient

20 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission20 of 56 Properties of Puron Puron is R-410A, a non-proprietary 50/50 blend of 2 non-chlorinated refrigerants Azeotropic blend* with negligible glide temperature (0.3 o F) History 1987 Montreal Protocol 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments R-11 and R-12 (CFCs) phased out 1995 HCFCs have lower ozone-depleting potential R-22 (freon) production stopped Jan 1, 2010, phase-out date for existing units 2030 AlliedSignal/Honeywell invented Genetron AZ-20 (HFC) which was given a generic name R-410A, brand name Puron *Same boiling point, so cannot be separated by fractional distillation; same composition in liquid and vapor states when distilled or partially evaporated

21 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission21 of 56 Puron vs. freon ASHRAE numberR-410AR-22 Type of refrigerantHFC azeotropic mixture of HFC-32 and HFC-125 HCFC Chemical nameDifluoromethane (R-32) Pentafluoroethane (R-125) Chlorodifluo romethane Chemical formulaCH 2 F 2 (R-32) 50% by mass, CHF 2 CF 3 (R-125) 50% CHClF 2 Molecular weight72.686.5 Specific heat of liquid (at 86 o F)0.42 Btu/lb- o F0.31 Specific heat of vapor at constant pressure C P (at 86 o F, 1.0 atm) 0.21 Btu/lb- o F0.16 Ozone depletion potential (ODP)*0.000.05 Montreal Protocol phase out dateNone2030 *ODP: a normalized indicator of the ability of a refrigerant to destroy stratospheric ozone molecules referenced to a value of 1.000 for CFC-11 Higher pressure, lower mass flow, quieter, 31% higher heat-carrying capacity For more comparison data, see Appendix

22 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission22 of 56 Enthalpy curves for refrigerants

23 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission23 of 56 Puron enthalpy curves

24 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission24 of 56 System in our basement Heat pump Zone valves Air handler Heat exchange coils To radiant zones

25 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission25 of 56 Winter Tank for house heating/cooling Radiant zones Return Air handlers Return HP1 HEC1 HP2 HEC2 HP3 HEC3 HP4 HEC4 Domestic hot water tank From well tank HP5 HEC5 To house Well For topping off

26 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission26 of 56 Summer HP1 HEC1 HP2 HEC2 HP3 HEC3 HP4 HEC4 Domestic hot water tank From well tank HP5 HEC5 To house For topping off Tank for house heating/cooling Return Air handlers

27 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission27 of 56 Distribution within the house Forced air works, but radiant is best

28 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission28 of 56 Sub-floor radiant

29 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission29 of 56 Well drilling in emory land

30 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission30 of 56 Air source heat pumps Recent breakthroughs allow operation at low temperatures No wells, no trenches! The face of the future? Mitsubishi Mr. Slim 26 SEER 9,000 BTU Heat Pump INVERTER Mini Split System

31 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission31 of 56 Agenda and purpose 1.Geothermal heating, cooling and domestic hot water 2.Photovoltaic solar panels 3.Other considerations 4.$$$ (costs, incentives, pay back periods) Outside the scope of this discussion Global warming and its effects Energy policy and dependence on foreign oil The travails of building a house

32 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission32 of 56 Average solar irradiance W/m 2 Fastest growing source of energy 12,400 MW worldwide by year-end 2007

33 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission33 of 56 Basic physics: light electricity Photons from sunlight hit silicon Some pass through (lower energy), some reflect, some are absorbed (energy > band gap) These create electron/hole pairs Pairs that dont recombine form a DC current An inverter is used to produce AC current No easy way to store this energy!

34 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission34 of 56 Ideal conditions South-facing single roof Solar south* is 13 o West of South A 9/12 pitch is ideal No chimneys, poles, trees in the way In our case 7.6 KW system 8,100 kWhr per year average Eliminates 14,000 lbs of CO 2 per year *Solar south is the angle of the sun at solar noon

35 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission35 of 56 Stand-offs and mounting

36 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission36 of 56 Stand-offs

37 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission37 of 56 Inverter (in garage) From panels Disconnect Inverter Private meter To utility meter 8,871 kWhr to date

38 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission38 of 56 PVWATTS Performance calculator for grid-connected PV systems http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/codes_algs/PVWATTS Inputs to the program Location (latitude, longitude, elevation) DC rating of panels (e.g., 5 kW) DC to AC derate factor (e.g., 0.77) Array type (fixed, 1-axis tracking, 2-axis tracking) Array tilt (e.g., 37 o for a 9/12 roof) Array azimuth (e.g., 180 o for a South facing roof) More explanation coming

39 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission39 of 56 DC to AC derating factor Component Derate Factors PVWATTS Default Range PV module nameplate DC rating0.950.80 - 1.05 Inverter and Transformer0.920.88 - 0.96 Mismatch0.980.97 - 0.995 Diodes and connections0.9950.99 - 0.997 DC wiring0.980.97 - 0.99 AC wiring0.990.98 - 0.993 Soiling0.950.30 - 0.995 System availability0.980.00 - 0.995 Shading1.000.00 - 1.00 Sun-tracking1.000.95 - 1.00 Age1.000.70 - 1.00 Overall DC-to-AC derate factor0.77

40 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission40 of 56 Type of arrays

41 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission41 of 56 Tilt angle and azimuth Roof PitchTilt Angle (°) 4/1218.4 5/1222.6 6/1226.6 7/1230.3 8/1233.7 9/1236.9 10/1239.8 11/1242.5 12/1245.0 Heading Azimuth Angle (°) N0 or 360 NE45 E90 SE135 S180 SW225 W270 NW315

42 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission42 of 56 Energy production by month Assume dc rating=5 kW, inverter derating =0.77, azimuth=180 o, pitch=36.9 o (9/12), total annual kWh=6,121/7,615/7,840

43 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission43 of 56 Energy vs. tilt and azimuth Assume 5 kW dc, inverter derating 0.77, NYC

44 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission44 of 56 Agenda and purpose 1.Geothermal heating, cooling and domestic hot water 2.Photovoltaic solar panels 3.Other considerations 4.$$$ (costs, incentives, pay back periods) Outside the scope of this discussion Global warming and its effects Energy policy and dependence on foreign oil The travails of building a house

45 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission45 of 56 3. Other considerations Insulation Polar walls R-30 (2x8) Double-fascia roof R-51 Windows Double-pane, low-e argon coating 100% compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) Think passage lighting during design Can now use with dimmers! Transportation alternatives Use bicycles, carpool, hybrids, electric cars, public transportation… Passive power reduction/instrumentation Instrumentation is a powerful way to change habits Reduce, recycle, reuse

46 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission46 of 56 Agenda and purpose 1.Geothermal heating, cooling and domestic hot water 2.Photovoltaic solar panels 3.Other considerations 4.$$$ (costs, incentives, pay back periods) Outside the scope of this discussion Global warming and its effects Energy policy and dependence on foreign oil The travails of building a house

47 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission47 of 56 Rule of thumb for geothermal 1600 sq. ft. requires one 3 ton unit, one 300 vertical well, and costs ~$10K Add one unit/well for domestic hot water Federal Govt will kick back $3K (30%) per heat pump as a tax credit

48 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission48 of 56 Payback time: geothermal Federal income tax credit of 30% of the cost with no limit till 2016 (undiminished by AMT) For everything up to the heat pump, including labor/install; need to fill form 5695 Requires COP >= 3.5, EER >= 15 for DX systems Different ways of looking at it HVAC system doubles in cost Provides heating at equivalent of $1.25/gallon of oil Additional monthly mortgage cost is less than the monthly energy savings Pays for itself from day one! $1 per year energy savings = $20.73 of house value* Our payback analysis indicates a 9 year payback period We have no backup system for heat, A/C, hot water! *R. Nevin and G. Watson, Appraisal Journal, October 1998, pp. 401409

49 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission49 of 56 Insulation, doors, windows Federal income tax credit of 30% of qualified insulation, furnace, doors, windows, storm door and storm window material costs only Capped at $1,500 Must fill form 5695 Must be the first user This is a post-AMT tax credit

50 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission50 of 56 Payback time: solar panels Solar panel prices are falling! Federal income tax credit of 30% of system cost with no limit till 2016 Survives AMT Includes labor, installation Must fill form 5695 NY state See NYSERDA web site at http://www.nyserda.com/http://www.nyserda.com/ NY prior to 10/13/09: $4/W for the first 5 kW, $3/W for the next 5 kW NY prior to 01/11/10: $2.50/W for the first 4 kW, $1.50/W for the next 4 kW NY now: $1.75/W for the first 5 kW Incentives are higher for EnergyStar labeled homes and Built-in Photovoltaics (BIPVs) Additional $5K tax credit; additional 8.75% property tax credit (now 5%) VT state VT: $1.75/W for the first 5 kW CA state See CA web site at http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/PUC/energy/solarhttp://www.cpuc.ca.gov/PUC/energy/solar California Solar Initiative: see next page, rebates diminish with popularity Utility must buy back excess power at supply cost On each anniversary of installation, excess generation is paid at wholesale rate Time-of-day billing is very advantageous for solar customers Payback period in our case is ~9 years

51 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission51 of 56 California information Expected Performance-Based Buy-Down Performance-Based Incentive

52 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission52 of 56 Berkeley has special financing

53 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission53 of 56 LA funds solar by electric premiums

54 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission54 of 56 Imagine? Floating wind turbines The first units in production will be 4 kW residential units that will cost $10,000 Information courtesy of Paul Villarrubia

55 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission55 of 56 Energy from photosynthesis? http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2010-03/video-artificial-photosynthesis-produces-enough-energy-power-house-one-bottle-water

56 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission56 of 56 Thank you!

57 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission57 of 56 Appendix Properties of puron vs. freon Basic physics: electricity light

58 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission58 of 56 Puron vs. freon ASHRAE numberR-410AR-22 Type of refrigerantHFC azeotropic mixture of HFC-32 and HFC-125 HCFC Chemical nameDifluoromethane (R-32) Pentafluoroethane (R-125) Chlorodifluo romethane Chemical formulaCH 2 F 2 (R-32), CHF 2 CF 3 (R-125) CHClF 2 Composition (by mass)R-32: 50%, R-125: 50%N/A Molecular weight72.686.5 Boiling point (at 1.0 atm), o F-62.9-41.4 Freezing point (at 1.0 atm), o F-247-256 Critical temperature, o F163205 Critical pressure, psia720722 Saturated liquid density (at 86 o F), lb/ft 3 64.6473.09

59 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission59 of 56 Puron vs. freon ASHRAE numberR-410AR-22 Specific heat of liquid (at 86 o F), Btu/lb- o F0.420.31 Specific heat of vapor at constant pressure C P (at 86 o F, 1.0 atm), Btu/lb- o F 0.210.16 Flammable range (% volume in air)None ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-1992 Safety Group Classification A1 Ozone depletion potential (ODP)*0.000.05 Global warming potential (GWP)**, 100 yr.1,9971,780 Montreal Protocol phase out dateNone2030 Lower TEWI*** (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) Higher pressure, lower mass flow, quieter, higher efficiency, synthetic lubricants Over 1,000,000 units 1995-2004 *ODP: a normalized indicator of the ability of a refrigerant to destroy stratospheric ozone molecules referenced to a value of 1.000 for CFC-11. **GWP: a mass-weighted average indicator of the ability to trap radiant energy as a greenhouse gas relative to carbon dioxide for a 100-year integration period. ***TEWI: takes into account direct (refrigerant leaks into the atmosphere: 7.5%) + indirect effects (effects from electricity production used to run system: 92.5%).

60 How I built a carbon-neutral houseDo not copy without permission60 of 56 Basic physics: electricity light Courtesy Wikipedia and HowStuffWorks.com


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