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Early Societies and Networks of the Eastern Mediterranean

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1 Early Societies and Networks of the Eastern Mediterranean
Chapter 4

2 Second millennium B.C.E. Egyptians, Mesopotamians empires grew in strength Competed with one another Smaller societies developed influential ideas Established cities, states

3 Hebrews – created the base for three major
religions Minoans – became a flourishing society and an economic bridge between western Asia and S.E. Europe Mycenaean – built the first cities in Greece

4 Phoenicians – created an important new alphabet, established colonies in western Mediterranean, migration & trade fostered networks connecting many ancient societies Greece – Greek migrants began building an important society

5 Regional Climate Cool rainy winters Hot, dry summers
Many hills encouraged the planting of olive trees and grape vines Olive oil and wine became export crops People raised pigs, sheep and goats Sea – fostered boat building, maritime trade

6 “Cosmopolitan” era The Late Bronze Age in the Middle East -
B.C.E. Diplomatic relations Commercial contacts Flow of goods & ideas Elites enjoyed high standard of living

7 Egypt – New Kingdom 17th century B.C.E., the Middle Kingdom declined
1640 B.C.E. Hyksos conquered Egypt The Hyksos possessed military technologies – horse-drawn war chariots, & bow made of wood & horn The Hyksos assimilated with the Egyptians

8 Hyksos were expelled from Egypt
Egypt inaugurated the New Kingdom 1532 – 1070 B.C.E. Became aggressive and expansionist state Expanded its territory to Syria-Israel in the north, and to Nubia in the south Won access to timber, gold and copper, taxes and tribute, and a buffer zone

9 Egypt participated in the diplomatic and commercial networks
Egyptians soldiers, administrators, diplomats, and merchants exposed Egypt to exotic fruits & vegetables & new technologies

10 King Akhenaten Amenhotep IV– 1353 – 1335 B.C.E.
Referred to himself as Akhenaten – sought to spread his belief in Aten as the supreme deity Departed from traditional ways Challenged the supremacy of the chief god Amon Questioned the power and influence of the priests of Amon Closed the temples of other gods

11 Attempted to reassert the superiority of the king over the priests
Renew belief in the King’s divinity Only the royal family could worship Aten The Egyptian people were pushed to revere the divine ruler

12 Built a new capital city
Commissioned art work depicting the royal family in unconventional way Neglected Egyptian policy of conquests and expansions His reforms were resented by government officials, priests, and some elite

13 After Akenaten death: The temples were reopened Amon was reinstated as chief god The capital returned to Thebes The institution of kingship was weakened Play to the advantage of the priests

14 The Ramessides Dynasty 1323 B.C.E.
General Haremhab seized the throne & established a new dynasty – the Ramessides Renew Egyptian policy of conquest and expansion Ramsses II – Ramsses the Great ruled for 60 years Built all over Egypt monumental buildings

15 Commerce and communication
Ramsses II fought the Hittites at Kadesh No territorial expansion Egyptian & Hittites diplomats negotiated a treaty (strengthened by Ramsses’ marriage to a Hittites princess) At issue: control of Syria-Israel

16 New modes of transportation were introduced
Horses were brought into Western Asia around 2000 B.C.E. Influenced the speed of travel and communication Horses contributed to the creation of large states & empires

17 Soldiers & officials could cover great distances quickly
Horse-drawn chariots became the primary instrument of war The team of a driver and an archer fired arrows with speed & force

18 By 1500 B.C.E. people in Western Asia began using the Camel
Camels traveled across barren terrain Emergence of New kind of desert nomad Creation of cross-desert trade routes

19 The Assyrian Empire 911-612 B.C.E.
Neo-Assyrian Empire emerged in Western Asia in the tenth century B.C.E. The first to rule far away lands and diverse people Created the largest empire in the world

20 The Assyrian homeland was in a hilly area of northern Mesopotamia
Mild climate and greater rainfall Exposed to raiders from mountains (E & N) Farmers defended themselves from raiders The peasants-farmers constituted the foot soldiers of the Neo-Assyrian army

21 The king followed the most important trade routes
Controlled the international trade Provided booty, prospect of tribute and taxes Secured access to vital resources – iron, silver

22 The king was the center of the Assyrian universe
The gods chose the king as their ruler All the land belonged to him, and all his subjects were his servants Spies brought the king information from every corner of the empire

23 The king was the chief diplomat
- He made all the decisions – appointed officials Heard complaints Received envoys and high ranking government officials The commander and chief

24 Supervised the state religion
Ashur was the chief god He initiated public and private rituals Supervised the upkeep of the temples Consulted the gods through rituals - All state actions were carried out in the name of Ashur

25 Government propaganda secured people’s support for military campaigns
Royal inscriptions were posted throughout the empire boasting military victories Inscription emphasized the king charisma Severe punishments to anyone who resisted the king

26 Conquests and Control Superior military organization and technology
Men served in return for grants of land Peasants and slaves were donated to the army by their landowners By Tiglathpileser created a professional army

27 Troops were divided to:
Armed bowmen and slingers 2. Armored spearmen 3. Cavalry equipped with bows/spears 4. Four-man chariots 5. Messengers & signal fires provided long-distant communication 6. Network of spies gathered intelligence

28 The Assyrians used terror tactics – to discourage rebellion
Swift and harsh retribution Mass deportation and resettlement elsewhere The exiled worked on royal/noble estates Opened new land for agriculture Built new palaces and cities

29 Difficulties Vast distance Varied landscapes Diverse people
Control of the cities was tight Control of rural areas - difficult

30 The Assyrians exploited the wealth & resources of their subjects
Wars and administration were funded by plunder & tribute Wealth from the periphery was sent to the city The king and nobility grew rich

31 The state invested in the infrastructure
Expansion of the capital & religious centers at Ashur New royal cities - encircled by high walls containing ornate palaces and temples

32 Assyrian Society Three classes – Free landowning citizens - elite
Farmers and artisans attached to the estate of the king/rich landowner, merchants Slaves – debtors, prisoners of war

33 The elite – They were bound to the king by oaths of obedience, expectation of rewards, fear of punishment

34 The merchant classes Thrived on expanded long-distance commerce Imported luxury goods – fine textiles, dyes, gems, ivory Silver – was the basic medium of exchange

35 No preferable treatment:
Assyrian citizens, deportees, or immigrants were referred to as “human beings” All entitled to the same legal protection All liable for the same labor and military service

36 Some Assyrian temples had libraries
The library of Ashurbanipal contained official documents, literary, & scientific texts Some documents are originals, some copies “House of Knowledge” – an academy that attracted learned men to the royal court

37 The Aegean World 2000 – 1100 B.C.E. The influence of Mesopotamia and Egypt was felt as far as the Aegean Sea Emergence of the Minoan civilization Emergence of the Mycenaean civilization

38 The landscape of southern Greece and the Aegean islands is mostly rocky and arid
There is limited arable land suitable for grain, grapevines, and olive trees Small plains lying between ranges of hills – suitable for herds of sheep and goats Natural harbors and small islands in close proximity to each other

39 Very little natural resources
The Aegean peoples had to import metal, timber, and food supplies * The rise and the decline of these two civilizations, were related to their commercial and political relations with other peoples in the region

40 The Minoan civilization
Minoan –native of the island of Crete Strategic location Center for sea trade – Egypt, western Asia, Southeastern Europe Traded extensively with Sicily, Greece, the Aegean Islands

41 By 3000 B.C.E. used copper Pioneered a mix agriculture – grape vine, olive trees, grain

42 The Minoan had: Centralized government Writing system – not deciphered Record keeping 4. Monumental buildings 5. Bronze metallurgy

43 The Minoans were influenced by Egyptian, Syrian, and Mesopotamian architecture:
Extensive palace complexes, government building The palace complexes had high-quality indoor plumbing Absence of fortifications at the palace site

44 The Minoans had a different concept of authority -
They did not have a king ~1630 B.C.E. cities on the island were destroyed

45 Art Colorful frescos on walls of palaces portrays women engaged in conversation or watching rituals or entertainment Statuettes of women with elaborate headdresses and serpents spiraling around their limbs suggest fertility goddesses

46 Minoan vases depicting plants with swaying leaves may reflect a delight in beauty and order of the natural world

47 Mycenaean Greece Became an important power between 1600-1200 B.C.E.
Mycenae was built on a hilltop, surrounded by high fortification walls Contained the palace and administrative center

48 State controlled economy - Recorded people, animals, products and objects
The government organized grain production & controlled the wool industry and the distribution to the people

49 Warrior society – conquered Crete, all of southern Greece and the Aegean island
Formed an empire Collected taxes and tribute

50 Continued Minoan trade networks
Dispatched ships to Sicily, Italy, Spain and the Black Sea They traded wine and olive oil They exported weapons, slaves, and mercenary soldiers May have transported goods of other people Minoan & Mycenaean imported amber, ivory, grains, gold, copper and tin

51 Spread bronze technology
Cultural uniformity of all Mycenae centers Similar in shapes, decorative styles, techniques of buildings, tombs, utensils, tool, clothing and work of art

52 By 1200 B.C.E. – collapse “Sea Peoples” – pillaged, disrupted trade

53 The Fall of Late Bronze Civilizations
Around 1200 B.C.E. large numbers of people were on the move throughout the Middle East The demise of the Hittites kingdom in Anatolia The tide of destruction moved south into Syria, destroying Ugarit

54 By 1250 B.C.E. the Philistines -“Sea People”- (hence the name Palestine) invaded Israel who was under Egyptian’s control Egypt lost all its territories in Syria-Israel Egypt lost contact with the rest of western Asia, and Nubia According to Egyptian inscription, the invaders were Greeks

55 The end of the Mycenaean civilization illustrates the interdependence of the major centers of the Late Bronze Age Collapse in the political, economic and social realms

56 The Greek language persisted, so was the religion
One thousand years later people continued to worship gods mentioned in the Linear B tablets People continued to make vessels

57 Israel B.C.E. The Hebrews, a Semitic people, were one of many groups of pastoral nomads Engaged in herding and caravan traffic, became sedentary, agricultural people The Hebrews were led by powerful men known as patriarchs

58 Their monarchy lasted less than a century
The Hebrew contribution to religious history, especially to Christian and Islamic traditions, exceeded that of either Mesopotamians or Egypt

59 The history of Israel is marked by two grand & interconnected events
1. Developed complex political & social institutions 2. Integrated into the commercial & diplomatic networks of the Middle East

60 Transformed the strict cult of a desert god
into the concept of a single, all powerful, and all-knowing deity Created ethical & intellectual traditions that underlie the beliefs and values of Judaism, Christianity, and, to a lesser extent, Islam

61 Israel is a crossroad, linking Anatolia, Egypt, Arabia and Mesopotamia
Its geographical location has given Israel an importance in history out of all proportion to its size

62 Origins, Exodus, & Settlement
Information on the Israelites comes from : 1. Archeological excavations 2. Annals of Egypt & Assyrian The Hebrew Bible -

63 Tenth century B.C.E. traditions were written down in a script
The text we have today is from the fifth century B.C.E. The spoken language was Hebrew It is a Semitic language (related to Phoenician & Aramaic)

64 The Hebrews trace their ancestry as a people back to Abraham -2000 B.C.E.
His two sons, Isaac and Ishmael, are considered the spiritual ancestors of three monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

65 Abraham was born into a polytheistic world – but he recognized one supreme god
“Covenant” – pact with the Israelite’s god “Yahweh”

66 Joseph was able to help his people when drought struck Israel and forced the Israelite to migrate to Egypt The Egyptians feared the Israelites, and reduced them to slaves, building projects for Pharaoh In the thirteenth century the “exodus” from Egypt, led by Moses, took place

67 . The Egyptians are complaining about Apiru
Scholars believe there is a connection between the similar sounding terms Apiru and Hebrew 3. The period of the Israelite slavery in Egypt coincided with the era of ambitious building programs launched by the New Kingdom pharaohs

68 Probably oral tradition may have preserved memories of a real migration from Egypt
Israelites wandered in the Sinai desert 40 years Covenant with Yahweh: they would be his “Chosen People”- if they will worship him exclusively

69 Moses is believed to be the founder of the Jewish religion
Moses gave his name to a code of laws, including the Ten Commandments, by which the Hebrews governed themselves

70 These are the basic tenets of Jewish belief & practice:
The commandments prohibited: murder adultery theft lying envy

71 It demanded: 1. Respect for parents
2. Rest from work on the seventh day - Sabbath

72 The Bible tells how Joshua led the Israelites into the land of Canaan
The “Children of Israel” were divided to 12 tribes Each tribe installed itself in a different part of the country- was led by a chief/chiefs

73 These rulers had limited power –
Mediated disputes Saw to the welfare & protection of the people

74 Sagacious people were appointed “Judges”
Built a shrine on a hill near Shiloh The shrine housed the Ark of the Covenant – A scared chest containing the tablets that Yahweh had given Moses

75 Rise of the Monarchy 1200 B.C.E. – time of trouble in the Mediterranean Philistines came to the area, settled along the coastal plain of Israel – frequent conflicts Samuel recognized the need for a stronger central authority to lead the Israelites against the Philistine city-states

76 Saul was anointed as the first king of Israel-1020 B.C.E.

77 King David B.C.E. David was chosen as the second king of Israel He oversaw Israel’s transition from a tribal confederacy to a unified monarchy 1. Built a capital city – Jerusalem outside the tribal boundaries 2. Brought the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem 3. Made the city a religious & political center of the kingdom

78 1. Built a capital city – Jerusalem outside the
tribal boundaries 2. Brought the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem 3. Made the city a religious & political center of the kingdom

79 4. Conducted a census to facilitate the
collection of taxes 5. Created a standing army 6. Won a string of military victories 7. Expanded Israel’s borders 8. Equality – no one is above the law

80 King Solomon B.C.E. Marked the high point of the Israelite monarchy Alliances and trade linked Israel with near and distant lands Wealth was accumulated through military and commercial ventures Lavish court life Sizable bureaucracy

81 Chariot army made Israel a regional power
Ambitious building program employing slaves and citizens Solomon built the First Temple in Jerusalem Israel had a central shrine An impressive set of rituals The Temple priests became powerful and wealthy class He built the FIRST TEMPLE in Jerusalem to strengthen the link between religious and secular authority

82 The expansion of Jerusalem
New commercial opportunities Increasing prestige of the Temple hierarchy Changed the social composition of Israelite society -A gap between urban and rural, rich and poor polarized a people that were homogeneous

83 Israel split into two kingdoms:
The northern kingdom – Israel The southern kingdom – Judah - In 722 B.C.E. the Assyrians conquered Israel and resettled its inhabitants elsewhere in the empire

84 New settlers were brought to Israel from Syria, Babylon, and Iran
The newcomers changed the area’s ethnic, cultural, and religious character The kingdom of Judah survived a century longer

85 In 586 king Nebuchadnezzar – Babylon-conquered the kingdom of Judah and exiled its king, the aristocracy and skilled workers to the Euphrates area

86 The bitterness of the “Babylonian captivity”
Was reflected in a Hebrew Psalm: “By the rivers of Babylon there we sat down, yea we wept when we remembered Zion” Psalm: 137

87 Most of the deportees prospered in the Babylonian captivity
By mid century Cyrus the Great, conquered Babylon The exile ended in 539, when the Persian allowed the Jews to return to Israel - Most of the deportees elected to remain in Babylon – “Diaspora”

88 Jews who went back to Israel in the later 6th century B. C. E
Jews who went back to Israel in the later 6th century B.C.E., rebuilt a Second Temple on Temple Mount in Jerusalem The Deuteronomic Code was drafted – law & conduct 5th century B.C.E. the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) was compiled

89 63 C.E. Israel was conquered by the Roman Empire
In 70 C.E. 1. the Second Temple was destroyed 2. revolt against Roman’s rule and authority 3. the Jews were dispersed again

90 From that time until the establishment of modern Israel in 1948 C. E
From that time until the establishment of modern Israel in 1948 C.E. there was no independent Jewish state in Israel

91 Israelite family Lived in extended family
Marriage was arranged by the parent Male heirs were of paramount importance First born male received a double share of inheritance

92 Any couple could adopt a child
If a man died childless, his brother was expected to marry his widow and sire an heir

93 Women Women provided a vital portion of the goods and services that sustained the family Women were respected, enjoyed equality with their husbands Could not inherit Could not initiate a divorce If caught in extramarital relations – put to death

94 Working-class women labored in agriculture, herding, caring for the house, and children
In urban centers – women worked outside their home as cooks, bakers, perfumers, wet nurses, singers Few women reached position of influence

95 “wise women”- composed sacred texts in poetry and prose
Because of male bias in the Hebrew Bible the women status declined as Israelite society became more urbanized

96 Hebrew Religion & World History
The religious history of the Hebrews, their ethical code, makes them memorable in world history The Hebrew developed four religious concepts: Monotheism Morality Messianism Meaning in history Over long history, both as nomads and settled state builders, the Hebrew developed 4 religious concepts that made them stand out among ancient peoples and later influenced the Western and Islamic traditions

97 Monotheism Monotheism developed in two stages:
While polytheism remained influential for some centuries among other people The Hebrews worshiped a single god Yahweh Yahweh made a “covenant” with their earlier patriarch This covenant was reinforced with the Ten Commandments

98 Obey Yahweh, and he will protect them
This form of monotheism did not deny the existence of other gods, but the Hebrews had only one Over time, asserted there is only ONE GOD Yahweh for all people

99 Morality It is not enough to obey the Bible’s social and ritual commandments Following Yahweh meant leading moral life refraining from lying, stealing, adultery, and persecution of the poor and oppressed

100 Mesianism The belief that God had given the Hebrew people a special mission in the world Messianism acquired a broad spiritual meaning of bringing proper ethical behavior to all peoples

101 “I will give you as a covenant to the people, as a light to the nations, to open blind eyes, to bring out prisoners from prison, those who sit in darkness” Isaiah 42:6-7, Holy Bible

102 Meaning in History History itself has meaning and it moves forward in a progressive, linear fashion Yahweh acted in history by making specific agreements with particular individuals

103 Human beings worked out their salvation by choosing good over evil
Gave birth to the idea of progress, the notion that the future will be better than the past

104 Phoenicia and the Mediterranean 1200-500 B.C.E.

105 By 1200 B.C.E. the Middle East entered a violent period and mass deportation
Ancient Phoenicians who referred to themselves as Can’ani- migrated into the interior of Syria

106 Can’ani – settled in the interior of Syria
Israelites – settled in the interior of Israel Philistines – occupied the coast Philistines introduced iron-based metallurgy

107 Small city-states: Byblos - distribution center for cedar timber, and papyrus Tyre – access to silver, food, and trade routes (E/S)

108 Weakness – depended on food and fresh water supplies
All city-states turned to seaborne commerce Thriving trade - cedar, pine, metals, papyrus, incense, wine, spices, salted fish, textile, ivory

109 Accumulated wealth Important role in International politics Rulers of the city-states were leading merchant families Preserved autonomy Playing the great powers off against one another Accepted subordinate relationship when necessary

110 The Phoenician developed an “alphabetic” system of writing
The Greeks added symbols for vowel sounds Created the first truly alphabetical system of writing

111 Constant conflict with the Greeks over colonies, trade
Both fought for control of Sicily –brutal wars Carthage – a Phoenician colony controlled all of Sicily by mid 3rd century B.C.E.

112 Carthage Established around 814 B.C.E. Strategic position
Located between hilltop citadel and two harbors Controlled the middle portion of the Mediterranean

113 The wealthiest and strongest Phoenician outpost
Autocratic city government – political instability Differences in between the Phoenician settlers and the native Berbers Frequent wars with the Greeks

114 425 B.C.E. – expedition to North Africa
Seeking markets, route to Asia Founded trading posts in Morocco

115 Created an empire Third century B.C.E. – controlled Spain, much of the north African coast, the islands Sardinia, Corsica

116 City’s central square housed government buildings
Magistrates heard legal cases outdoor Judges – elected from the elite group Served as head of state

117 Senate – leading merchant families, served for life
Formulated policies, made decisions Assembly of the citizens – elect officials - vote on important issue The ruling class – shared the wealth

118 Policy Protected sea lanes Gained access to raw material
Claimed waters of western Mediterranean – its own Signed treaties with other nation

119 Carthage imported goods – textiles, animal skins, slaves, food
Reexported raw material – silver, iron, tin, lead

120 Carthage was one of the largest cities in the world (population 400,000)
Ethnic diversity – Phoenicians, indigenous peoples, immigrants

121 War and Religion Allowed city-states in their “empire” to be independent These city-states looked for military protection, and supported Carthage foreign policy Sardinia under control – safeguard their agriculture, metal and manpower resources

122 Citizens were not required to serve in the army
Little to fear from North African population Relied on mercenaries Separation between the army and civilian government

123 Gods – Baal Hammon – storm-god
Tanit – female fertility figure Elite – sacrifice their own male children in time of crisis Tophets – walled enclosures where thousands of small, sealed urns lay buried

124 “The Carthaginians are a hard and Gloomy people, submissive to their
Plutarch – 100 C.E. “The Carthaginians are a hard and Gloomy people, submissive to their Rulers and harsh to their subjects, Running to extremes of cowardice in times Of fear and of cruelty in time of anger; They keep obstinately to their decisions, Are austere, and care little for amusement or The grace of life.” Plutarch, a Greek priest in Delphi, lived around 100 CE and an ambassador, , wrote after the demise of Carthage: Austere = severe, strict Obstinately = stubbornly

125 Conclusion The Late Bronze Age expansion of commerce and communication – stimulated the emergence of new civilizations The interdependence of the societies of the Middle East and eastern Mediterranean made them vulnerable for destructions and disorder

126 The entire region slipped into a “Dark Age” –
Isolated Stagnated Decline lasted several centuries

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