Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Net-Zero Energy Houses and Offices … a vision of the future? Sustainable Operations 19 Nov 08 Webinar Presentation FPL, Madison, WI by Mel Tyree BA PhD.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Net-Zero Energy Houses and Offices … a vision of the future? Sustainable Operations 19 Nov 08 Webinar Presentation FPL, Madison, WI by Mel Tyree BA PhD."— Presentation transcript:

1 Net-Zero Energy Houses and Offices … a vision of the future? Sustainable Operations 19 Nov 08 Webinar Presentation FPL, Madison, WI by Mel Tyree BA PhD LLD FRSC Mel Tyree BA PhD LLD FRSCNRS-10

2 The Globe & Mail 28 June 2008 The energy content of 1 barrel of oil = the energy content of 8.6 years of human labor. Think about it. A human lifespan could produce the energy of about 3 barrels of oil in usable work or impact on the world 10 h of work per day). CONCLUSION: human-kind has dominated life on earth thru the unfair advantage of fossil fuels. What is our future when this advantage (fossil fuel) is gone?

3 Energy cost of buildings in Canada 30% of Canadas energy consumption 30% of Canadas energy consumption 50% of Canadas electricity consumption 50% of Canadas electricity consumption 28% of Canadas greenhouse gases 28% of Canadas greenhouse gases

4 Energy cost of buildings in Canada 30% of Canadas energy consumption 30% of Canadas energy consumption 50% of Canadas electricity consumption 50% of Canadas electricity consumption 28% of Canadas greenhouse gases 28% of Canadas greenhouse gases With declining fossil fuels and rising prices, WHAT MIGHT THE HOUSING FUTURE BE?

5 My Net-Zero Energy House (Also zero emission house)

6 My Net-Zero Energy House (Also zero emission house) This house will save a projected $165,000 in fuel and energy costs. Over the next 20 years.

7 My Net-Zero Energy House (Also zero emission house) This house will save a projected $165,000 in fuel and energy costs. Over the next 20 years. AND IT COST ONLY $65,000 EXTRA TO BUILD COMPARED TO A CONVENTIONAL HOUSE.

8 My Net-Zero Energy House What were the design criteria?

9 Objectives of my Net-Zero Energy House Sustainable Energy Design (uses no fossil fuels) Generate as much energy on site in a year as is used on site in that year. Be energy efficient Be cost-effective Burn NO fuel of any kind on site IF POSSIBLE Use sustainable materials Use materials with low toxicity Cost should be competitive with conventional home over a 20-year period, i.e., if you pay more to build it then savings from operating costs to pay for it should break even in the first 20 years.

10 Cost-effective Considerations Which costs more? Insulating the house? Insulating the house? Providing sun & wind power systems? Providing sun & wind power systems?

11 Cost-effective Considerations Which costs more? Insulating the house? Insulating the house? Providing sun & wind power systems? Providing sun & wind power systems? To answer these questions we first need to know how much energy a typical house uses in a year.

12 Cost-effective Considerations Which costs more? Insulating the house? Insulating the house? Providing sun & wind power systems? Providing sun & wind power systems? To answer these questions we first need to know how much energy a typical house uses in a year. Where does most of my energy go? To general electrical needs? To heating?

13 Energy Audit of my House Lights and electrical appliances? Lights and electrical appliances? Hot water needs? Hot water needs? Heating in winter months? Heating in winter months? Need to use common units! J = Joules or GJ = Giga Joules kWh = kilowatt hours = 3,600,000 J BTU = British Thermal Units (1 kWh = 3,412 BTU) (1 kWh = 3,412 BTU)

14 Approximate Energy Audit Energy Consumption Per Year 9,000 kWh lights, appliances etc 9,000 kWh lights, appliances etc 4,500 kWh hot water 4,500 kWh hot water 35,000 kWh heating (assumes 90% burn efficiency) 35,000 kWh heating (assumes 90% burn efficiency) Total: 48,500 kWh 18.5% lights, appliances etc 9.3% hot water 72.2% heating

15 Lights & Appliances: 18.5% How to save energy? Compact fluorescent lighting VERY cost effective Select washing machine with high spin cycle Dry clothes outside on line (free) rather than in drier as much as possible Select energy efficient dish washer Use microwave rather than stove as much as possible.

16 Domestic Hot Water: 9.7% How to save Energy? Use heat pump to boost heating efficiency up to 300%. Add insulation to your hot water tank Lower the thermostat temperature on hot water tank Use less hot water 1. Install low-flow shower heads 2. Take quicker showers 3. Wash all clothes in cold water 4. Select dish washer that uses less water

17 Heating of your home: 72.2%!! How to save energy? Biggest potential saving! Needs energy audit of your home! Where does my heat go? Considerations are: 1. Heat loss through walls & roof 2. Heat loss through windows 3. Heat loss to provide fresh air in winter 4. Efficiency of your furnace 5. Cost of your fuel (for cost-effective solutions)

18 Insulation efficiency determined by R-values of ceiling, walls, windows Typical values for modern homes Windows R = 2.8 to 3.3 Walls R = 18 to 22 Ceiling R = 30 to 35 Bigger R values are better But heat loss for each item determined by BTU/h = (Sq ft surface area/R)*(T in -T out )

19 How I learned to do the calculations! The Passive Solar House by James Kachadorian

20 Approximate Energy Audit of a home NEEDS A PLAN for computations

21 Approximate Energy Audit of modern home. TOTAL heat loss rate 550 BTU per h per o F TOTAL heat loss rate 550 BTU per h per o F 13.5% thru windows 13.6% thru walls 8.7% thru roof 15.7% thru basement OVER ESTIMATE! 49.1% TO PROVIDE FRESH AIR (16 room volume exchanges per day recommended by building code)

22 Summary Energy costs to run my new home 48,500 kWh/yr (72% of this for heat) 48,500 kWh/yr (72% of this for heat) How much can I generate from a wind turbine and PV system purchased under NYSERDA incentives? How much can I generate from a wind turbine and PV system purchased under NYSERDA incentives?

23 Use above web site for info on NY State Cash Incentives from NYSERDA Mr. Sal Graven, NYSERDA, informed me that as of Feb Residential wind turbines have been installed more wind turbines are scheduled under the NYSERDA incentive program Photovoltaic residential systems have been installed 4. My home is the first (and only) in NY State to provide all power needs from the sun and wind under the NYSERDA program.

24 NYSERDA INCENTIVES SUMMARY SystemNet PriceSystemEst. An.Investment typeafter rebatessizeProductionper kWh per year per year Turbine$24,85010 kW10,500 kWh$2.36 PV$35,00010 kW9,500 kWh$3.69 PV price includes battery back up system ($8,000) Total Estimated Annual Production 20,000 kWh

25 Closing the gap Energy needs: 48,500 kWh Energy production: 20,000 kWh Possible solutions include: Use Passive Solar heating Use Active Solar for hot water Use Active Solar heating for house Decrease energy needs thru insulation Increase efficiency of heating

26 Problem with active or passive solar in the North Country: Very little sunshine in winter AND systems are expensive Month Heating Deg Days % sunshine October54243 November89625 December January February March April61547 May31753

27 Option of Adding Insulation? A complete analysis is beyond the scope of this workshop (takes too long) but I consulted a Green Builder in the Adirondacks who said he could reduce my heat load by 40% thru better insulation etc at 20% extra cost. Saving on heat load: 13,500 kWh Added cost to construction: $44,000 Cost per kWh saved: $3.26 Remaining load: 48,500-13,500 = 35,000 kWh Shortfall on project: 15,000 kWh

28 Ultimate Cost-Effective Solution used in my home. Biggest heating load (49%) is to provide fresh air Biggest heating load (49%) is to provide fresh air Solution: Install fresh-air heat recovery system Reduce energy cost to heat my home Solution: Install Geothermal Heat Pump which provides 330% efficiency!

29 Heat Recovery System Cost: $2500 (installed) Savings on heat load: 8,000 kWh Cost per kWh saved: $0.31 Geothermal Heat Pump Cost: $7,500 (installed) Savings on heat load: 20,000 kWh (because of 330% efficiency) Cost per kWh saved: $0.38

30 Air-heat recovery system 70% heat recovery on air that passes thru system

31 Geothermal Heat Pump Explaining how it works needs workshop of its own! So details beyond the scope of my talk.

32 Types of Geothermal Heat Pumps Open loop: most efficient (400%) but usually more expensive to install Closed loop: less efficient (300%) PLUS the heat pump assists the hot water tank and hence reduces the energy needed to heat hot water with electricity. Explain how it works (it is a very large refrigeration system)

33

34 Cost & Payback Analysis In past 9 years (basis 1999) NYSERDA data shows Electrical price inflation: 3.7% Fuel Oil price inflation: 14.6%

35 Cost & Payback Analysis This analysis uses conservative estimates of energy inflation rates 20 year cash flow analysis Electrical inflation: 3.7% Fuel oil inflation: 14.6% in last 9 years Break-even system pays for itself

36 Final building costs House with one-car garage: $220,000 House with one-car garage: $220,000 Barn (one-car parking + shop): $35,000 Barn (one-car parking + shop): $35,000 Sun & Wind Energy systems: $60,000 Sun & Wind Energy systems: $60,000 Extra cost of Geothermal: $5,500 Extra cost of Geothermal: $5,500 Price premium for Net-Zero Energy House vs conventional: 27% Energy House vs conventional: 27% more than conventional home. more than conventional home.

37 Construction sequence illustrated by photos and words 1. Built turbine in 2004/05 2. Built barn in Added photovoltaic system in Built house in 2007

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45 My Net-Zero Energy House So, did I succeed? What are the measured data on production and heat pump performance?

46 Production Production. The solar and wind systems have been grid-tied for > 12 months. Production from 1 Dec 06 to 1 Dec 07: 19,005 kWh Production. The solar and wind systems have been grid-tied for > 12 months. Production from 1 Dec 06 to 1 Dec 07: 19,005 kWh GHP = 7500 kWh HW = 4500 (will lower this in future) All other = 6000 kWh TOTAL = 18,000 kWh

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56 NZEH IN NZE-CITIES Advantages for the future: Sunlight is free & delivery is free Cost to utilize free sun-energy will eventually be less than cost of fuel Will reduce Canada carbon-footprint Will conserve declining fossil fuels for more vital needs Will reduce size of electrical grid and avoid cost of new power plants (nuclear & conventional)

57 NZEH Impact on how cities will look? Street layout for S orientation of all houses Modified look of housing Modified landscaping (e.g., smaller trees, fewer trees, or mostly deciduous trees??) Use of local materials Use of low toxicity materials Living roofs? Gray-water use? Rain water storage? Unlimited possibilities for a sustainable future!

58 Questions & Discussion

59 Heat Pump Consumption? Data for 22 days in Jan 08 RESULTS: 792 = kWh power consumption of HP 160 = kWh power consumption of water pump 942 = total kWh to heat the house = HDD for the same 22 days in Dannemora, NY, 1/8 of an average heating season already! 0.93 = kWh/HDD = 942/1013 (This value has been constant for the whole period, i.e., on cold days the value is the same as on warm days) 7448 = estimated kWh for an average heating season = 0.93x8010 $1191 = estimated cost of heating with 16cents/kWh.

60 Heat Pump Efficiency Definition: 1 BTU = amount of heat energy required to change 1 lb of water 1 o F Heat Extraction rate (HE) from well water in BTU/hr ( 1 Gal water = 8.35 lbs. 60 min per hr. So if you pump water at 1 GPM you are pumping about 500 lb water per h) HE = 500 x GPM x (drop in Water temperature) in BTU/hr Typical performance values of my HP: For Stage 1 Heating: GPM = 9.5 & temp drop = 7 oF, hence HE = 500 x 9.5 x 7 = 33,250 BTU/hr HE = 500 x 9.5 x 7 = 33,250 BTU/hr For Stage 2 Heating: GPM = 9.5 & temp drop = 10 oF, hence HE = 500 x 9.5 x 10 = 47,500 BTU/hr HE = 500 x 9.5 x 10 = 47,500 BTU/hr

61 Heat Pump Efficiency Heat Supply rate (HS) to house in BTU/hr HS = 1.06 x Air Flow Rate (CFM) x (temperature rise of air O F) Measured temp rise of air is 28 to 31 o F CFM counter LED indicates CFM rates of 800, 1100, 1500 or 1800 while system operates. 1.06x28x1500 = 44, x31x1800 = 59,150) CFM counter LED indicates CFM rates of 800, 1100, 1500 or 1800 while system operates. 1.06x28x1500 = 44, x31x1800 = 59,150) Start up sequence: CFM 800 Stage 1 75F 90 F Heat off 800. ALTERNATIVE CALCULATION HS = HE +EA, where EA = energy added by my compressor & fan Typical performance of my heat pump: For Stage 1 Heating : EA = 3.0 kW = 10,230 BTU/hr HS = 43,480 (rated 41,650) For Stage 1 Heating : EA = 3.0 kW = 10,230 BTU/hr HS = 43,480 (rated 41,650) For Stage 2 Heating: EA = 4.26 kW = 14,500 BTU/hr HS = 62,000 (rated 59,450) For Stage 2 Heating: EA = 4.26 kW = 14,500 BTU/hr HS = 62,000 (rated 59,450) ( 1 kW = 3,410 BTU/hr) ( 1 kW = 3,410 BTU/hr)

62 Heat Pump Efficiency Efficiency estimate (needs data on water pump) Energy required to pump water = 6.8 A x 220 V x 50% duty cycle = 0.75 kW Energy required to pump water = 6.8 A x 220 V x 50% duty cycle = 0.75 kW = 2,600 BTU/hr = 2,600 BTU/hr For Stage 1 Heating: For Stage 1 Heating: COP = 43,480/10,230 = 4.25 COP = 43,480/10,230 = 4.25 Efficiency = 43,480/(10,230+2,600) = 339% Efficiency = 43,480/(10,230+2,600) = 339% For Stage 2 Heating: For Stage 2 Heating: COP = 62,000/14,500 = 4.27 COP = 62,000/14,500 = 4.27 Efficiency = 62,000/(14,500+2,600) = 363% Efficiency = 62,000/(14,500+2,600) = 363%

63

64 SWIEP Small Wind Information Exchange Program

65 Items for discussion? NYSERDA$/millionBTU$5.51Coal $15.49 Nat. Gas $18.65 Fuel Oil $21.23Kerosene $26.06Propane $48.92Electricity


Download ppt "Net-Zero Energy Houses and Offices … a vision of the future? Sustainable Operations 19 Nov 08 Webinar Presentation FPL, Madison, WI by Mel Tyree BA PhD."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google