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Tutorial: Tutorial examples will be posted at least a day before the tutorial so you can think about them to benefit most from the tutorial Regular Quizzes (every 2-3 weeks, 15-20 min each) during tutorial Relativity and Quanta PHYS 242 Fall 2013 Lecture: Lecture notes available ahead of time - READ and answer Pre-Lecture Quiz (Moodle) Tell me your questions via Moodle (or in class) – thats what well discuss Assignments: Will be posted Fridays, are due Monday, 10 days later, during the tutorial. Exam: Final exam in December (3 h) Marking scheme: Lecture Quizzes:10 % Tutorial Quizzes:15 % Assignments:25 % Exam (final):50 % concepts, ideas, some derivations of fundamental formulae application of the concepts, examples (help for assignments) examples: experience in applying concepts to actual problems, feedback on learning success, practice for exam (assessment) Motivator for learning, assessment W. Rau

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Books Relativity and Quanta Custom version of: Serway, Moses, Moyer: Modern Physics ; Brooks/Cole -- Thomson Learning (available at Campus Book Store) A.P. French: Special Relativity W.W.Norton & Company Inc. New York R. Eisberg, R. Resnick: QUANTUM PHYSICS of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei and Particles John Wiley & Sons, New York, London, Sydney, Toronto Course Web page: http://www.physics.queensu.ca/~phys242/ : Lecture Notes, Assignments, Tutorial Questions, Solutions Moodle: Pre-Lecture Quizzes, YOUR Questions, Grades Relativity and Quanta PHYS 242 Fall 2013 W. Rau

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Newtons laws: 1. Inertia: Any object moves with constant velocity as long as no net force acts upon it 2. Action: Any object experiences acceleration in presence of a net force: F = ma 3. Reaction: If force F acts upon an object, –F acts upon the object where the force originates. Classical mechanics Inertial system: Reference frame where Newtons 1. law applies. any reference frame that moves with a constant velocity relative to a given inertial system, is also an inertial system and vice versa (any inertial system moves with constant velocity relative to any other inertial system) Relativity Principle: The evaluation of an observation leads to the same conclusions about the laws of physics in any inertial system W. Rau

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S S ' V Coordinate transformation: x = x' + Vt'y = y' z = z ' t = t' Velocity transformation: v x = v x ' + Vv y = v y ' v z = v z ' x = x ' + R x ' = ( ) x '' x = ( ) x '' + R t = t' + t cos sin -sin cos cos sin -sin cos Coordinate Transformation v = –– = ––––––– = –– + ––– = v ' + V dx d(x '+ R ) dx ' dR dt d(t' + t) dt' dt Choose: x = x = 0 for t = t = 0, V x Galilean law for the addition of velocities: v = v ' + V (V: velocity of S ' w.r.t. S ) S t1t1 x1x1 y1y1 x 1 '' y 1 '' S'' t 1 '' α x1'x1' y1'y1' S' t1't1' R = (x,y) x x' W. Rau

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Wood Boat Fog Reference frame of the boat W. Rau

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Boat Fog Wood Reference frame of the wood W. Rau

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Wood Fog Boat Fog Reference frame of the wood (but observer on the boat) W. Rau

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v x = 0 v y = 0 v0v0 v x,ball = 0 v y,ball = v 0 - gt SS' Reference frame of the boat W. Rau

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S'' v0v0 v x,bqll = v v y,ball = v 0 - gt v v x = v v y = 0 S S' Reference frame of the wood W. Rau

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v x,ball = v v y,ball = - gt v v0v0 v S'' v x = v v y = – v 0 S S' Reference frame of the elevator W. Rau

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How to Produce Spacetime diagrams W. Rau

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How to produce spacetime diagrams (II) W. Rau

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Spacetime diagram Boat (at rest) Wood (moving) Space Time W. Rau

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Wood Boat W. Rau

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Spacetime diagrams Boat (center) Passenger (front) Passenger (back) Ball 1 Wood Ball 2 Boat (center) Passenger (front) Passenger (back) Ball 2 Wood Ball 1 v B1 = v ; v B2 = – v v B1 = v B1 ' + V v B1 ' = v B1 – V = v – V v B2 = v B2 ' + V v B2 ' = v B2 – V = – v – V W. Rau

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Wood Boat Reference frame of boat and water W. Rau

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Source at rest with respect to medium W. Rau

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Source moving with respect to medium, frame of medium W. Rau

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Source moving with respect to medium, frame of source W. Rau

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Wood Boat Reference frame of the boat; water moving W. Rau

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Wood Boat Reference frame of the wood; boat moving with water W. Rau

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Source at rest with respect to medium; both are moving relative to reference frame W. Rau

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vcvc X s v X Case A: Source and Receiver at rest Case B: Source moving with velocity v Case C: Receiver moving with velocity – v W. Rau

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SourceReceiverSourceReceiver Case B Rest frame of source (and water) Rest frame of receiver (and water) Case ACase C t R,C x = v t x = 0 t = t t = 0 t1t1 W. Rau

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SourceReceiver Case B Rest frame of receiver (and water) SourceReceiver Case B Rest frame of source Case C t R,B Rest frame of source (and water) W. Rau

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Summary Newtons Laws 1. Inertia:v constant for F = 0 2. Action:F = ma 3. Reaction:each force is balanced by counter force Reference Frames, Coordinate Systems Reference frame: point of view Coordinate system / transformation: Specify position / time in different frames S S ' V x = x' = 0 for t = t' = 0, V = V x = const.: x = x' + Vt ; v x = v x ' + V ; a = a Inertial frame Reference frame where N.s 1. law applies Spacetime Diagrams A way to keep track of the position of objects in time Propagation of Waves, Doppler Effect -Waves propagate with constant v c relative to medium -Observed frequency depends on velocity of source v s and receiver v r relative to medium: Moving source: r = s / (1 – v/v c ) Moving receiver: r = s (1 + v/v c ) -Wavelength depends only on v s Boat (center) Passenger (front) Passenger (back) Ball 1 Wood Ball 2 t x Galilean velocity transformation v= v'+V W. Rau

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