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بنام خداوند عليم.

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Presentation on theme: "بنام خداوند عليم."— Presentation transcript:

1 بنام خداوند عليم

2 Biopotentials and Electrophysiology Measurement

3 What are biopotentials
Biopotential: An electric potential that is measured between points in living cells, tissues, and organisms, and which accompanies all biochemical processes. Also describes the transfer of information between and within cells

4 Mechanism behind biopotentials
Concentration of potassium (K+) ions is times higher inside as compared to outside Sodium ion (Na+) concentration is 10 times higher outside the membrane than inside In resting state the member is permeable only for potassium ions Potassium flows outwards leaving an equal number of negative ions inside Electrostatic attraction pulls potassium and chloride ions close to the membrane Electric field directed inward forms Electrostatic force vs. diffusional force Nernst equation: Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation:

5 Mechanism behind biopotentials
When membrane stimulation exceeds a threshold level of about 20 mV, so called action potential occurs: Sodium and potassium ionic permeabilities of the membrane change Sodium ion permeability increases very rapidly at first, allowing sodium ions to flow from outside to inside, making the inside more positive The more slowly increasing potassium ion permeability allows potassium ions to flow from inside to outside, thus returning membrane potential to its resting value While at rest, the Na-K pump restores the ion concentrations to their original values The number of ions flowing through an open channel >106/sec Body is an inhomogeneous volume conductor and these ion fluxes create measurable potentials on body surface

6 0 mV

7 -80 mV

8 + + + + + - - - + - + - + - - -80 mV

9 [K+] = 2.5 [Na+] = 125 [Cl-] = 130 A- + + + + + - - - + - + - + - -
-80 mV

10 Example: Na+ and K+ channels

11 The status of channels Inactive of Na+ channel; Opening K+ channel
The opening of Na+ channel Closing of Na+ & K+ channels The opening of leakage channel

12 Electrocardiography (ECG)
Measures galvanically the electric activity of the heart Well known and traditional, first measurements by Augustus Waller using capillary electrometer (year 1887) Very widely used method in clinical environment Very high diagnostic value


14 12-Lead ECG measurement Most widely used ECG measurement setup in clinical environment Signal is measured non-invasively with 9 electrodes Lots of measurement data and international reference databases Well-known measurement and diagnosis practices This particular method was adopted due to historical reasons, now it is already rather obsolete Einthoven leads: I, II & III Goldberger augmented leads: VR, VL & VF Precordial leads: V1-V6







21 1. Atrial depolarization
2. Ventricular depolarization 3. Ventricular repolarization


23 ECG basics Amplitude: 1-5 mV Bandwidth: 0.05-100 Hz
Largest measurement error sources: Motion artifacts 50/60 Hz powerline interference Typical applications: Diagnosis of ischemia Arrhythmia Conduction defects

24 Electroencephalography (EEG)
Measures the brain’s electric activity from the scalp Measured signal results from the activity of billions of neurons Amplitude: mV Bandwidth: Hz Errors: Thermal RF noise 50/60 Hz power lines Blink artifacts and similar Typical applications: Sleep studies Seizure detection Cortical mapping


26 EEG measurement setup 10-20 Lead system is most widely clinically accepted Certain physiological features are used as reference points Allow localization of diagnostic features in the vicinity of the electrode Often a readily available wire or rubber mesh is used Brain research utilizes even 256 or 512 channel EEG hats

27 Electromyography (EMG)
Measures the electric activity of active muscle fibers Electrodes are always connected very close to the muscle group being measured Rectified and integrated EMG signal gives rough indication of the muscle activity Needle electrodes can be used to measure individual muscle fibers Amplitude: mV Bandwidth: Hz Main sources of errors are 50/60 Hz and RF interference Applications: muscle function, neuromuscular disease, prosthesis

28 Electrooculography (EOG)
Electric potentials are created as a result of the movement of the eyeballs Potential varies in proportion to the amplitude of the movement In many ways a challenging measurement with some clinical value Amplitude: mV Bandwidth: DC-10 Hz Primary sources of error include skin potential and motion Applications: eye position, sleep state, vestibulo-ocular reflex


Signal Frequency range (Hz) Amplitude range(mV) ECG 0.01 – 100 0.05 – 3 EEG 0.1 – 80 0.001 – 1 EOG 0.01 – 10 0.001 – 0.3 EMG 50 – 3000


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