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Geography Subcontinent Large land mass set apart from the rest of the continent 2,000 miles from north to south Nearly as wide Separated on the east.

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Presentation on theme: "Geography Subcontinent Large land mass set apart from the rest of the continent 2,000 miles from north to south Nearly as wide Separated on the east."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Geography Subcontinent Large land mass set apart from the rest of the continent 2,000 miles from north to south Nearly as wide Separated on the east by the Himalayan mountains Fertile Soil Rivers flooded 2 times a year Indus River Valley Fertile Soil

4 Subcontinent. India is considered a subcontinent because of its size. It is actually a part of Asia. In the north are high mountains, the Himalayas and Hindu Kush. In the center is the Deccan Plateau

5 Geography River system

6 Geography River system Indus Valley The Indus River is located in Pakistan. It was along this river that a civilization developed around 2,500 BCE. It is called the Indus Valley Civilization. Two major cities of this civilization were Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.

7 Geography

8 Harrappa-Mohenjo Daro

9 Advanced Civilization 3000 BC Central Government Writing Trade with Mesopotamia Here is a reconstruction of what the entrance to Mohenjo Daro might have looked like.

10 Advanced Civilization 3000 BC Central Government Writing Trade with Mesopotamia This is a photograph of The Great Bath at Mohenjo Daro. This is one of the earliest examples of a public bath or water storage system found in the world. The Indus Valley people were great architects and city planners.

11 Harappa 3000 BC Central Government Writing Trade with Mesopotamia

12 Advanced Civilization City design well organized – Perpendicular streets – Designed for cooling – Advanced plumbing systems – Largest building in Mohenjo Daro –Public Baths Used a common system of weights and measures Peaceful civilization Disappeared before 1700 BC – Drought – earthquake

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14 Advanced Civilization

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17 Indias Vedic Age 2 Theories how this period began – Aryan Invasion Nomadic warriors who crossed the mountains into India Rode horse drawn chariots Used iron weapons and defeated the local people – Believed Aryans were original inhabitants

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19 Aryan Invasion Around 1500 BCE, a group of nomadic warrior- herders crossed the narrow Khyber Pass in the Hindu Kush Mountains and invaded the Indus Valley culture. These people, the Aryans, came from Eastern Europe between the Black Sea and Caspian Sea, probably looking for pastures for their animals. Flooding and earthquakes had weakened the Indus Valley culture and they were unable to withstand the newcomers.

20 Aryan Invasion The route of the Aryans into India.

21 Cultural Diffussion The Aryans brought with them their own culture The Indus Valley people eventually became intermixed with the Aryan people and the two cultures together make up what is now much of the culture of modern India.

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23 The Aryans were a group of Indo-European people that moved from the steppes into what is now India.

24 Mahabarata

25 Mahabharata Most of Indian history comes to us through their sacred literature, the Vedas. Archaeology tells almost nothing about the Aryans. But their sacred literature, the Vedas, tells a lot about them. The Mahabarata may be the worlds longest poem, 200,000 lines long. This text deals with important religious texts.

26 Caste System In an effort to maintain dominance t he Aryans divided the people into classes. or castes, People could interact only with their own caste. People were born into their caste for life. These castes were initially determined by varna literally, color. The Aryans were light skinned, and comprised the upper castes, while the native peoples found in India were darker skinned, and made up the lowest caste

27 Caste System 1. The caste system is the traditional hereditary social class system that affected every aspect of their life – their job, their status, who they could marry, and even who they could talk to. 2. Hindus are born into their caste and could not get out until their death 3. There was no SOCIAL MOBILITY – could not move up in social class!

28 Hinduism – Basic Beliefs Karma 3. Karma – a persons behavior in life determines their caste in the next life Dharma 4. Dharma – Your DUTIES in life to family and caste, do your job well!

29 Hinduism – Basic Beliefs 1. The Gods a. Brahman – the Creator b. Vishnu – the Preserver c. Shiva – the Destroyer 2. Reincarnation – the soul never dies, it is re- born and goes through many lives until it can unite with Brahma

30 Hinduism – Basic Beliefs 1. The Gods a. Brahman – the Creator b. Vishnu – the Preserver c. Shiva – the Destroyer 2. Reincarnation – the soul never dies, it is re- born and goes through many lives until it can unite with Brahma

31 Hinduism – Basic Beliefs Cremation 5. Cremation – Burn body to release soul for next life MOKSHA 6. MOKSHA – ultimate goal - state of perfect understanding of all things, become one with the universe.

32 Caste System The upper three classes consisted of Aryan people while the bottom two were the local native Indian people.

33 Some impure people lived in a group outside this class system. (ie. They were out-castes.) They were butchers, grave diggers, and trash collectors. Because they did work that was thought unclean, they were calleduntouchables. Untouchables

34 From Hinduism To Buddhism Around 528 BCE another new religion, Buddhism, arose in India. It was started by Siddhartha Gautama. The founder, Siddhartha Gautama, has many legends and stories that have surrounded his life. While we can't be certain which of these stories and legends are true, we do know that the basic historical outlines of his life are accurate.

35 Beginnings of Buddhism He was the chief's son of a tribal group, so he was born a Kshatriya (Warrior class) around 566 BC. At the age of 29, he left his family in order to lead a simple life. A few years later he returned with a number of followers; followers that devoted their lives to "The Middle Way, a lifestyle that is midway between a completely simple lifestyle and one that is full of materialistic goods. Siddhartha searched for a way that would allow him to escape the suffering of human life. He spent many years searching for this answer. He was looking for enlightenment, or wisdom. Finally, he sat down and meditated under a tree. After 49 days, he had his answer. He was now called the Buddha, which means enlightened one. The Buddha began to teach others how to attain enlightenment.

36 Beliefs of Buddism He was the chief's son of a tribal group, so he was born a Kshatriya (Warrior class) around 566 BC. At the age of 29, he left his family in order to lead a simple life. A few years later he returned with a number of followers; followers that devoted their lives to "The Middle Way, a lifestyle that is midway between a completely simple lifestyle and one

37 The Four Noble Truths – Suffering is universal – everyone suffers – Cause of suffering is DESIRE a release from selfishness and pain. – If you end your desires – suffering will end (necessary to reach NIRVANA- a release from selfishness and pain. ) – Follow the EIGHTFOLD PATH –

38 The Four Noble Truths – Suffering is universal – everyone suffers – Cause of suffering is DESIRE a release from selfishness and pain. – If you end your desires – suffering will end (necessary to reach NIRVANA- a release from selfishness and pain. ) – Follow the EIGHTFOLD PATH –

39 How to become enlightened Buddhists were to follow a plan of behavior called the Eightfold Path right views, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. nirvana, or a release from selfishness and pain. This would lead to nirvana, or a release from selfishness and pain.

40 Spread of Buddhism Buddhism spread from India to China and other parts of the world along the SILK ROAD – The sharing of religion is an excellent example of cultural diffusion.

41 India first Empires Maurya & Gupta

42 Chandragupta Maurya In 321 BCE, the founder and eventual King of the Maurya Empire, Chandragupta Maurya used his army to defeat powerful kings in eastern and northern India. By 305 BCE, he began to challenge for Alexander the Greats western territories in India, and by 300 BCE, for the first time, northeastern and northwestern India were joined under the rule of one person. Chandragupta was a harsh ruler. He charged a heavy tax on farmers one-half of the crop they grew each year. He used this wealth to build a huge army. He controlled his government by carefully choosing officials and watching them closely The Maurya Empire

43 Asoka In 269 BCE, Chandraguptas grandson, Asoka, took the throne. He brought the Mauryan Empire to its greatest height. At first he was a warlike king but then he decided to accept the teachings of the Buddha. Asoka promised to rule in a fair and just way. He issued laws that urged his subjects to avoid violence. He urged religious toleration. This is acceptance of peoples rights to differing religious beliefs. He made great roads so that people could travel easily. Asoka is also known as the lawgiver because he carved the laws into stone pillars which were placed in the center of towns. The Maurya Empire

44 Some of the Pillars of Asoka Sanskrit Language

45 The Gupta Empire Soon after Asoka died, however, his empire collapsed. Gupta Empire. Around 320 AD, Chandra Gupta I came to power in the north. He was not related to the first emperor Chandragupta Maurya of the Maurya Empire, but he too took the title of king and began to conquer other areas in the name of the Gupta Empire.

46 The Gupta Golden Age Added western coast to empire religion science Flourishing of arts

47 Medicine Literature Mathematics Astronomy Printed medicinal guides 1000 diseases classified Plastic Surgery C-sections performed Inoculations 500 healing plants identified Decimal System Concept of Zero PI = Kalidasa Solar Calendar The earth is round Gupta India Gupta Achievements

48 The Achievements of the Gupta Empire History Alive Chapter 18

49 Golden Age A time of great prosperity and achievement. Peaceful times allow people to spend time thinking and being creative.

50 The Rise of the Gupta Empire The Mauryan Empire fell in 187 B.C.E. India broke apart in smaller kingdoms. The smaller kingdoms fought for 500 years. Beginning around 320 C.E. a second great empire arose.

51 Chandragupta I The Guptas united the northern kingdoms by conquering them through war. Formed alliances through marriage.

52 Guptas Gave local areas or provinces a lot of independence. The Guptas stayed in power for nearly 230 years.

53 Great Achievement in the Gupta Empire Universities Literature Painting Sculpture Metalwork Mathematics Roads

54 Universities Time of great learning Hindu and Buddhist universities No women were allowed to attend, except for the daughters of teachers Hindu universities were designed for the upper classes.

55 The Mahabharata (Great Work) All the stories from the Puranas were finally written down. The stories were hundreds of years old. Themes relate to Hindu values of good versus evil.

56 Bhagavad Gita (Song of the Lord) Part of the Mahabharata Beautiful poem and beloved work Prince Arjuna is taught basic truths of Hinduism by Krishna, an earthly form of the deity Vishnu.

57 Gupta Literature Spread Beyond India to Greece and Persia. The famous Arabian tale about Aladdin and his magic lamp was inspired by a Gupta folktale.

58 Painting Gupta empire famous for its beautiful paintings Subjects included deities and other religious topics Paintings were created on long scrolls

59 Mathematics Write whole numbers 1-9. Used decimals system to write numbers. Hindu mathematicians were the first to use the zero as a number. Arabic numerals began wish the Indian system of numbers.

60 Aryanhata Combined math and astronomy. He figured out that a year was exactly days long. Calculated the approximate size of the earth. Proposed planets were like balls or spheres. Suggested the earth spins on an axis.

61 Mathematics Practical Uses Gupta builders used mathematics to design more complex structures.

62 Roads Gupta rulers encouraged trade by creating a huge system of well built roads. Roads built with care and precision. Signs told travelers where they were. Empire greatly benefitted from trade.

63 Roads Connected India to China and the lands east of the Mediterranean Sea.

64 The End


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