# Tutorial: Tutorial examples will be posted at least a day before the tutorial so you can think about them to benefit most from the tutorial Regular Quizzes.

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Tutorial: Tutorial examples will be posted at least a day before the tutorial so you can think about them to benefit most from the tutorial Regular Quizzes (every 2-3 weeks, 15-20 min each) during tutorial Relativity and Quanta PHYS 242 Fall 2013 Lecture: Lecture notes available ahead of time - READ and answer Pre-Lecture Quiz (Moodle) Tell me your questions via Moodle (or in class) – thats what well discuss Assignments: Will be posted Fridays, are due Monday, 10 days later, during the tutorial. Exam: Final exam in December (3 h) Marking scheme: Lecture Quizzes:10 % Tutorial Quizzes:15 % Assignments:25 % Exam (final):50 % concepts, ideas, some derivations of fundamental formulae application of the concepts, examples (help for assignments) examples: experience in applying concepts to actual problems, feedback on learning success, practice for exam (assessment) Motivator for learning, assessment W. Rau

Books Relativity and Quanta Custom version of: Serway, Moses, Moyer: Modern Physics ; Brooks/Cole -- Thomson Learning (available at Campus Book Store) A.P. French: Special Relativity W.W.Norton & Company Inc. New York R. Eisberg, R. Resnick: QUANTUM PHYSICS of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei and Particles John Wiley & Sons, New York, London, Sydney, Toronto Course Web page: http://www.physics.queensu.ca/~phys242/ : Lecture Notes, Assignments, Tutorial Questions, Solutions Moodle: Pre-Lecture Quizzes, YOUR Questions, Grades Relativity and Quanta PHYS 242 Fall 2013 W. Rau

Newtons laws: 1. Inertia: Any object moves with constant velocity as long as no net force acts upon it 2. Action: Any object experiences acceleration in presence of a net force: F = ma 3. Reaction: If force F acts upon an object, –F acts upon the object where the force originates. Classical mechanics Inertial system: Reference frame where Newtons 1. law applies. any reference frame that moves with a constant velocity relative to a given inertial system, is also an inertial system and vice versa (any inertial system moves with constant velocity relative to any other inertial system) Relativity Principle: The evaluation of an observation leads to the same conclusions about the laws of physics in any inertial system W. Rau

S S ' V Coordinate transformation: x = x' + Vt'y = y' z = z ' t = t' Velocity transformation: v x = v x ' + Vv y = v y ' v z = v z ' x = x ' + R x ' = ( ) x '' x = ( ) x '' + R t = t' + t cos sin -sin cos cos sin -sin cos Coordinate Transformation v = –– = ––––––– = –– + ––– = v ' + V dx d(x '+ R ) dx ' dR dt d(t' + t) dt' dt Choose: x = x = 0 for t = t = 0, V x Galilean law for the addition of velocities: v = v ' + V (V: velocity of S ' w.r.t. S ) S t1t1 x1x1 y1y1 x 1 '' y 1 '' S'' t 1 '' α x1'x1' y1'y1' S' t1't1' R = (x,y) x x' W. Rau

Wood Boat Fog Reference frame of the boat W. Rau

Boat Fog Wood Reference frame of the wood W. Rau

Wood Fog Boat Fog Reference frame of the wood (but observer on the boat) W. Rau

v x = 0 v y = 0 v0v0 v x,ball = 0 v y,ball = v 0 - gt SS' Reference frame of the boat W. Rau

S'' v0v0 v x,bqll = v v y,ball = v 0 - gt v v x = v v y = 0 S S' Reference frame of the wood W. Rau

v x,ball = v v y,ball = - gt v v0v0 v S'' v x = v v y = – v 0 S S' Reference frame of the elevator W. Rau

How to Produce Spacetime diagrams W. Rau

How to produce spacetime diagrams (II) W. Rau

Spacetime diagram Boat (at rest) Wood (moving) Space Time W. Rau

Wood Boat W. Rau

Spacetime diagrams Boat (center) Passenger (front) Passenger (back) Ball 1 Wood Ball 2 Boat (center) Passenger (front) Passenger (back) Ball 2 Wood Ball 1 v B1 = v ; v B2 = – v v B1 = v B1 ' + V v B1 ' = v B1 – V = v – V v B2 = v B2 ' + V v B2 ' = v B2 – V = – v – V W. Rau

Wood Boat Reference frame of boat and water W. Rau

Source at rest with respect to medium W. Rau

Source moving with respect to medium, frame of medium W. Rau

Source moving with respect to medium, frame of source W. Rau

Wood Boat Reference frame of the boat; water moving W. Rau

Wood Boat Reference frame of the wood; boat moving with water W. Rau

Source at rest with respect to medium; both are moving relative to reference frame W. Rau

vcvc X s v X Case A: Source and Receiver at rest Case B: Source moving with velocity v Case C: Receiver moving with velocity – v W. Rau

SourceReceiverSourceReceiver Case B Rest frame of source (and water) Rest frame of receiver (and water) Case ACase C t R,C x = v t x = 0 t = t t = 0 t1t1 W. Rau

SourceReceiver Case B Rest frame of receiver (and water) SourceReceiver Case B Rest frame of source Case C t R,B Rest frame of source (and water) W. Rau

Summary Newtons Laws 1. Inertia:v constant for F = 0 2. Action:F = ma 3. Reaction:each force is balanced by counter force Reference Frames, Coordinate Systems Reference frame: point of view Coordinate system / transformation: Specify position / time in different frames S S ' V x = x' = 0 for t = t' = 0, V = V x = const.: x = x' + Vt ; v x = v x ' + V ; a = a Inertial frame Reference frame where N.s 1. law applies Spacetime Diagrams A way to keep track of the position of objects in time Propagation of Waves, Doppler Effect -Waves propagate with constant v c relative to medium -Observed frequency depends on velocity of source v s and receiver v r relative to medium: Moving source: r = s / (1 – v/v c ) Moving receiver: r = s (1 + v/v c ) -Wavelength depends only on v s Boat (center) Passenger (front) Passenger (back) Ball 1 Wood Ball 2 t x Galilean velocity transformation v= v'+V W. Rau

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