Presentation on theme: "Study on the Customs of South Indian Mothers during pregnancy"— Presentation transcript:
1 Study on the Customs of South Indian Mothers during pregnancy AUTHOR Dr .A. K. AVASARALAMBBS,M.D.PROFESSOR &HEADDEPT OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE & EPIDEMIOLOGYPRATHIMA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, KARIMNAGAR,A.P..INDIA :Author profile :-After medical graduation, worked for 17 years in the field as primary care physician in primary health centres, area hospitals, mobile medical units, cholera combat team, filarial control project, casualty department, divisional secondary care hospitalsThen completed post graduation in public health medicine/preventive &social medicine &epidemiology and teaching medical graduates and post graduates, nursing students, physiotherapy students, primary care personnel for the last 15 years.At present working as Professor & Head of the department of Community medicine & Epidemiology since 15 years and practicing and contributing to the cause of epidemiological spread and growth in India (life ambition) as Indian super course epidemiology developer.Other twenty super course lectures of mine can be accessed at www. pitt.edu/~super1/faculty/lecturers.htm
2 IntroductionCustoms in a community will play a key role in its health promotion.Some of these customs positively contribute to increase the health of the mother and the child while some affect them adversely.
3 IntroductionMost of the customs will have a cultural background rather than a scientific basisIn this study, it is attempted to bring out the various social customs prevalent among the south Indian mothers during pregnancy
4 Learning objectivesTo know the various social customs practiced by the south Indian mothers during pregnancy.To know the reasons behind these social customs
5 Performance objectives To educate the women ,the elders and dais (dais are old women who will conduct deliveries in villages) about the positive and negative influences of the social customsand to change their attitudes.
6 Study population50 urban women who attended urban Maternal child health centre ,Chengalrao peta , Visakhapatnam)50 women from antenatal clinic at urban slum, kallupaakalu living in urban slums50 women in rural villages of rural health centre ,Simhachalam=Total 150 women
7 METHODOLOGYBy survey using a pretested questionnaire enquiring about the-----General customsDietary practicesCustoms regarding rest, personal hygiene& breast feeding
9 SeemanthamIn Indian culture, motherhood is sacred and brings proud ness to the woman and her parentsThis is exhibited in the form of Seemantham .It is the celebration that the child attained viability
10 Seemantham ( Bangle ceremony) As soon as the fetus becomes viable by 7th month, the parents of the pregnant woman proudly celebrate by inviting all parous women around .Each of them will put a pair of bangles on the hands of the pregnant woman and blesses the pregnant woman to have safe delivery and healthy child.
11 Place of deliveryUsually women prefer parent’s home for the first delivery .They will have fear for first pregnancy and they feel relaxed at their birth place ,hence the preference.They prefer mother -in-law’s homes for later deliveries. This may be with the purpose of sharing the burden.
12 Travel preferencesFor the fear of abortion, mothers prefer to travel only after 7th or 9th month i.e. after the fetus attained viability.After child birth , they return to their husband’s house only after 3rd or 5th month. This may be due to avoid early sexual contact.
13 Waist belt useWearing the waist belt is very common custom . The main reason appears to avoid distended pot belly development after delivery.They claim that gas will accumulate in abdomen after delivery and causes protuberant belly, if it is not tied with a towel .
14 Ear pluggingA very common rural custom of covering the ears with a soft cloth or plugging the ears with cotton wool to prevent entry of air into ear.They think that they will get fever and earaches if it is not done.
15 WEARING SLIPPERSRural women, not wearing the slippers antenatally , also wear them when they become pregnant to avoid wet feet and thereby fever.
16 EclipsesAll pregnant women stay indoors during eclipses for the fear of ultra violet irradiation casing congenital defects in the children.
17 PREVALENCE OF GENERAL CUSTOMS URBANMOTHERSN=50(%)URBAN SLUMRURALSeemantham(Bangle wearing ceremony)700430Preference of mother’s home for first two pregnancies90Preference of mother-in-law’s home for third pregnancyPreference of 7th month (Antenatally) and 5th month postnatally for travel80Wearing of waist belt608296Ear plugging50Wearing of slippersStaying indoor during eclipse9210085
18 REASONS FOR GENERAL CUSTOMS Seemantham(Bangle wearing ceremony)Traditional (90%)Preference of mother’s home for first two pregnanciesTraditional (92%) Better care (75%)Preference of mother-in-law’s home for third pregnancyTraditional (75%) Sharing the burden (25%)Preference of 7th month (Antenatally) and 5th month postnatally for travelTraditional (92%) Abortion risk passed away (8%)Wearing of waist beltTo avoid pot belly(80%)Ear pluggingTo prevent earache (70%)Wearing of slippersStaying indoor during eclipseTo avoid wet feet and fever (92%)Fear of congenital defects in the child.
20 Water consumption during pregnancy All pregnant women consume less water during and after pregnancyAntenatally they are afraid of water logging of the body and postnatally they wish to get dried up as soon as possible.Hence mother in laws or elders will allow only hot water, not cold water, to drink as it cannot be consumed much.
21 Food practicesAntenatally, food quantity is reduced by rural women for the fear of obstructed labour by big baby whereas with urban women this is less practiced.Quantity is increased postnatally by all women to get rid of weakness and to increase milk secretion.
22 Food restrictionsFish is avoided by rural women for the fear of causing pruritis.Papaya is universally forbidden thinking it is an abortifacient.Greendal is restricted for fear of infections in the child and the mother.Green leafy vegetables were restricted for fear of loose motions in the child.
23 Special food itemsKayam- a special food preparation which is made up of jaggery, asafetida, cloves will be eaten daily for 3 days postnatally by most of the rural mothers to get the uterus involuted quickly.Fried jeera( a spice) rice along with the food to warm up the body postnatally will be taken by rural mothers.Alcohol:-Few pregnant mothers will consume alcohol for the same purposeAll the postnatal women think ,if they don’t keep their body warm ,they will go into shock.
24 PREVALENCE OF DIETARY CUSTOMS URBAN MOTHERSN=50(%)URBAN SLUM MOTHERSRURAL MOTHERSRestricting Drinking water8090Hot water antenatallyHot water postnatally30376094Less food-antenatallyMore food postnatally4070Food restrictions:FishPapayaGreendalPumpkinGreen leafy vegetables249250966476727410084Special food items:KayamFried JeraAlchol2257802
25 REASONS FOR DIETARY CUSTOMS Restricting Drinking waterFear of water logging of body(70%)Hot water antenatallyHot water postnatallyCannot drink more (75%)Less food-antenatallyMore food postnatallyFor fear of big baby and difficulty labor(16%) Indigestion (15%)To get rid of weakness (54%) increased hunger (35%) to increase milk secretion (12%)Food restrictions:FishPapayaGreendalPumpkinGreen leafy vegetablesPruritis (77%)Abortifacient (60%) elders advice(14%)Infection to mother & child (80%)Peripheral neuritis (82%)Diarrhoea in child (75%)Special food items:KayamFried JeraAlcholTo get dried up postnatally (68%)To keep body warm (60%)To prevent for shock (2%)
27 Rest &workAntenatally, rest will be taken during pregnancy by all women, more so in urban women.Postnatally, all women prefer to take rest to ease their weakness and regain their strength .
28 Personal hygieneRural women will be given head bath on 11th day as the vaginal discharges stop by that day.Till then, they will take sponge bath only.
29 Breast feedingColostrum is discarded mainly by rural women due to their illiteracy. They call it witch’s milk.Feeding is commenced on the first day by half of the women only.If feverish, feeding will be stopped.
30 REST, HYGIENE& BREAST FEEDING CUSTOMS URBAN MOTHERSN=50(%)URBAN slum MOTHERSRURAL MOTHERSRest:AntenatallyPostnatally768070576062Personal hygiene:Head both on 11th dayHot water bath906640Breast feeding:Colostrums discardingStarting of breast feeding on 1st dayPrivacy during breast feeding1078507530
31 REST, HYGINE& BREAST FEEDING CUSTOMS REASONSRest:AntenatallyPostnatallyTo get rid of weakness (47%)Elder’s advice (33%)Personal hygiene:Head both on 11th dayHot water bathAs vaginal discharge stops(57%)To ease the body pains (34%)Elder’s advice (9%)Breast feeding:Colostrum discardingStarting of breast feeding on 1st dayPrivacy during breast feedingHarmful to child (90% of rural mothers)indigestion to child (10%)indigestion to child (70% of rural mothers)Privacy to mother (75%)Infection to child (10%)Dhisty (Jealous & harmful looks of neighbors) to child (15%)
32 Health role of the customs This is difficult to define .Most of the general customs appear to be traditional in nature, intermingled with the culture and carried out as conventions as per the advice of the elders. .Seemantham appears to be having positive psychological health influence as it causes proud ness and self confidence in women because motherhood gives perfection woman hood in Indian culture.
33 Health roleGoing to parent’s home ,during the first pregnancy , gives the woman the opportunity to be away from her husband and sex, and to have rest, to learn mother craft and of getting accustomed to the place of delivery.
34 Health roleTraveling after completion of 7th month of amenorrhea can be approved as healthy as risk for abortion lessens.
35 Health role.Eclipse fear and papaya as the causes of fetal damage are so deep rooted even the educated women will not take risk.These are so strong , there is no scope for even studying the association.
36 Health role Colostrum discarding, taking less food antenatally, Taking harmful alcohol and Kayam etc,avoiding nutritious dals , leafy vegetables, fish in food , and water antenatally---are all unhealthy customs
37 Nutritional education Nutritive values of the various foods to be explained to the women, elders, dais to eliminate unnecessary restrictions.They must think that pregnancy is physiological and there is no need for unnecessary restrictions of food
38 Dais’ trainingThe rural women are practicing these customs on the advice of either their elders or the old traditional dais who conduct deliveries in the villages. .Hence it is important first to change the attitude of these elders and dais regarding the customs by giving them proper training.
39 conclusionsAs most of the customs are traditionally based, culture oriented and sensitive , a careful approach of health education of all reproductive women is to be planned for without hurting their cultural feelings.