Presentation on theme: "A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots. - Marcus Garvey."— Presentation transcript:
1A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots. - Marcus Garvey
2Africa: Back To The Roots Why is the history and culture of Africa important to the history of humankind in general and the history and culture of African Americans in particular?
3Before you can get to the branches, you need to go back to the ROOTS… Let’s journey back into African History, Black History…
4Ethiopian fossils confirm our African roots. Skulls of the oldest modern humans have been uncovered in Herto, Ethiopia, showing that people looking remarkably like us were roaming the African plains 160,000 years ago.
5Africa: Birthplace of Humanity Genetic evidence proves this…Out-of-Africa modelModern humans emerged 200,000 years agoMigrated to the rest of the world 100,000 years agoGenetic “Eve”All modern humans from a single African woman
6Based on this evidence there is only one human race… Different “races” were used to classify people by appearance, etc.Regardless of who you are or where you came from, despite ethnic differences, political distinctions, and racial tensions... WE ARE ALL AFRICAN.
8Still Need More Proof?Scientists have found that every language can be traced back to a long-forgotten dialect spoken by our Stone Age ancestors in Africa. The further away from Africa a language is spoken, the fewer distinct sounds, or phonemes, it has…
10Ancient EgyptSystems of IrrigationObelisksPyramidsMummificationUnique Gods and GoddessesWritten LanguageCourts and Justice SystemPharaohs and Powerful EmpiresPapyrusSurgery and MedicineNumber system including fractionsDo you usually associate Egypt with Africa? Why or why not?What are some achievements of the ancient Egyptians…
11People separate Egypt from Africa… Ancient Egyptians are usually depicted as “white”. You can probably thank Hollywood.People separate Egypt from Africa…
12Egypt Africa’s Ancient Civilization Race debate“Were the ancient Egyptians a Black African people?”“What amount of ancient Greece’s civilization owes to learning borrowed or stolen from ancient Egypt?”Martin BernalBlack Egyptians colonized ancient GreeceBecame the forerunners of Western civilizationMary LefkowitzModern racial categories were irrelevant in ancient EgyptThe Bottom Line Is: Egypt influenced Greek and Western civilization
13Ancient Egyptian Art From Tomb of Seti I From left to right: a Syrian, a Nubian, a Libyan, and an Egyptian
14Ancient Egyptian Art From Palace At Medinet Habu From left to right: a Libyan, a Nubian, a Syrian, a Shashu Bedouin, and a Hittite.
15Would you consider the Ancient Egyptians to be a Black African civilization? Or do you think racial categories were irrelevant?What does this Ancient Egyptian art suggest?
16Would the Ancient Egyptians be considered “black” or “multiracial”? We may never have a definitive answer…For 75 years Nubian kings from deep in Africa conquered and ruled over ancient Egypt, reunifying the country and building an empire. Until recently, this history was ignored...We do know that Nubia, Kush, Meroe, and Axum were “Black African”
17Other Early African Civs You heard about “Egypt”, but how about these other early African civilizations?...NubiaEgyptian colonycopper and gold depositsKushNubian independent kingdomMeroeAfrica’s first industrial centerIron deposits and good geographic locationAxumFirst Christian state in sub-Saharan AfricaInfluenced by Hebrew culture
18Gradually, the people of Axum began calling their kingdom Ethiopia. Bob Marley spread the Rastafarian belief in exalting H.I.M. Emperor Haile Selassie I as the King of KingsGradually, the people of Axum began calling their kingdom Ethiopia.That is Ras Tafari, the Emperor Haile Selassie I… who Rastas follow.This was the Ethiopian flag under the reign of King Haile Selassie I. Today, Rastas use it as a symbol of their identity.
20Can you name any ancient African civilizations? Africa has had many rich and powerful civilizations, but most people have never learned about them… Why?Can you name any ancient African civilizations?
21“Black Africa” Means… Sub-Saharan Africa All African regions which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara.It contrasts with North Africa, which is considered a part of the Arab world. (Different people and cultures)What’s the point?Europeans claimed that black Africans could not possibly have constructed the monuments found in Egypt, Nubia, or EthiopiaThe Reason Why We Study Black History
22The forebears of African Americans came mainly from West Africa, and from the Congo River region and Angola as wellDescendants of Africans living in America, the Caribbean or anywhere in the West are called the “African Diaspora”
23West African EmpiresMerchants crossed the Sahara in search of valuable products. Sub-Saharan West Africa grew wealthy from trade in slaves and gold.
25Ghana: TradeAncient Ghana was a trading center and acted as a “middleman” between trade routes.Camel caravans from north brought commodities (merchandise)—copper, horses, luxury goods, and, most importantly… saltCaravans traded for gold, ivory, slavesTaxes supported Ghana’s powerful army which protected trade routes and kept merchants safe.Location of gold mines were a secret; from 700 to 1000 Ghana was at height of power
26In ancient times, trades were even—an ounce of gold for an ounce of salt. Why trade gold for salt?....Salt is essential for human life. It regulates fluid levels and is necessary for muscle function, nerve impulses and the distribution of nutrients.Until the invention of canning and refrigeration, salt was fundamental to food preservation…
27Salt was found in the Sahara desert north of ancient Ghana Salt was found in the Sahara desert north of ancient Ghana. There are many salt deposits in the desert because it was once a shallow sea. When the sea dried up, salt was left behind in a layer below the surface. Salt was needed by the forest people.Mining For SaltMining For GoldGold was found in the forest regions south of ancient Ghana. Miners dug gold from shafts as deep as 100 feet or sifted it from fast-moving streams. It is estimated that until 1350, more than two thirds of the world's supply of gold came from West Africa.
29Camel caravans carrying salt across the Sahara These trade routes also brought Islam to Ghana….Camel caravans carrying salt across the SaharaMany of Ghana’s upper class accepted Islam, learned Arabic, and read the Qur’an
30Ghana: Wealth & Splendor Ghana was so wealthy it was known as “kingdom of gold”Writers told of rulers surrounded in luxury; worshiped as godsWealth and fame attracted invaders; constant attacks scared merchants offLoss of trade weakened empire; eventually Ghana collapsed
31“The King [wears] necklaces round his neck and bracelets on his forearms and he puts on a high cap decorated with gold and wrapped in a turban of fine cotton. He holds an audience in a domed pavilion around which stand ten horses covered with gold-embroidered materials on his right, are the sons of the vassal kings of his country, wearing splendid garments and their hair plaited with gold.”At the door of the pavilion are dogs of excellent pedigree. Round their necks they wear collars of gold and silver, studded with a number of balls of the same metals.”—Abu Abdullah al-Bakri, The Book of Routes and Kingdoms, 1068
32OSEADEEYO ADDO DANKWA III Rois d'Akropong-Akuapem This is a modern king of the country of Ghana, do you notice any similarities to descriptions of ancient Ghana’s kings?OSEADEEYO ADDO DANKWA III Rois d'Akropong-AkuapemGhana
33Mali: New Empire Small kingdom within Ghana rose to take Ghana’s place Took control of caravan routes across SaharaWealth and power followed; Mali became the leading power in West Africa
34Mansa MusaReigned from 1307 to 1337; a time known for peace and securityDevout Muslim; took famous pilgrimage to holy city of MeccaTravel took a year; lavished gifts along the way
36“....This sultan Musa, during his stay in Egypt both before and after his journey to the holy hajj, maintained a constant attitude of worship and turning towards God. It was as though he were standing before Him because he always kept Him in mind. He and all those with him behaved in the same way and were well-dressed, serious, and dignified. He was noble and generous and performed many acts of generosity and kindness.During his pilgrimage he dispersed the 100 loads of gold which he had brought from his country while traveling among the tribes between his country to Egypt, while he was in Egypt, and again from Egypt to the holy hajj and back.”— description of Mansa Musa, from Ibn Amir Hajib, and recorded by Al-Umari
37How does the picture portray Mansa Musa? Map from a European atlas, c. 1375How does the picture portray Mansa Musa?
38Mali: AchievementsEmphasis on education; built great universities for religion and lawBooks in Arabic appeared on trade routes; scholars came to study in MaliSpread Islam; built mosques; converted thousands to Islam
39The Great Mosque of Djenné Sankore Mosque, TimbuktuThe Great Mosque of Djenné
40SonghaiDeveloped from Mali empire; won back independence
41Songhai: Growth1464, King Sunni Ali Ber in was power; brilliant strategistEquipped army with horses; built canoe navy to patrol Niger RiverSkilled politician; he maintained rural and town alliancesThree main cities—Gao, Timbuktu, and DjennéExcelled in philosophy, law, and medicine
42Carta do Atlas de João Freire (1546) A Portuguese map of West Africa DeclineConquered states reasserted independence; weakened Songhai defeated by army of Spaniards and MoroccansEuropeans brought shift in trade routes to Atlantic coastCarta do Atlas de João Freire (1546)A Portuguese map of West Africa
43BeninSt. Georges Fort, Oldest Fort Built by Portuguese in the Sub-Sahara, Elmina, Ghana, West AfricaPortuguese explorers built forts and trading centers (bought ivory, gold, cotton, pepper, and slaves)City of Benin grew wealthy from trade; created art but not empireThe presence of the Portuguese began the European colonization of Africa… and the Trans-Atlantic slave trade
44Benin is famous for its bronze and brass sculptures and art
45West African artists recorded the appearance of Europeans who came to trade in gold, ivory, and human beings. This Benin bronze relief sculpture, dating to the late sixteenth or early seventeenth century, portrays two Portuguese men.This is a statue from Benin that shows a soldier from Portugal
47Lack Of RecordsAlthough there were great wealthy empires; little is known of daily lifeSome information of ruling classes; but knowledge comes from writings of visitorsAdvanced civilizations of West Africa lacked written languagesBecause of this first-person accounts important
48Two Ways To LearnOral histories are critical: spoken record from generation to generationTell accounts of great deeds and customs of ancestorsAnthropologists also study traditions still practiced in regionPeople study village and family life, religion, and the arts
49Village & Family LifeExtended family typical; father, mother, children, and close relativesIn West African society each person loyal to familyAge-sets formed special bonds; worked at specific tasks together
50Religion Central feature of village life Ancestors spirits stayed nearby after deathCarved statues marked sacred placesPracticed animism—belief that natural objects have spirits
52The ArtsDetailed carvings from wood and bronze; created fantastic masksMusic and dance part of rituals and ceremonies
53GriotsRemembering and telling history was entrusted to storytellers called griotsHighly respected; keep history alive for each new generationMany griots even served as advisers to kings
54Modern GriotsModern griots tell both traditional and contemporary stories to entertain audiences worldwide.Angelique KidjoYoussou N'Dour
55From Africa To AmericaSome of the traditions, and the use of stories and messages in music were brought to the New World by the African slaves...The influence of the West African griots and African musical styles can be found today in modern America with R&B, Hip-Hop, Gospel and Rock & Roll.