Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Study on the Customs of South Indian Mothers during pregnancy

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Study on the Customs of South Indian Mothers during pregnancy"— Presentation transcript:

1 Study on the Customs of South Indian Mothers during pregnancy
AUTHOR Dr .A. K. AVASARALA MBBS,M.D. PROFESSOR &HEAD DEPT OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE & EPIDEMIOLOGY PRATHIMA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, KARIMNAGAR,A.P.. INDIA : Author profile :-After medical graduation, worked for 17 years in the field as primary care physician in primary health centres, area hospitals, mobile medical units, cholera combat team, filarial control project, casualty department, divisional secondary care hospitals Then completed post graduation in public health medicine/preventive &social medicine &epidemiology and teaching medical graduates and post graduates, nursing students, physiotherapy students, primary care personnel for the last 15 years. At present working as Professor & Head of the department of Community medicine & Epidemiology since 15 years and practicing and contributing to the cause of epidemiological spread and growth in India (life ambition) as Indian super course epidemiology developer. Other twenty super course lectures of mine can be accessed at www. pitt.edu/~super1/faculty/lecturers.htm

2 Introduction Customs in a community will play a key role in its health promotion. Some of these customs positively contribute to increase the health of the mother and the child while some affect them adversely.

3 Introduction Most of the customs will have a cultural background rather than a scientific basis In this study, it is attempted to bring out the various social customs prevalent among the south Indian mothers during pregnancy

4 Learning objectives To know the various social customs practiced by the south Indian mothers during pregnancy. To know the reasons behind these social customs

5 Performance objectives
To educate the women ,the elders and dais (dais are old women who will conduct deliveries in villages) about the positive and negative influences of the social customs and to change their attitudes.

6 Study population 50 urban women who attended urban Maternal child health centre ,Chengalrao peta , Visakhapatnam) 50 women from antenatal clinic at urban slum, kallupaakalu living in urban slums 50 women in rural villages of rural health centre ,Simhachalam =Total 150 women

7 METHODOLOGY By survey using a pretested questionnaire enquiring about the----- General customs Dietary practices Customs regarding rest, personal hygiene& breast feeding

8 General Customs

9 Seemantham In Indian culture, motherhood is sacred and brings proud ness to the woman and her parents This is exhibited in the form of Seemantham . It is the celebration that the child attained viability

10 Seemantham ( Bangle ceremony)
As soon as the fetus becomes viable by 7th month, the parents of the pregnant woman proudly celebrate by inviting all parous women around . Each of them will put a pair of bangles on the hands of the pregnant woman and blesses the pregnant woman to have safe delivery and healthy child.

11 Place of delivery Usually women prefer parent’s home for the first delivery .They will have fear for first pregnancy and they feel relaxed at their birth place ,hence the preference. They prefer mother -in-law’s homes for later deliveries. This may be with the purpose of sharing the burden.

12 Travel preferences For the fear of abortion, mothers prefer to travel only after 7th or 9th month i.e. after the fetus attained viability. After child birth , they return to their husband’s house only after 3rd or 5th month. This may be due to avoid early sexual contact.

13 Waist belt use Wearing the waist belt is very common custom . The main reason appears to avoid distended pot belly development after delivery. They claim that gas will accumulate in abdomen after delivery and causes protuberant belly, if it is not tied with a towel .

14 Ear plugging A very common rural custom of covering the ears with a soft cloth or plugging the ears with cotton wool to prevent entry of air into ear. They think that they will get fever and earaches if it is not done.

15 WEARING SLIPPERS Rural women, not wearing the slippers antenatally , also wear them when they become pregnant to avoid wet feet and thereby fever.

16 Eclipses All pregnant women stay indoors during eclipses for the fear of ultra violet irradiation casing congenital defects in the children.

17 PREVALENCE OF GENERAL CUSTOMS
URBAN MOTHERS N=50 (%) URBAN SLUM RURAL Seemantham (Bangle wearing ceremony) 70 04 30 Preference of mother’s home for first two pregnancies 90 Preference of mother-in-law’s home for third pregnancy Preference of 7th month (Antenatally) and 5th month postnatally for travel 80 Wearing of waist belt 60 82 96 Ear plugging 50 Wearing of slippers Staying indoor during eclipse 92 100 85

18 REASONS FOR GENERAL CUSTOMS
Seemantham (Bangle wearing ceremony) Traditional (90%) Preference of mother’s home for first two pregnancies Traditional (92%) Better care (75%) Preference of mother-in-law’s home for third pregnancy Traditional (75%) Sharing the burden (25%) Preference of 7th month (Antenatally) and 5th month postnatally for travel Traditional (92%) Abortion risk passed away (8%) Wearing of waist belt To avoid pot belly(80%) Ear plugging To prevent earache (70%) Wearing of slippers Staying indoor during eclipse To avoid wet feet and fever (92%) Fear of congenital defects in the child.

19 Dietary customs

20 Water consumption during pregnancy
All pregnant women consume less water during and after pregnancy Antenatally they are afraid of water logging of the body and postnatally they wish to get dried up as soon as possible. Hence mother in laws or elders will allow only hot water, not cold water, to drink as it cannot be consumed much.

21 Food practices Antenatally, food quantity is reduced by rural women for the fear of obstructed labour by big baby whereas with urban women this is less practiced. Quantity is increased postnatally by all women to get rid of weakness and to increase milk secretion.

22 Food restrictions Fish is avoided by rural women for the fear of causing pruritis. Papaya is universally forbidden thinking it is an abortifacient. Greendal is restricted for fear of infections in the child and the mother. Green leafy vegetables were restricted for fear of loose motions in the child.

23 Special food items Kayam- a special food preparation which is made up of jaggery, asafetida, cloves will be eaten daily for 3 days postnatally by most of the rural mothers to get the uterus involuted quickly. Fried jeera( a spice) rice along with the food to warm up the body postnatally will be taken by rural mothers. Alcohol:-Few pregnant mothers will consume alcohol for the same purpose All the postnatal women think ,if they don’t keep their body warm ,they will go into shock.

24 PREVALENCE OF DIETARY CUSTOMS
URBAN MOTHERS N=50 (%) URBAN SLUM MOTHERS RURAL MOTHERS Restricting Drinking water 80 90 Hot water antenatally Hot water postnatally 30 37 60 94 Less food-antenatally More food postnatally 40 70 Food restrictions: Fish Papaya Greendal Pumpkin Green leafy vegetables 24 92 50 96 64 76 72 74 100 84 Special food items: Kayam Fried Jera Alchol 22 5 78 02

25 REASONS FOR DIETARY CUSTOMS
Restricting Drinking water Fear of water logging of body(70%) Hot water antenatally Hot water postnatally Cannot drink more (75%) Less food-antenatally More food postnatally For fear of big baby and difficulty labor(16%) Indigestion (15%) To get rid of weakness (54%) increased hunger (35%) to increase milk secretion (12%) Food restrictions: Fish Papaya Greendal Pumpkin Green leafy vegetables Pruritis (77%) Abortifacient (60%) elders advice(14%) Infection to mother & child (80%) Peripheral neuritis (82%) Diarrhoea in child (75%) Special food items: Kayam Fried Jera Alchol To get dried up postnatally (68%) To keep body warm (60%) To prevent for shock (2%)

26 Customs regarding:- Rest&work Personal hygiene, Breast feeding

27 Rest &work Antenatally, rest will be taken during pregnancy by all women, more so in urban women. Postnatally, all women prefer to take rest to ease their weakness and regain their strength .

28 Personal hygiene Rural women will be given head bath on 11th day as the vaginal discharges stop by that day. Till then, they will take sponge bath only.

29 Breast feeding Colostrum is discarded mainly by rural women due to their illiteracy. They call it witch’s milk. Feeding is commenced on the first day by half of the women only. If feverish, feeding will be stopped.

30 REST, HYGIENE& BREAST FEEDING CUSTOMS
URBAN MOTHERS N=50 (%) URBAN slum MOTHERS RURAL MOTHERS Rest: Antenatally Postnatally 76 80 70 57 60 62 Personal hygiene: Head both on 11th day Hot water bath 90 66 40 Breast feeding: Colostrums discarding Starting of breast feeding on 1st day Privacy during breast feeding 10 78 50 75 30

31 REST, HYGINE& BREAST FEEDING CUSTOMS
REASONS Rest: Antenatally Postnatally To get rid of weakness (47%) Elder’s advice (33%) Personal hygiene: Head both on 11th day Hot water bath As vaginal discharge stops(57%) To ease the body pains (34%) Elder’s advice (9%) Breast feeding: Colostrum discarding Starting of breast feeding on 1st day Privacy during breast feeding Harmful to child (90% of rural mothers) indigestion to child (10%) indigestion to child (70% of rural mothers) Privacy to mother (75%) Infection to child (10%) Dhisty (Jealous & harmful looks of neighbors) to child (15%)

32 Health role of the customs
This is difficult to define . Most of the general customs appear to be traditional in nature, intermingled with the culture and carried out as conventions as per the advice of the elders. . Seemantham appears to be having positive psychological health influence as it causes proud ness and self confidence in women because motherhood gives perfection woman hood in Indian culture.

33 Health role Going to parent’s home ,during the first pregnancy , gives the woman the opportunity to be away from her husband and sex, and to have rest, to learn mother craft and of getting accustomed to the place of delivery.

34 Health role Traveling after completion of 7th month of amenorrhea can be approved as healthy as risk for abortion lessens.

35 Health role. Eclipse fear and papaya as the causes of fetal damage are so deep rooted even the educated women will not take risk. These are so strong , there is no scope for even studying the association.

36 Health role Colostrum discarding, taking less food antenatally,
Taking harmful alcohol and Kayam etc, avoiding nutritious dals , leafy vegetables, fish in food , and water antenatally ---are all unhealthy customs

37 Nutritional education
Nutritive values of the various foods to be explained to the women, elders, dais to eliminate unnecessary restrictions. They must think that pregnancy is physiological and there is no need for unnecessary restrictions of food

38 Dais’ training The rural women are practicing these customs on the advice of either their elders or the old traditional dais who conduct deliveries in the villages. . Hence it is important first to change the attitude of these elders and dais regarding the customs by giving them proper training.

39 conclusions As most of the customs are traditionally based, culture oriented and sensitive , a careful approach of health education of all reproductive women is to be planned for without hurting their cultural feelings.


Download ppt "Study on the Customs of South Indian Mothers during pregnancy"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google