Presentation on theme: "Study on the Customs of South Indian Mothers during pregnancy AUTHOR Dr.A. K. AVASARALA MBBS,M.D. PROFESSOR &HEAD DEPT OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE & EPIDEMIOLOGY."— Presentation transcript:
Study on the Customs of South Indian Mothers during pregnancy AUTHOR Dr.A. K. AVASARALA MBBS,M.D. PROFESSOR &HEAD DEPT OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE & EPIDEMIOLOGY PRATHIMA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, KARIMNAGAR,A.P.. INDIA :
Introduction Customs in a community will play a key role in its health promotion. Some of these customs positively contribute to increase the health of the mother and the child while some affect them adversely.
Introduction Most of the customs will have a cultural background rather than a scientific basis In this study, it is attempted to bring out the various social customs prevalent among the south Indian mothers during pregnancy
Learning objectives To know the various social customs practiced by the south Indian mothers during pregnancy. To know the reasons behind these social customs
Performance objectives To educate the women,the elders and dais (dais are old women who will conduct deliveries in villages) about the positive and negative influences of the social customs and to change their attitudes.
Study population 50 urban women who attended urban Maternal child health centre,Chengalrao peta, Visakhapatnam) 50 women from antenatal clinic at urban slum, kallupaakalu living in urban slums 50 women in rural villages of rural health centre,Simhachalam =Total 150 women
METHODOLOGY By survey using a pretested questionnaire enquiring about the General customs 2.Dietary practices 3.Customs regarding rest, personal hygiene& breast feeding
Seemantham In Indian culture, motherhood is sacred and brings proud ness to the woman and her parents This is exhibited in the form of Seemantham. It is the celebration that the child attained viability
Seemantham ( Bangle ceremony) As soon as the fetus becomes viable by 7 th month, the parents of the pregnant woman proudly celebrate by inviting all parous women around. Each of them will put a pair of bangles on the hands of the pregnant woman and blesses the pregnant woman to have safe delivery and healthy child.
Place of delivery Usually women prefer parents home for the first delivery.They will have fear for first pregnancy and they feel relaxed at their birth place,hence the preference. They prefer mother -in-laws homes for later deliveries. This may be with the purpose of sharing the burden.
Travel preferences For the fear of abortion, mothers prefer to travel only after 7 th or 9 th month i.e. after the fetus attained viability. After child birth, they return to their husbands house only after 3 rd or 5 th month. This may be due to avoid early sexual contact.
Waist belt use Wearing the waist belt is very common custom. The main reason appears to avoid distended pot belly development after delivery. They claim that gas will accumulate in abdomen after delivery and causes protuberant belly, if it is not tied with a towel.
Ear plugging A very common rural custom of covering the ears with a soft cloth or plugging the ears with cotton wool to prevent entry of air into ear. They think that they will get fever and earaches if it is not done.
WEARING SLIPPERS Rural women, not wearing the slippers antenatally, also wear them when they become pregnant to avoid wet feet and thereby fever.
Eclipses All pregnant women stay indoors during eclipses for the fear of ultra violet irradiation casing congenital defects in the children.
PREVALENCE OF GENERAL CUSTOMS CUSTOMS URBAN MOTHERS N=50 (%) URBAN SLUM MOTHERS N=50 (%) RURAL MOTHERS N=50 (%) Seemantham (Bangle wearing ceremony) Preference of mothers home for first two pregnancies Preference of mother-in-laws home for third pregnancy 90 Preference of 7th month (Antenatally) and 5th month postnatally for travel Wearing of waist belt Ear plugging Wearing of slippers Staying indoor during eclipse
REASONS FOR GENERAL CUSTOMS CUSTOMSREASONS Seemantham (Bangle wearing ceremony) Traditional (90%) Preference of mothers home for first two pregnancies Traditional (92%) Better care (75%) Preference of mother-in-laws home for third pregnancy Traditional (75%) Sharing the burden (25%) Preference of 7th month (Antenatally) and 5th month postnatally for travel Traditional (92%) Abortion risk passed away (8%) Wearing of waist beltTo avoid pot belly(80%) Ear pluggingTo prevent earache (70%) Wearing of slippers Staying indoor during eclipse To avoid wet feet and fever (92%) Fear of congenital defects in the child.
Water consumption during pregnancy All pregnant women consume less water during and after pregnancy Antenatally they are afraid of water logging of the body and postnatally they wish to get dried up as soon as possible. Hence mother in laws or elders will allow only hot water, not cold water, to drink as it cannot be consumed much.
Food practices Antenatally, food quantity is reduced by rural women for the fear of obstructed labour by big baby whereas with urban women this is less practiced. Quantity is increased postnatally by all women to get rid of weakness and to increase milk secretion.
Food restrictions Fish is avoided by rural women for the fear of causing pruritis. Papaya is universally forbidden thinking it is an abortifacient. Greendal is restricted for fear of infections in the child and the mother. Green leafy vegetables were restricted for fear of loose motions in the child.
Special food items Kayam- a special food preparation which is made up of jaggery, asafetida, cloves will be eaten daily for 3 days postnatally by most of the rural mothers to get the uterus involuted quickly. Fried jeera( a spice) rice along with the food to warm up the body postnatally will be taken by rural mothers. Alcohol:-Few pregnant mothers will consume alcohol for the same purpose All the postnatal women think,if they dont keep their body warm,they will go into shock.
PREVALENCE OF DIETARY CUSTOMS CUSTOMS URBAN MOTHERS N=50 (%) URBAN SLUM MOTHERS N=50 (%) RURAL MOTHERS N=50 (%) Restricting Drinking water 8090 Hot water antenatally Hot water postnatally Less food-antenatally More food postnatally Food restrictions: Fish Papaya Greendal Pumpkin Green leafy vegetables Special food items: Kayam Fried Jera Alchol
REASONS FOR DIETARY CUSTOMS CUSTOMS REASONS Restricting Drinking water Fear of water logging of body(70%) Hot water antenatally Hot water postnatally Cannot drink more (75%) Less food-antenatally More food postnatally For fear of big baby and difficulty labor(16%) Indigestion (15%) To get rid of weakness (54%) increased hunger (35%) to increase milk secretion (12%) Food restrictions: Fish Papaya Greendal Pumpkin Green leafy vegetables Pruritis (77%) Abortifacient (60%) elders advice(14%) Infection to mother & child (80%) Peripheral neuritis (82%) Diarrhoea in child (75%) Special food items: Kayam Fried Jera Alchol To get dried up postnatally (68%) To keep body warm (60%) To prevent for shock (2%)
Customs regarding:- Rest&work Personal hygiene, Breast feeding
Rest &work Antenatally, rest will be taken during pregnancy by all women, more so in urban women. Postnatally, all women prefer to take rest to ease their weakness and regain their strength.
Personal hygiene Rural women will be given head bath on 11 th day as the vaginal discharges stop by that day. Till then, they will take sponge bath only.
Breast feeding Colostrum is discarded mainly by rural women due to their illiteracy. They call it witchs milk. Feeding is commenced on the first day by half of the women only. If feverish, feeding will be stopped.
REST, HYGIENE& BREAST FEEDING CUSTOMS CUSTOMS URBAN MOTHERS N=50 (%) URBAN slum MOTHERS N=50 (%) RURAL MOTHERS N=50 (%) Rest: Antenatally Postnatally Personal hygiene: Head both on 11th day Hot water bath Breast feeding: Colostrums discarding Starting of breast feeding on 1st day Privacy during breast feeding
REST, HYGINE& BREAST FEEDING CUSTOMS CUSTOMSREASONS Rest: Antenatally Postnatally To get rid of weakness (47%) Elders advice (33%) Personal hygiene: Head both on 11th day Hot water bath As vaginal discharge stops(57%) To ease the body pains (34%) Elders advice (9%) Breast feeding: Colostrum discarding Starting of breast feeding on 1st day Privacy during breast feeding Harmful to child (90% of rural mothers) indigestion to child (10%) indigestion to child (70% of rural mothers) Privacy to mother (75%) Infection to child (10%) Dhisty (Jealous & harmful looks of neighbors) to child (15%)
Health role of the customs This is difficult to define. Most of the general customs appear to be traditional in nature, intermingled with the culture and carried out as conventions as per the advice of the elders.. Seemantham appears to be having positive psychological health influence as it causes proud ness and self confidence in women because motherhood gives perfection woman hood in Indian culture.
Health role Going to parents home,during the first pregnancy, gives the woman the opportunity to be away from her husband and sex, and to have rest, to learn mother craft and of getting accustomed to the place of delivery.
Health role Traveling after completion of 7 th month of amenorrhea can be approved as healthy as risk for abortion lessens.
Health role. Eclipse fear and papaya as the causes of fetal damage are so deep rooted even the educated women will not take risk. These are so strong, there is no scope for even studying the association.
Health role Colostrum discarding, taking less food antenatally, Taking harmful alcohol and Kayam etc, avoiding nutritious dals, leafy vegetables, fish in food, and water antenatally ---are all unhealthy customs
Nutritional education Nutritive values of the various foods to be explained to the women, elders, dais to eliminate unnecessary restrictions. They must think that pregnancy is physiological and there is no need for unnecessary restrictions of food
Dais training The rural women are practicing these customs on the advice of either their elders or the old traditional dais who conduct deliveries in the villages.. Hence it is important first to change the attitude of these elders and dais regarding the customs by giving them proper training.
conclusions As most of the customs are traditionally based, culture oriented and sensitive, a careful approach of health education of all reproductive women is to be planned for without hurting their cultural feelings.