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Steel Identification Through Spark Observation

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Presentation on theme: "Steel Identification Through Spark Observation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Steel Identification Through Spark Observation
By: Raymond Tyler Dalke Dr. Jan Brink Mr. Mark Weller

2 Introduction Steel Manufacturing Steel Categories
Open Hearth Furnace Basic Oxygen Furnace Electric Arc Furnace Steel Categories Killed Semi-Killed Rimmed Capped History of Spark Testing ’s

3 Why Spark Testing? Cost Availability Ease of Use

4 Spectrometer

5 Methods of Spark Testing
Grinding Wheel Prototypes Compressed Air 1015 Plain Carbon Steel

6 Apparatus Baldor 8 inch Bench Grinder ¾ Hsp 3600 RPM 2.4 Amp
Serial# G Coarse grit Al2 O3 grinding wheel Medium grit Al2 O3

7 Medium Grit Abandoned 1015 plain carbon steel 3 1 2

8 Apparatus Mounting Arm 2”x 2” box tubing
One- 5/16”-18 x 1 ¼” machine screw One- 5/16”-18 x 2” bolt

9 Apparatus Current Backboard Future Backboard 2 – black poster boards
Inch scale Future Backboard 2”x 2” pine studs (frame) 40”x 45” black background ¼” paneling

10 Mounting Apparatus Remove eye shields, tool rest, and guards
Utilized the existing bolt holes Loctite®!!!

11 Specimens Tested Plain Carbon Steel Alloy Steels Tool Steel
1015 1018 1045 1075 1095 Alloy Steels 1215 4140 4340 Tool Steel O1 D2 Stainless Steels 17-4 303 316 Others Gray Cast Iron

12 Procedure Observe Safety! Mount Specimen Turn on grinder
Prepare camera and turn off lights Swing mounting arm into grinding position Stand back roughly 4 foot and take six pictures Return mounting arm to non-grinding position Turn light on and align pattern density card Take two readings, a 10 second and 30 second blast on separate cards Turn grinder off Measure the force applied to grinding wheel Record measurements Upload photos using Image J software and record data

13 Data Measured Rockwell Hardness Brinell Hardness Spark Length
Projected Angle Angle of Extremes

14 Image J Projected Angle Spark Length Angle of Extremes

15 Results Average Force 3.3 Newtons = .74 lbs Average projected
Spark Testing Type of Steel HRC Brinell Spark Length (in.) Angle of Extremes (°) 1015 55.67 560 44.82 17.36 1018 50.67 475 35.93 27.08 1045 61.00 670 38.83 34.48 1075 83.00 N/A 30.96 27.62 1095 86.67 24.73 25.94 1215 57.33 601 40.13 27.86 4140 60.33 653 33.98 27.01 4340 53.33 530 37.41 32.25 O1 61.67 28.24 26.12 D2 58.00 620 14.26 16.72 17-4 Stainless 79.33 22.86 30.32 304 Stainless 75.33 12.51 25.26 316 Stainless 78.00 22.13 25.79 Gray Cast Iron 58.67 5.24 11.64 Average Force 3.3 Newtons = .74 lbs Average projected angle ° from the positive x-axis Measured RPM 3575

16 Pattern Density Cards

17 Spark Detail 1015 Plain Carbon Steel 1095 Plain Carbon Steel

18 Comparison Chart

19 Further Research Lab Experiments Thermal Imaging Pneumatic Fixture

20 References American Society of Metals (1978). Metals Handbook: Properties and selection: Irons and Steels. (Ninth Edition).Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. United States of America DeGarmo, E. P., Black, J. T., Kohser, R. A., and Klamecki, B. E.(2003). Materials and Processes in Manufacturing. (Ninth Edition) Hamilton Printing. United States of America Stookey, D. and Dargan, N.(1967). Spark Testing Training Manual Tschorn, G.(1963). Spark Atlas of Steels. The Macmillan Company. New York Azzouz, S., Brink, J., and Weller, J. M.(2011). Material Science Lab Manual asm.matweb.com

21 Special Thanks Dr. Magaly Rincón-Zachary Dr. Jan Brink Mr. Mark Weller
Dr. Jonathan Price Dr. Rebecca Dodge UGROW

22 Questions?


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