2 & the Cider House Rules Attachment Theory Maureen Mack, Ph.D. Curriculum & InstructionUniversity of Wisconsin – Eau Claire
3 Overview Definitions of Secure/Insecure Attachment Types of Disordered AttachmentEffects of Attachment Quality & Trauma on the Developing BrainTreatment and Strategies
4 Definition of Secure Attachment Secure attachment is an enduring affective bond characterized by a tendency to seek and maintain proximity to a specific person, particularly when under stress.– Ainsworth and Bowlby
5 Characteristics of Secure Attachment Deep, long lasting, emotional attachmentInfluences mind, body, emotions, relationships, and values (Levy)Positive affect on self-esteem, independence, enduring relationships, empathy, compassion, and resiliency
6 Critical Aspect of Attachment Emotional Sensitivity—appropriate parental emotional expression and reception. EA qualities can be observed in parents of children of any age.
7 Secure Attachment = Secure Attachment Parents + Child Instinctual urge to attach rooted in evolution
8 Definition of Attachment Disorder Attachment disorder is the inability to form loving, lasting intimate relationships
9 Characteristics of Attachment Disorder Lack of reciprocal behaviorRights violationsFrequent aggressive and destructive actsLack of remorse
10 Examples of Secure-Insecure Attachment HomerView Movie Clip from website (9,507 kb .wmv)
11 Examples of Secure-Insecure Attachment Bedtime at the OrphanageView Movie Clip from website (4,131 kb .wmv)
30 Homer ReturnsView Movie Clip from website (19,304 kb .wmv)
31 Overview Definitions of Secure/Insecure Attachment Types of Disordered AttachmentEffects of Attachment Quality & Trauma on the Developing BrainTreatment and Strategies
32 Treatment Create attachment patterns Systemic approach to ward against triangulationHolistic-integrative approachesRevisit, revise, revitalizeRelationship healing
33 Strategies for Developing Secure Attachments Reciprocal behaviors between child and adultRespectful eye contact, body languageRespectful verbal languageCalming, soothing, nurturing responsesClaiming behaviorsPhysical proximity and touchingCareful, deliberate listeningAccepting limits - boundaries
34 Strategies for Developing Secure Attachments Climate and RelationalEase and spontaneity in words and movementsComfort in compliments, affection, appreciationHarmony in words and actionsPreserve harmony and dignity under stress
35 Strategies for Developing Secure Attachments Classroom Environment/StructureRationalityRealismIntuitivenessCreativityAdmit and correct mistakesBenevolence and cooperativeness
36 Strategies for Developing Secure Attachments Specific Instruction and Intervention ApproachesFamily Bereavement ProgramCharacter trait assessment through literatureIntegration of Search Institute External/Internal Asset Checklist into curriculum, lessons activitiesRole model unitShare personal feelings and storiesCreate and maintain safe, non-judgmental instructional environmentTeacher Assistance Programs
38 References Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Wittig, B. A. (1969). Attachment and the exploratory behavior of one year olds in a strange situation. In B. M. Foss (Ed.), Determinants of infant behavior (Vol. 4, pp ). London: Metheun.Gallup, G. H., Moore, D. W., & Schussel, R. (1995). Disciplining children in America: A Gallup Poll Report. Princeton, NJ: The Gallup Organization.Irving, John. (1999). The Cider House Rules. Modern Library: ISBN: Lach, J. (1997). Facilitating developmental attachment: The road to emotional recover and behavioral change in foster and adopted children. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson. Levy, Terry, M. (editor). (2000). Handbook of Attachment Interventions. San Diego: California. Lyons-Ruth, K., Alpern, L., & Repacholi, B. (1993). Disorganized infant attachment classification and maternal psychosocial problems as predictors of hostile-aggressive behavior in the preschool classroom. Child Development, 64, Main, M., & Solomon, J. (1990). Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. In M. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research, and intervention (pp ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Perry, B. D., Pollard, R., Blakely, T., Baker, W., & Vigilante, D. (1995). Childhood trauma, the neurobiology of adaptation and “use-dependent” development of the brain: How “states” become “traits”. Infant Mental Health Journal, 16(4),Terr, L. A. (1991). Chihood traumas: An outline and overview. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 1-20.The Cider House Rules. (1999). Miramax Films.
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