2Pueblo Massive, round-edged walls made with adobe Flat roof with no overhangStepped levelsRounded parapetSpouts in the parapet to direct rainwaterVigas (heavy timbers) extending through walls which serve as main roof support beamsLatillas (poles) placed above vigas in angled patternDeep window and door openingsSimple windowsBeehive corner fireplaceBancos (benches) that protrude from wallsNichos (niches) carved out of wall for display of religious iconsBrick, wood, or flagstone floorsSince ancient times, pueblo Indians built large, multi-family houses, which the Spanish called pueblos (villages). In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Spanish made their own pueblo homes, but they adapted the style. They formed the adobe into sun-dried building blocks. After stacking the blocks, the Spaniards covered them with protective layers of mud. Pueblo revival houses became popular in the early 1900s and are still a popular style in the southwestern regions of the united states. These modern-day pueblos might not be made of adobe. Instead, some contemporary adobe homes are made with concrete blocks or other materials covered with adobe, stucco, plaster, or mortar
4Cap Cod Steep roof with side gables Small roof overhang 1 or 1½ storiesMade of wood and covered in wide clapboard or shinglesLarge central chimney linked to fireplace in each roomSymmetrical appearance with door in centerDormers for space, light, and ventilationMulti-paned, double-hung windowsShuttersFormal, center-hall floor planHardwood floorsLittle exterior ornamentationHistory of the Cape Cod StyleThe first Cape Cod style homes were built by English colonists who came to America in the late 17th century. They modeled their homes after the half-timbered houses of England, but adapted the style to the stormy New England weather. Over the course of a few generations, a modest, one- to one-and-a-half-story house with wooden shutters emerged. Reverend Timothy Dwight, a president of Yale University, is credited with recognizing these houses as a class and coining the term "Cape Cod."Much later, in the late 1800s and early 1900s, a renewed interest in America's past inspired a variety of Colonial Revival styles. Colonial Revival Cape Cod houses became especially popular during the 1930s. These small, economical houses were mass-produced in suburban developments across the United States.Twentieth century Cape Cod houses often have dormers. The chimney is usually placed at one end instead of at the center. The shutters on modern Cape Cod houses are strictly decorative; they can't be closed during a storm.
7Georgian Square, symmetrical shape Paneled front door at center Decorative crown over front doorFlattened columns on each side of doorFive windows across frontPaired chimneysMedium pitched roofMinimal roof overhangMany Georgian Colonial homes also have:Nine or twelve small window panes in each window sashDental molding (square, tooth-like cuts) along the eavesGeorgian Colonial became the rave in New England and the Southern colonies during the 1700's. Stately and symmetrical, these homes imitated the larger, more elaborate Georgian homes which were being built in England. But the genesis of the style goes back much farther. During the reign of King George I in the early 1700's, and King George III later in the century, Britons drew inspiration from the Italian Renaissance and from ancient Greece and Rome.Georgian ideals came to New England via pattern books, and Georgian styling became a favorite of well-to-do colonists. More humble dwellings also took on characteristics of the Georgian style. America's Georgian homes tend to be less ornate than those found in Britain.
9Log Cabin Was introduced by Swedish settlers in the early 1700s Used no nailsContained only one roomWas only 10 feet wideMeasured 12 to 20 feet longHad at least one glass windowIncluded a loft area for sleeping
11French CreoleTimber frame with brick or "bousillage" (mud combined with moss and animal hair)wide hipped roof extends over porchesThin wooden columnsLiving quarters raised above ground levelWide porches, called "galleries"No interior hallwaysPorches used as passageway between roomsFrench doors (doors with many small panes of glassFrench Creole architecture is an American Colonial style that developed in the early 1700s in the Mississippi Valley, especially in Louisiana. French Creole buildings borrow traditions from France, the Caribbean, and many other parts of the world.French Creole homes from the Colonial period were especially designed for the hot, wet climate of that region. Traditional French Creole homes had some or all of these features:
14Federal Low-pitched roof, or flat roof with a balustrade Windows arranged symmetrically around a center doorwaySemicircular fanlight over the front doorNarrow side windows flanking the front doorDecorative crown or roof over front doorTooth-like dentil moldings in the cornicePalladian windowCircular or elliptical windowsShuttersDecorative swags and garlandsOval rooms and archesThese architects are known for their Federalist buildings:Charles Bulfinch Samuel McIntyre Alexander Perris William ThortonThe Federal (or Federalist) style has its roots in England. Two British brothers named Adam adapted the pragmatic Georgian style, adding swags, garlands, urns, and other delicate details. In the American colonies, homes and public buildings also took on graceful airs. Inspired by the work of the Adam brothers and also by the great temples of ancient Greece and Rome, Americans began to build homes with Palladian windows, circular or elliptical windows, recessed wall arches, and oval-shaped rooms. This new Federal style became associated with America's evolving national identity.It's easy to confuse Federalist architecture with the earlier Georgian Colonial style. The difference is in the details: While Georgian homes are square and angular, a Federal style building is more likely to have curved lines and decorative flourishes. Federalist architecture was the favored style in the United States from about 1780 until the 1830s. However, Federalist details are often incorporated into modern American homes. Look past the vinyl siding, and you may see a fanlight or the elegant arch of a Palladian window.
16Greek Revival Pediment gable Symmetrical shape Heavy cornice Wide, plain friezeBold, simple moldingsMany Greek Revival houses also have these features:Entry porch with columnsDecorative pilastersNarrow windows around front doorIn the mid-19th century, many prosperous Americans believed that ancient Greece represented the spirit of democracy. Interest in British styles had waned during the bitter War of Also, many Americans sympathized with Greece's own struggles for independence in the 1820s.Greek Revival architecture began with public buildings in Philadelphia. Many European-trained architects designed in the popular Grecian style, and the fashion spread via carpenter's guides and pattern books. Colonnaded Greek Revival mansions - sometimes called Southern Colonial houses - sprang up throughout the American south. With its classic clapboard exterior and bold, simple lines, Greek Revival architecture became the most predominant housing style in the United States.During the second half of the 19th century, Gothic Revival and Italianate styles captured the American imagination. Grecian ideas faded from popularity. However, front-gable design - a trademark of the Greek Revival style - continued to influence the shape of American houses well into the 20th century. You will notice the classic front-gable design in simple "National Style" farm houses throughout the United States.
20Antebellum Hipped or gabled roof Symmetrical façade Evenly-spaced windowsGreek pillars and columnsElaborate friezes BalconiesCovered porchCentral entrywayGrand staircaseFormal ballroomAntebellum means "before war" in Latin. The term Antebellum refers to elegant plantation homes built in the American South in the 30 years or so preceding the Civil War.Antebellum is not a particular house style. Rather, it is a time and place in history. The features we associate with Antebellum architecture were introduced to the American South by Anglo-Americans who moved into the area after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.Most Antebellum homes are in the Greek Revival, Classical Revival, or Federal style: grand, symmetrical, and boxy, with center entrances in the front and rear, balconies, and columns or pillars.
22Gothic Revival Pointed windows with decorative tracery Grouped chimneysPinnaclesFlat roofs with Battlements, or gable roofs with parapetsLeaded glassQuatrefoil and clover shaped windowsOriel windowsThe earliest and most famous example of masonry Gothic Revival architecture in the United States is Lyndhurst, an all-marble estate in Tarrytown, New York. The architect, Alexander Jackson Davis, published a book that inspired other Americans to build in the Gothic Revival style. In the 1870s, a related style, High Victorian Gothic or Neo-Gothic, grew out of the Gothic Revival movement.Buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style had many of these features:Strong vertical lines and a sense of great heightHeavy, bold detailsLeaves, vines, gargoyles, and other stone carvingsMulti-colored masonry, often forming patterns or bandsSlightly pointed Romanesque archesFaithful re-creation of medieval stylesFew people could afford to build a masonry home in the Gothic Revival or High Gothic revival style. In the United States, the masonry versions of Gothic Revival and High Gothic Revival architecture were used mainly for churches, public buildings, and grand estates. However, the ready availability of lumber lead to a distinctly American version of the Gothic Revival style, constructed with wood.
24Gothic Revival (Wooden) Steeply pitched roofSteep cross gablesWindows with pointed archesVertical board and batten sidingOne-story porchThe earliest Gothic Revival homes were constructed of stone and brick. The Gothic Revival style imitated the great cathedrals and castles of Europe. However, few people could afford to build grand masonry homes in the Gothic Revival style. In the United States, the ready availability of lumber and factory-made architectural trim lead to a distinctly American version of Gothic Revival. Wood-framed Gothic Revival homes became America's dominant style in the mid-1800s.New machines invented during the Victorian era made it easy and affordable to add scrolled ornaments, lacy bargeboards, "gingerbread" trim, and other decorative details. Heavily decorated wood-frame cottages in the Gothic Revival style are often called Carpenter Gothic.
26Italianate Low-pitched or flat roof Balanced, symmetrical rectangular shapeTall appearance, with 2, 3, or 4 storiesWide, overhanging eaves with brackets and cornicesSquare cupolaPorch topped with balustrade balconiesTall, narrow, double-paned windows with hood moldingsSide bay windowHeavily molded double doorsRoman or segmented arches above windows and doorsThe Italianate style began in England with the picturesque movement of the 1840s. For the previous 200 years, English homes tended to be formal and classical in style. With the picturesque, movement, however, builders began to design fanciful recreations of Italian Renaissance villas. When the Italianate style moved to the United States, it was reinterpreted again to create a uniquely American style.By the late 1860s, Italianate was the most popular house style in the United States. Historians say that Italianate became the favored style for two reasons:Italianate homes could be constructed with many different building materials, and the style could be adapted to modest budgets.New technologies of the Victorian era made it possible to quickly and affordably produce cast-iron and press-metal decorations.Italianate remained the most popular house style in the USA until the 1870s. Italianate was also a common style for barns, town halls, and libraries. You will find Italianate buildings in nearly every part of the United States except for the deep South. There are fewer Italianate buildings in the southern states because the style reached its peak during the Civil War, a time when the south was economically devastated.
28Second Empire Mansard roof Dormer windows project like eyebrows from roofRounded cornices at top and base of roofBrackets beneath the eaves, balconies, and bay windowsMany Second Empire homes also have these features:CupolaPatterned slate on roofWrought iron cresting above upper corniceClassical pedimentsPaired columnsTall windows on first storySmall entry porchSecond Empire buildings with tall mansard roofs were modeled after the the opulent architecture of Paris during the reign of Napoleon III. French architects used the term horror vacui - the fear of unadorned surfaces - to describe the highly ornamented Second Empire style. Second Empire buildings were also practical: their height allowed for additional living space on narrow city lots.In the United States, government buildings in the Second Empire style resemble the elaborate French designs. Private homes, however, often have an Italianate flavor. Both Italianate and Second Empire houses tend to be square in shape, and both can have U-shaped window crowns, decorative brackets, and single story porches. But, Italianate houses have much wider eaves... and they do not have the distinctive mansard roof characteristic of the Second Empire style.
30Stick Style Rectangular shape Wood siding Steep, gabled roof Overhanging eavesOrnamental trusses (gable braces)Decorative braces and bracketsDecorative half-timberingThe most important features of Stick Style houses are on the exterior wall surfaces. Instead of three-dimensional ornamentation, the emphasis is on patterns and lines. Because the decorative details are flat, they are often lost when homeowners remodel. If the decorative stickwork is covered up with vinyl siding or painted a single solid color, a Stick Style Victorian may appear plain and rather ordinary.The Palliser Company, which published many plan books during the Victorian era, called stick architecture plain yet neat, modern, and comfortable. However, Stick was a short-lived fashion. The angular and austere style couldn't compete with the fancy Queen Annes that took America by storm. Some Stick architecture did dress up in fancy Eastlake spindles and Queen Anne flourishes. But very few authentic Stick Style homes remain intact.
32VictorianThis colorful Victorian home is a Queen Anne, but the lacy, ornamental details are called Eastlake. The ornamental style is named after the famous English designer, Charles Eastlake, who was famous for making furniture decorated with fancy spindles. Eastlake details can be found on a variety of Victorian house styles. Some of the more fanciful Stick Style Victorians have Eastlake buttons and knobs combined with the angular stickwork.
34Folk Victorian Square, symmetrical shape Brackets under the eaves Porches with spindlework or flat, jigsaw cut trimCarpenter gothic detailsLow-pitched, pyramid shaped roofFront gable and side wingsIndustrialization and the growth of railroads meant that decorative architectural trim could be mass produced and sent to remote corners of the continent. Also, smaller towns could now obtain sophisticated woodworking machinery. A crate of scrolled brackets might find its way to Kansas or Wyoming, where carpenters could mix and match the pieces according to personal whim... Or, according to what happened to be in the latest shipment
36Shingle Style Continuous wood shingles on siding and roof Irregular roof lineCross gablesEaves on several levelsPorchesAsymmetrical floor planSome Shingle Style homes also have these features:Wavy wall surfacePatterned shinglesSquat half-towersPalladian windowsRough hewn stone on lower storiesStone arches over windows and porchesShingle Style houses can take on many forms. Some have tall turrets, suggestive of Queen Anne architecture. Some have gambrel roofs, Palladian windows, and other Colonial Revival details. Some Shingle houses have features borrowed from Tudor, Gothic and Stick styles. But, unlike those styles, Shingle architecture is relaxed and informal. Shingle houses do not have the lavish decorations that were popular during the Victorian era. The architectural historian Vincent Scully coined the term "Shingle Style" because these homes are usually sided in rustic cedar shingles. However, not all Shingle Style houses are shingle-sided. You will recognize them by their complicated shapes and rambling, informal floor plans.
38Richardson Romanesque Constructed of rough-faced, square stonesRound towers with cone-shaped roofsColumns and pilasters with spirals and leaf designsLow, broad "Roman" arches over arcades and doorwaysPatterned masonry arches over windowsAbout the Romanesque style:During the 1870s, Boston architect Henry Hobson Richardson captured the American imagination with rugged, forceful buildings like Allegheny Courthouse in Pittsburgh and Trinity Church in Boston. These buildings were called "Romanesque" because they had wide, rounded arches like buildings in ancient Rome. Henry Hobson Richardson became so famous for his Romanesque designs that the style is often called Richardsonian Romanesque. The heavy Romanesque style was especially suited for grand public buildings. However, Romanesque buildings, with massive stone walls, were expensive to construct. Only the wealthy adopted the Richardsonian Romanesque style for private homes.
40Queen Ann Steep roof Complicated, asymmetrical shape Front-facing gableOne-story porch that extends across one or two sides of the houseRound or square towersWall surfaces textured with decorative shingles, patterned masonry, or half-timberingOrnamental spindles and bracketsBay windowsQueen Anne became an architectural fashion in the 1880s and 1890s, when the industrial revolution brought new technologies. Builders began to use mass-produced pre-cut architectural trim to create fanciful and sometimes flamboyant houses. Not all Queen Anne houses are lavishly decorated, however. Some builders showed restraint in their use of embellishments. Still, the flashy "painted ladies" of San Francisco and the refined brownstones of Brooklyn share many of the same features.
42Beaux Arts (French for "fine art") Massive and grandioseConstructed with stoneBalustradesBalconiesColumnsCornicesPilastersTriangular pedimentsLavish decorations: swags, medallions, flowers, and shieldsGrand stairwayLarge archesSymmetrical façadeThe Beaux Arts (French for "fine art") style originated in the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. Many American architects studied at this legendary architectural school, where they learned about the aesthetic principles of classical design and brought them to the United States.Also known as Beaux Arts Classicism, Academic Classicism, or Classical Revival, Beaux Arts is a late and eclectic form of Neoclassicism. It combines classical architecture from ancient Greece and Rome with Renaissance ideas. Beaux Arts is characterized by order, symmetry, formal design, grandiosity, and elaborate ornamentation. In the United States, the Beaux Arts style led to planned neighborhoods with large, showy houses, wide boulevards, and vast parks. Due to the size and grandiosity of the buildings, the Beaux Arts style is most commonly used for public buildings like museums, railway stations, libraries, banks, courthouses, and government buildings.The popularity of the Beaux Arts style waned in the 1920's, and within 25 years the buildings were considered ostentatious. Later in the 20th century, postmodernists rediscovered an appreciation of the Beaux Arts ideals.
44Colonial Revival Symmetrical façade Rectangular 2 to 3 stories Brick or wood sidingSimple, classical detailingGable roofPillars and columnsMulti-pane, double-hung windows with shuttersDormersTemple-like entrance: porticos topped by pedimentPaneled doors with sidelights and topped with rectangular transoms or fanlightsCenter entry-hall floor planLiving areas on the first floor and bedrooms on the upper floorsFireplacesColonial Revival became a popular American house style after it appeared at the 1876 the US Centennial Exposition. Reflecting American patriotism and a desire for simplicity, the Colonial Revival house style remained popular until the mid-1950's. Between World War I and II, Colonial Revival was the most popular historic revival house style in the United States.Some architectural historians say that Colonial Revival is a Victorian style; others believe that the Colonial Revival style marked the end of the Victorian period in architecture. The Colonial Revival style is based loosely on Federal and Georgian house styles, and a clear reaction against excessively elaborate Victorian Queen Anne architecture. Eventually, the simple, symmetrical Colonial Revival style became incorporated into the Foursquare and Bungalow house styles of the early 20th century.
46Tudor Decorative half-timbering Steeply pitched roof Prominent cross gablesTall, narrow windowsSmall window panesMassive chimneys, often topped with decorative chimney potsAbout the Tudor Style The name Tudor suggests that these houses imitate English architecture from the early 16th century. However, most Tudor style homes were inspired by building techniques from an earlier time. Some Tudor houses mimic humble Medieval cottages - They may even include a false thatched roof. Other Tudor homes borrow ideas from late Medieval palaces. They may have overlapping gables, parapets and beautifully patterned brick or stonework. These historic details combine with Victorian or Craftsman flourishes.As in many Queen Anne and Stick style homes, Tudor style houses often feature striking decorative timbers. These timbers hint at - but do not duplicate - Medieval building techniques. In Medieval houses, the timber framing was integral with the structure. Modern Tudor houses, however, merely suggest the structural framework with false half-timbering. This decorative woodwork comes in many different designs, with stucco or patterned brick between the timbers.Handsome examples of Tudor style architecture may be found throughout Great Britain, northern Europe and the United States. The main square in Chester, England is surrounded by lavish Victorian Tudors that stand unapologetically alongside authentic medieval buildings.In the United States, Tudor styling takes on a variety of forms ranging from elaborate mansions to modest suburban homes with mock masonry veneers. The style became enormously popular in the 1920s and 1930s, and modified versions became fashionable in the 1970s and 1980s.One popular housing type inspired by inspired by Tudor ideas is the Cotswold Cottage. These quaint homes have an imitation thatched roof, massive chimneys, an uneven sloping roof, small window panes, and low doors.
48Cotswold Cottage Sloping, uneven roof, sometimes made of pseudo-thatch Brick, stone, or stucco sidingVery steep cross gablesProminent brick or stone chimney, often at the front near the doorCasement windows with small panesSmall dormer windowsAsymmetrical designLow doors and arched doorsSmall, irregularly-shaped roomsSloping walls in rooms on upper floorAbout the Cotswold Cottage house styleThe small, fanciful Cotswold Cottage is a popular subtype of the Tudor Revival house style. This quaint English country style is based on the cottages built since medieval times in the Cotswold region of southwestern England. A fascination for medieval styles inspired American architects create modern versions of the rustic homes. The Cotswold Cottage style became especially popular in the United States during the 1920s and 1930s. The picturesque Cotswold Cottage is usually asymmetrical with a steep, complex roof line. The floor plan tends to include small, irregularly-shaped rooms, and the upper rooms have sloping walls with dormers. The home may have a sloping slate or cedar roof that mimics the look of thatch. A massive chimney often dominates either the front or one side of the house.
50Renaissance revival Cube-shaped Balanced, symmetrical façade Smooth stone walls, made from finely-cut ashlar, or smooth stucco finishLow-pitched hi or Mansard roofRoof topped with balustradeWide eaves with large bracketsHorizontal stone banding between floorsSegmental pedimentsOrnately-carved stone window trim varying in design at each storySmaller square windows on top floorQuoins (large stone blocks at the corners)"Second" Renaissance Revival Houses are larger and usually have:Arched, recessed openingsFull entablatures between floorsColumnsGround floor made of rusticated stone with beveled edges and deeply-recessed jointsAbout the Renaissance Revival StyleRenaissance (French for "rebirth") refers to the artistic, architectural, and literary movement in Europe between the 14th and 16th centuries. The Renaissance Revival style is based on the architecture of 16th-century Renaissance Italy and France, with additional elements borrowed from Ancient Greek and Roman architecture. Renaissance Revival is a general term which encompasses the various Italian Renaissance Revival and French Renaissance Revival styles, including Second Empire.The Renaissance Revival style was popular during two separate phases. The first phase, or the First Renaissance Revival, was from about 1840 to 1885, and the Second Renaissance Revival, which was characterized by larger and more elaborately decorated buildings, was from 1890 to Due to the expensive materials required and the elaborate style, Renaissance Revival was best suited for public and commercial buildings, and very grand homes for the wealthy.
52American FoursquareAmerican Foursquare houses usually have these features:Simple box shapeTwo-and-a-half stories highFour-room floor planLow-hipped roof with deep overhangLarge central dormerFull-width porch with wide stairsBrick, stone, stucco, concrete block, or wood sidingAbout the Foursquare House Style:The American Foursquare, or the Prairie Box, was a post-Victorian style that shared many features with the Prairie architecture pioneered by Frank Lloyd Wright. The boxy foursquare shape provided roomy interiors for homes on small city lots. The simple, square shape also made the Foursquare style especially practical for mail order house kits from Sears and other catalog companies.Creative builders often dressed up the basic foursquare form. Although foursquare houses are always the same square shape, they can have features borrowed from any of these styles:
54Prairie Style Low-pitched roof Overhanging eaves Horizontal lines Central chimneyOpen floor planClerestory windowsAbout the Prairie Style:Frank Lloyd Wright believed that rooms in Victorian era homes were boxed-in and confining. He began to design houses with low horizontal lines and open interior spaces. Rooms were often divided by leaded glass panels. Furniture was either built-in or specially designed. These homes were called prairie style after Wright's 1901 Ladies Home Journal plan titled, "A Home in a Prairie Town." Prairie houses were designed to blend in with the flat, prairie landscape. The first Prairie houses were usually plaster with wood trim or sided with horizontal board and batten. Later Prairie homes used concrete block. Prairie homes can have many shapes: Square, L-shaped, T-shaped, Y-shaped, and even pinwheel-shaped.Many other architects designed Prairie homes and the style was popularized by pattern books. The popular American Foursquare style, sometimes called the Prairie Box, shared many features with the Prairie style.In 1936, during the USA depression, Frank Lloyd Wright developed a simplified version of Prairie architecture called Usonian. Wright believed these stripped-down houses represented the democratic ideals of the United States.
56Arts And CraftsArts and Crafts, or Craftsman, houses have many of these features:Wood, stone, or stucco sidingLow-pitched roofWide eaves with triangular bracketsExposed roof raftersPorch with thick square or round columnsStone porch supportsExterior chimney made with stoneOpen floor plans; few hallwaysNumerous windowsSome windows with stained or leaded glassBeamed ceilingsDark wood wainscoting and moldingsBuilt-in cabinets, shelves, and seatingArts and Crafts History:During the 1880s, John Ruskin, William Morris, and other English designers and thinkers launched the Arts and Crafts Movement, which celebrated handicrafts and encouraged the use of simple forms and natural materials. In the United States, two California brothers, Charles Sumner Greene and Henry Mather Green, began to design houses that combined Arts and Crafts ideas with a fascination for the simple wooden architecture of China and Japan. The name "Craftsman" comes from the title of a popular magazine published by the famous furniture designer, Gustav Stickley, between 1901 and A true Craftsman house is one that is built according to plans published in Stickley's magazine. But other magazines, pattern books, and mail order house catalogs began to publish plans for houses with Craftsman-like details. Soon the word "Craftsman" came to mean any house that expressed Arts and Crafts ideals, most especially the simple, economical, and extremely popular Bungalow.
58Bungalow One and a half stories Most of the living spaces on the ground floorLow-pitched roof and horizontal shapeLiving room at the centerConnecting rooms without hallwaysEfficient floor planBuilt-in cabinets, shelves, and seatsBungalow houses may relect many different architectural styles. In their book American Bungalow Style, authors Robert Winter and Alexander Vertikoff identify dozens of variations on the Bungalow form:Craftsman Bungalow California BungalowSpanish Colonial Bungalow Chicago Bungalow Queen Anne Bungalow Prairie Bungalow Mission Bungalow Foursquare Bungalow Pueblo Bungalow Colonial Bungalow Cape Cod Bungalow Tudor Bungalow Log Cabin Bungalow Art Moderne BungalowThe Bungalow is an all American housing type, but it has its roots in India. In the province of Bengal, single-family homes were called bangla or bangala. British colonists adapted these one-story thatch-roofed huts to use as summer homes. The space-efficient floor plan of bungalow houses may have also been inspired by army tents and rural English cottages. The idea was to cluster the kitchen, dining area, bedrooms, and bathroom around a central living area. The first American house to be called a bungalow was designed in 1879 by William Gibbons Preston. Built at Monument Beach on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, the two-story house had the informal air of resort architecture. However, this house was much larger and more elaborate than the homes we think of when we use the term Bungalow.Two California architects, Charles Sumner Greene and Henry Mather Greene, are often credited with inspiring America to build Bungalows. Their most famous project was the huge Craftsman style Gamble house (1909) in Pasadena, California. However, the Green brothers also published more modest Bungalow plans in many magazines and pattern books.
60Spanish ColonialSpanish or Mediterranean house styles were built in the early part of the 20th century when Revival styles were popular. A new building material, stucco, was particularly well suited for Spanish architecture and the closely related Mission and Pueblo styles of the Southwest and West.1-2 stories Spanish clay tile roofs with low pitch plain white stucco walls often with arched openings with wooden beams
62Art Modern Asymmetrical Horizontal orientation Flat roof No cornices or eavesCube-like shapeSmooth, white wallsSleek, streamlined appearanceRounded corners highlighted by wraparound windowsGlass block windowsAluminum and stainless steel window and door trimMirrored panelsSteel balustradesSuggestion of speed and movement: Horizontal rows of windows or stripesLittle or no ornamentationOpen floor plansIt's easy to confuse Art Moderne with Art Deco, but they are two distinctly different styles. While both have stripped-down forms and geometric designs, the Art Moderne style will appear sleek and plain, while the slightly earlier Art Deco style can be quite showy. Art Moderne buildings are usually white, while Art Deco buildings may be brightly colored. The Art Deco style is most often used for public buildings like theaters, while the Art Moderne style is most often found in private homes. Origins of Art ModerneThe sleek, rounded Art Moderne style originated in the Bauhaus movement, which began in Germany. Bauhaus architects wanted to use the principles of classical architecture in their purest form, designing simple, useful structures without ornamentation or excess. Building shapes were based on curves, triangles, and cones. Bauhaus ideas spread worldwide and led to the Moderne or International Style in the United States. Art Moderne art, architecture, and fashion became popular just as Art Deco was losing appeal. Many products produced during the 1930s, from architecture to jewelry to kitchen appliances, expressed the new Art Moderne ideals. Art Moderne truly reflected the spirit of the early twentieth century. Expressing excitement over technological advancements, high speed transportation, and innovative new construction techniques, Art Modern design was highlighted at the 1933 World Fair Chicago. For homeowners, Art Moderne also proved to be a pragmatic style because these simple dwellings were so easy and economical to build.
64Spanish Mission Smooth stucco siding Roof parapets Large square pillarsTwisted columnsArcaded entry porchRound or quatrefoil windowRed tile roofCelebrating the architecture of Hispanic settlers, Spanish Mission (or, California Mission) style houses usually have arched dormers and roof parapets. Some resemble old Spanish mission churches with bell towers and elaborate arches. The earliest Mission style homes were built in California, USA. The style spread eastward, but most Spanish Mission homes are located in the southwestern states. Deeply shaded porches and dark interiors make these homes particularly suited for warmer climates.By the 1920s, architects were combining Mission styling with features from other movements. Mission houses often have details from these popular styles:
66ChaletA wooden dwelling with a sloping roof and widely overhanging eaves, common in Switzerland and other Alpine regions". The term can nowadays be used for any cottage or lodge built in this style.The term chalet stems from Franco-Provençal speaking part of Switzerland and originally referred to the hut of a herder. It derives from the medieval Latin calittum, which might come from an Indoeuropean root cala that means shelter. In Quebec French, any summer or vacation dwelling, especially near a ski hill, is called a chalet whether or not it is built in the style of a Swiss chalet.Many chalets in the European Alps were originally used as seasonal farms for dairy cattle which would be brought up from the lowland pastures during the summer months. The herders would live in the chalet and make butter and cheesein order to preserve the milk produced. These products would then be taken, with the cattle, back to the low valleys before the onset of the alpine winter. The chalets would remain locked and unused during the winter months. Around many chalets you will see small windowless huts called which were used to lock away valuable items for this period.
68ChâteauesqueBased on French château style used in the 1400s to the 1600s in the Loire Valley. It was popularized in the United States by Richard Morris Hunt during the 1880s. The style frequently features vernacular buildings incongruously ornamented by the elaborate towers, spires, and mansard roofs of the 16th century châteaux of the Loire Valley, themselves influenced by late Gothic and Italian Renaissance architecture. Despite their French ornamentation, buildings in the châteauesque style do not attempt to completely emulate a French château. This is exemplified by Massandra (illustrated right) which, although having renaissance features, is painted ochre and has contrasting quoining, both of which are features of the Crimean aristocratic villa rather than the Loire valley.As a revival style, Châteauesque buildings are typically built on an asymmetrical plan with an exceedingly broken roof-line and a facade composed of advancing and receding planes. The style was mostly employed in the United States for residences of the extremely wealthy, though was occasionally used for public buildings. The style began to fade after the 1900s. The term is seldom used outside of the USA.
70New England ColonialThe New England Colonial style simplified the picturesque Queen Anne and so appeared after the Queen Anne fell out of fashion. The New England Colonial was one of many revival styles which became popular by the early 20th century. Another name for this style is the four-over-four because of its basic rectangular floor plan of four rooms on the lower and upper levels. Since this house has remained popular over the decades, its date of construction can only be determined by minor details in the building materials, such as 1920s-1930s reddish brick on the foundations, driveways with two cement lanes separated by grass, and the width and height of garages.storiesGable roof Symmetrical placement of windows and doors Classical details: columns, cornices, shuttered windows Simple, rectangular shape
74Neo-Dutch ColonialThe roof shape identifies this house style! These houses have symmetrical windows and floor plans. Neo-Dutch Colonials are more distinctive in appearance than Cubic (1900s-1920s) and Cape Cod (1940s-1950s) styles
76Upright WingThe Upright refers to the vertical part of the house and the Wing to the usually lower side section. This very simple 19th century house style is found in the countryside and cities. It represents "non-stylistic" or vernacular architecture, which is constructed by building trades rather than by owners themselves, as in tribal societies. It lacks aesthetic pretensions and individual variations are minor. Upright-and-Wing houses come in several variations: 1, 1.5, or 2 stories. In Eau Claire these houses are typically found in working class neighborhoods, such as along Main and Birch streets. On the other hand, stylistic Victorian houses are found in the affluent areas of the Third Ward and Randall Park.
78Two-PenThe Two-Pen is a one-story, two-unit (or -room), end-gable structure. This very plain house style usually lacks front porches, which are otherwise very very common in 19th century houses. These houses usually have had several additions added over the decades; hence, they have sometimes very irregular shapes. The original floor plan might be two-rooms wide, only one-room deep, and one-story high. Versions with 1.5-stories also exist. In Eau Claire many of these houses are used as student rentals -- look for the old sofas, bikes, and pizza boxes on the porches! This style is one of five subtypes of Folk Victorian, which you should examine as well.
80French NormandyThis house style originated in Normandy of France where houses and barns were attached. The central turret was used for the storage of grain or silage. But in the U.S., the French Normandy was an expensive Revival Style, characterized by cutstone, elaborate roof lines, and in this case, a two-car built-in garage2 or more stories Exterior wall of reddish bricks, cutstone, and/or stucco Central turret with entrance and staircase Massive chimneys Steep, complicated roofs Sometimes, even with half-timber decorations
82French EclecticFrench Eclectic homes combine a variety of French influences. The cottage pictured above is a charming example of a home inspired by the symmetrical Provincial style. It was built in 1938 and is sided in Austin Stone.
84Ranch Single story Low pitched gable roof Deep-set eaves Horizontal, rambling layout: Long, narrow, and low to the groundRectangular, L-shaped, or U-shaped designLarge windows: double-hung, sliding, and pictureSliding glass doors leading out to patioAttached garageSimple floor plansEmphasis on openness (few interior walls) and efficient use of spaceBuilt from natural materials: Oak floors, wood or brick exteriorLack decorative detailing, aside from decorative shuttersAlthough Ranch Style homes are traditionally one-story, Raised Ranch and Split Level Ranch homes have several levels of living space. Contemporary Ranch Style homes are often accented with details borrowed from Mediterranean or Colonial styles. Origins of the Ranch Style:The earth-hugging Prairie Style houses pioneered by Frank Lloyd Wright and the informal Bungalow styles of the early 20th century paved the way for the popular Ranch Style. Architect Cliff May is credited with building the first Ranch Style house in San Diego, California in The California real estate developer Joseph Eichler popularized his own version of the Ranch Style, and Eichler Ranches were imitated across the USA. After World War II, simple, economical Ranch houses were mass-produced to meet the housing needs of returning soldiers and their families. Because so many Ranch Style homes were quickly built according to a cookie-cutter formula, the Ranch Style is often dismissed as ordinary or slipshod. Nevertheless, many homes built today have characteristics of the elegantly informal Ranch houses that Cliff May originated.
87Split Level StyleThe Split Level style is a variation on California Ranch style houses. Instead of a one-story Ranch, these houses have a one-story section attached to a two-story section. The double car garage is frequently built under the upper story bedrooms. In another version the foundation and basement windows are raised above the ground to create a 1.5 story look.
89A-frame Triangular shape Steeply sloping roof that extends to the ground on two sidesFront and rear gablesDeep-set eaves1½ or 2½ storiesMany large windows on front and rear façadesSmall living spaceFew vertical wall surfacesAbout the A-frame StyleTriangular and tee-pee shaped homes date back to the dawn of time, but architect Andrew Geller turned an old idea into a revolutionary concept in 1957 when he built an "A-frame" house in Long Island, New York. Named for the distinctive shape of its roofline, Geller's design won international attention when it was featured in the New York Times. Soon, thousands of A-frame homes were built around the world. The steep slope of the A-frame roof is designed to help heavy snow to slide to the ground, instead of remaining on top of the house and weighing it down. At the same time, the sloped roof provides two other benefits. It creates a half floor at the top of the house which can be used for lofts or storage space, and, since the roof extends down to the ground and doesn't need to painted, it minimizes the amount of exterior maintenance required on the house. On the other hand, the sloped roof creates a triangular "dead space" at the base of the walls on each floor. A-frame houses have limited living space and are usually built as vacation cottages for the mountains or beach.
91Contemporary Odd, irregular shape Lack of ornamentation Tall, over-sized windows, some with trapezoid shapesOpen floor planNatural materials such as cedar or stoneHarmony with the surrounding landscapeSome contemporary homes have flat roofs. Other contemporary homes have gabled roofs with cathedral ceilings and exposed beams.
93Minimal TraditionalThis style appeared after the Cape Cod and is typical of the horizontal look of the post-World War II suburbs. The floor plans are squarish, not rectangular as in the later California Ranch style.
95 InternationalThis style is based on "modern" structural principles and materials: concrete, glass, and steel. Bands of glass, which create horizontal feelings, are important design features. Buildings are cantilevered over basement footings. Artificial symmetry and decorations are avoided: balance and regularity is stressed. All International style houses are just one story but it is possible to apply the style to a two story building, especially if if is hidden from view
97PostmodernSense of "anything goes": Forms filled with humor, irony, ambiguity, contradictionJuxtaposition of styles: Blend of traditional, contemporary, and newly-invented formsExaggerated or abstract traditional detailingMaterials or decorations drawn from far away sourcesAbout the Postmodern StylePostmodern (or post-modern) architecture evolved from Modernism, yet it rebells against that style. Modernism is viewed as excessively minimalist, anonymous, monotonous, and boring. Postmodernism has a sense of humor. The style often combines two or more very different elements. A Postmodern house may combine traditional with invented forms or use familiar shapes in surprising, unexpected ways. In other words, postmodern houses often don't have anything in common with one another, other than their lack of commonality. Postmodern houses may be bizarre, humorous, or shocking, but they are always unique. Sometimes the term Postmodern is loosely used to describe Neoeclectic homes that combine a variety of historic styles. However, unless there is a sense of surprise, irony, or originality, a neoeclectic home is not truly postmodern. Postmodern houses are also sometimes called "Contemporaries," but a true Contemporary Style house does not incorporate traditional or historical architectural details.
99NeoeclecticA Neoeclectic home can be difficult to describe because it combines many styles. The shape of the roof, the design of the windows, and decorative details may be inspired by several different periods and cultures.Constructed in the 1960s or laterHistoric styles imitated using modern materials like vinyl or imitation stoneDetails from several historic styles combinedDetails from several cultures combinedBrick, stone, vinyl, and composite materials combinedAbout Neoeclectic HousesDuring the late 1960s, a rebellion against modernism and a longing for more traditional styles influenced the design of modest tract housing in North America. Builders began to borrow freely from a variety of historic traditions, offering Neoeclectic (or, Neo-eclectic) houses that were "customized" using a mixture of features selected from construction catalogs. These homes are sometimes called Postmodern because they borrow from a variety of styles without consideration for continuity or context. However, Neoeclectic homes are not usually experimental and do not reflect the artistic vision you would find in a truly original, architect-designed postmodern home.
101Neo-MediterraneanNeo-Mediterranean is a Neoeclectic house style that incorporates a fanciful mix of details suggested by the architecture of Spain, Italy, and Greece, Morocco, and the Spanish Colonies. Realtors often call Neo-Mediterranean houses Mediterranean or Spanish.Low-pitched roofRed roof tilesStucco sidingArches above doors, windows, or porchesHeavy carved wooden doorsA Neo-Mediterranean home may resemble the much earlier Spanish Revival style. However, Neo-Mediterranean homes are not careful recreations of Spanish Colonial architecture. If you remove the romantic decorative details, a Neo-Mediterranean home is more likely to resemble a no-nonsense, all-American Ranch or Raised Ranch.
103NeoclassicalThe word Neoclassical is often used to describe an architectural style, but Neoclassicism is not actually any one distinct style. Neoclassicism is a trend, or approach to design, that can describe several very different styles.
105Katrina Cottages Usually (not always) one story Front porch Turn-of-the century details such as turned columns and bracketsRot- and termite-resistant siding such as Cementations HardboardSteel studsSteel roofMoisture and mold resistant drywallEnergy-efficient appliancesIn 2005, many homes and communities along America's Gulf Coast were destroyed by Hurricane Katrina and the floods that followed. Architects responded to the crisis by designing low-cost emergency shelters. The Katrina Cottage was a highly popular solution because its simple, traditional design suggested the architecture of a cozy turn-of-the-century house. The original Katrina Cottage was developed by Marianne Cusato and other leading architects, including renowned architect and town planner Andres Duany. Cusato's 308-square foot prototype was later adapted to create a series of about two dozen different versions of the Katrina Cottage designed by a variety of architects and firms.Katrina Cottages are typically small, ranging from less than 500 square feet up to about 1,000 square feet. A limited number of Katrina Cottage designs are 1,300 square feet and larger. While size and floor plans can vary, Katrina Cottages share many features. These quaint cottages are prefab houses constructed from factory-made panels. For this reason, Katrina Cottages can be built quickly (often within a few days) and economically. Katrina Cottages are also especially durable. These homes meet the International Building Code and most hurricane codes.
111SHOTGUNThe shotgun house is a narrow rectangular domestic residence, usually no more than 12 feet (3.5 m) wide, with doors at each end. It was the most popular style of house in the Southern United States from the end of the Civil War (1861–65), through to the 1920s. Alternate names include shotgun shack, shotgun hut, shotgun cottage, and railroad apartments. The style was developed in New Orleans, but the houses can be found as far away as Chicago, Illinois; Key West, Florida; and California. Shotgun houses can still be found in many small southern towns. Though initially as popular with the middle class as with the poor, the shotgun house became a symbol of poverty in the mid-20th century. Opinion is now mixed: some houses are bulldozed due to urban renewal, while others are beneficiaries of historic preservation and gentrification.Shotgun houses consist of three to five rooms in a row with no hallways. The term "shotgun house," which was in use by 1903 but became more common after about 1940, is often said to come from the saying that one could fire a shotgun through the front door and the pellets would fly cleanly through the house and out the back door (since all the doors are on the same side of the house). Another reputed source of the name is that many were built out of crates, i.e. old shotgun-shell crates, and those made for other purposes. However, the name's origin may actually reflect an African architectural heritage, perhaps being a corruption of a term such as to-gun, which means "place of assembly" in the Southern Dohomey Fon area.Several variations of shotgun houses allow for additional features and space, and many have been updated to the needs of future generations of owners. The oldest shotgun houses were built without indoor plumbing, and this was often added later (sometimes crudely). "Double-barrel" shotgun houses consist of two houses sharing a central wall, allowing more houses to be fitted into an area. "Camelback" shotgun houses include a second floor at the rear of the house. In some cases, the entire floor plan is changed during remodeling to create hallways.
114BI-LEVELThis style of house is also referred to as a split ranch. The bi-level house is a modified version of the ranch house, with the major difference being that the lower level is more out of the ground than in the ground. Seldom is there a basement.