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Maureen Mack, Ph.D. Curriculum & Instruction University of Wisconsin – Eau Claire & the Cider House Rules Attachment Theory.

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Presentation on theme: "Maureen Mack, Ph.D. Curriculum & Instruction University of Wisconsin – Eau Claire & the Cider House Rules Attachment Theory."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Maureen Mack, Ph.D. Curriculum & Instruction University of Wisconsin – Eau Claire & the Cider House Rules Attachment Theory

3 Overview Definitions of Secure/Insecure Attachment Types of Disordered Attachment Effects of Attachment Quality & Trauma on the Developing Brain Treatment and Strategies

4 Definition of Secure Attachment Secure attachment is an enduring affective bond characterized by a tendency to seek and maintain proximity to a specific person, particularly when under stress. – Ainsworth and Bowlby

5 Characteristics of Secure Attachment Deep, long lasting, emotional attachment Influences mind, body, emotions, relationships, and values (Levy) Positive affect on self-esteem, independence, enduring relationships, empathy, compassion, and resiliency

6 Critical Aspect of Attachment Emotional Sensitivity appropriate parental emotional expression and reception. EA qualities can be observed in parents of children of any age.

7 Secure Attachment Instinctual urge to attach rooted in evolution Secure Attachment = Parents + Child

8 Definition of Attachment Disorder Attachment disorder is the inability to form loving, lasting intimate relationships

9 Characteristics of Attachment Disorder Lack of reciprocal behavior Rights violations Frequent aggressive and destructive acts Lack of remorse

10 Examples of Secure-Insecure Attachment Homer View Movie ClipView Movie Clip from website (9,507 kb.wmv)

11 Examples of Secure-Insecure Attachment Bedtime at the Orphanage View Movie ClipView Movie Clip from website (4,131 kb.wmv)

12 Small Group Exercise 1

13 Overview Definitions of Secure/Insecure Attachment Types of Disordered Attachment Effects of Attachment Quality & Trauma on the Developing Brain Treatment and Strategies

14 Types of Insecure Attachment Ambivalent Avoidant Disorganized

15 Ambivalent Cling, withdraw in unfamiliar environment Separation anxiety Rejects efforts to comfort, sooth

16 Avoidant Pseudo independence and self-sufficiency Rejects or avoids comforting Unaffected by close, intimate contacts

17 Most serious form No consistent strategy for comfort-seeking Depression, motor-freezing, and disassociation Disorganized

18 Insecure Attachment Continuum Severe Mild

19 Common Causes of Disorder Attachment Abuse Neglect Addiction Multiple out of home placements Parental death/loss Severe Mild

20 Hard Being An Orphan View Movie ClipView Movie Clip from website (5,530 kb.wmv)

21 Characteristics BehavioralEmotional

22 Characteristics ThoughtRelational

23 Characteristics PhysicalMoral/Spiritual

24 Small Group Exercise 2

25 Overview Definitions of Secure/Insecure Attachment Types of Disordered Attachment Effects of Attachment Quality & Trauma on the Developing Brain Treatment and Strategies

26 Brain Development AlteredNormal

27 Brain Development Altered Normal Fetalfirst 2 yearsmost rapid growth; quality of caretaking impacts brain Alarm Reactions Alter chemical wiring Traumatized infants/children Neurobehavioral problems

28 Attachment Disorder and ADHD Bonding Breaks Attachment Deficits Symptoms of ADHD

29 Small Group Exercise 3

30 Homer Returns View Movie ClipView Movie Clip from website (19,304 kb.wmv)

31 Overview Definitions of Secure/Insecure Attachment Types of Disordered Attachment Effects of Attachment Quality & Trauma on the Developing Brain Treatment and Strategies

32 Treatment Create attachment patterns Systemic approach to ward against triangulation Holistic-integrative approaches Revisit, revise, revitalize Relationship healing

33 Strategies for Developing Secure Attachments Reciprocal behaviors between child and adult Respectful eye contact, body language Respectful verbal language Calming, soothing, nurturing responses Claiming behaviors Physical proximity and touching Careful, deliberate listening Accepting limits - boundaries

34 Strategies for Developing Secure Attachments Climate and Relational Ease and spontaneity in words and movements Comfort in compliments, affection, appreciation Harmony in words and actions Preserve harmony and dignity under stress

35 Strategies for Developing Secure Attachments Classroom Environment/Structure Rationality Realism Intuitiveness Creativity Admit and correct mistakes Benevolence and cooperativeness

36 Strategies for Developing Secure Attachments Specific Instruction and Intervention Approaches Family Bereavement Program Character trait assessment through literature Integration of Search Institute External/Internal Asset Checklist into curriculum, lessons activities Role model unit Share personal feelings and stories Create and maintain safe, non-judgmental instructional environment Teacher Assistance Programs

37 Small Group Exercise 4

38 References Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Wittig, B. A. (1969). Attachment and the exploratory behavior of one year olds in a strange situation. In B. M. Foss (Ed.), Determinants of infant behavior (Vol. 4, pp ). London: Metheun. Gallup, G. H., Moore, D. W., & Schussel, R. (1995). Disciplining children in America: A Gallup Poll Report. Princeton, NJ: The Gallup Organization. Irving, John. (1999). The Cider House Rules. Modern Library: ISBN: Lach, J. (1997). Facilitating developmental attachment: The road to emotional recover and behavioral change in foster and adopted children. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson. Levy, Terry, M. (editor). (2000). Handbook of Attachment Interventions. San Diego: California. Lyons-Ruth, K., Alpern, L., & Repacholi, B. (1993). Disorganized infant attachment classification and maternal psychosocial problems as predictors of hostile-aggressive behavior in the preschool classroom. Child Development, 64, Main, M., & Solomon, J. (1990). Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. In M. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research, and intervention (pp ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Perry, B. D., Pollard, R., Blakely, T., Baker, W., & Vigilante, D. (1995). Childhood trauma, the neurobiology of adaptation and use-dependent development of the brain: How states become traits. Infant Mental Health Journal, 16(4), Terr, L. A. (1991). Chihood traumas: An outline and overview. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, The Cider House Rules. (1999). Miramax Films.

39 Questions

40 Thanks for Coming! Maureen Mack, Ph.D. University of Wisconsin – Eau Claire


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