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WAVES. Waves can be… Water waves Sound waves Light waves Earthquake waves Waves in a slinky Stadium waves.

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Presentation on theme: "WAVES. Waves can be… Water waves Sound waves Light waves Earthquake waves Waves in a slinky Stadium waves."— Presentation transcript:

1 WAVES

2 Waves can be… Water waves Sound waves Light waves Earthquake waves Waves in a slinky Stadium waves

3 Waves transmit energy… …waves do not move matter (objects) from one place to another like wind or water currents. Instead, energy moves from place to place through waves… …if matter moves, it vibrates in an up and down / side to side motion, a forward and back motion, or both (circular).

4 Wave – Any disturbance that transmits energy through matter or empty space.

5 Vibration A vibration is a complete back and forth motion of matter. It is the source or beginning and waves travel outward in all directions from this source.

6 Waves in water travel outward in all directions

7 Sound waves travel outward in all directions.

8 Sunlight (radiation) travels outward in all directions.

9 Earthquake waves travel outward in all directions.

10 Medium A Medium is a substance through which a wave can travel such as air, water, rock …

11 Electromagnetic Waves Waves that do not require a medium. Light travels by electromagnetic waves called radiation. Light (radiation) can travel through the emptiness of space (no medium) from the Sun to the Earth. Light (radiation) can also travel through many types of matter (medium) like air, water, glass…

12 Electromagnetic Radiation The different types of electromagnetic energy

13 Electromagnetic spectrum A chart that organizes the types of electromagnetic energy in order by wavelength.

14 Visible light spectrum

15 What warms the Earth? Nuclear Reactions in the Sun produce the energy that is released in all directions as Electromagnetic radiation (light energy). This light energy travels through the emptiness of space as electromagnetic radiation and some of it reaches the Earths surface. When this light energy strikes the Earths surface, some of it is reflected off and some of it is absorbed then transferred into heat energy.

16 Mechanical Waves Waves that require a medium. Sound travels by mechanical waves Sound cannot travel through the emptiness of space (no medium). Sound waves need air, water, glass or some other matter to vibrate and thus travel through.

17 Longitudinal Waves Transverse Waves Waves in which the particles of the medium move in the same direction as the direction the wave is traveling. Waves in which the particles of the medium move perpendicular to the direction the wave is traveling

18 Transverse Waves Waves in which the particles of the medium move perpendicular to the direction the wave is traveling. Crest Trough Direction of travel

19 Crest & Trough Crest – The highest point of a transverse wave Trough - The lowest point of a transverse wave

20 Longitudinal Waves Waves in which the particles of the medium move in the same direction as the direction the wave is traveling. CompressionsRarefactions Direction of travel

21 Compression & Rarefaction Compression – A part of a longitudinal wave where the particles are crowded together Rarefaction - A part of a longitudinal wave where the particles are spread apart

22 Surface waves Form when a transverse wave and a longitudinal wave combine. The particles of the medium move both perpendicular to and in the same direction as the direction the wave is traveling resulting in a circular motion. Water waves are surface waves. Direction of travel Circular motion

23 Seismic Waves Earthquake waves are Seismic waves. The medium is the Rock of the Earth.

24 Waves are characterized by… Amplitude Wavelength Frequency

25 Waves are characterized by… Amplitude – The maximum distance that the particles of the waves medium vibrate from their rest position. Wavelength – The distance from any point on a wave to an identical point on the next wave. Frequency – The number of waves produced in a given amount of time.

26 Amplitude The maximum distance that the particles of the waves medium vibrate from their rest position.

27 Changing Amplitude Large amplitude Small amplitude Small Amplitude Large Amplitude

28 Frequency The number of waves produced in a given amount of time. High frequency & Short wavelength Low frequency & Long wavelength

29 Wave Reflection The bouncing back of a ray of light, sound or heat when the ray hits a surface that it does not go through.

30 Wave Refraction The bending of a wave as the wave passes between two substances in which the speed of the wave differs. Refraction - thick mug illusion by Paul G Hewitt - YouTube Refraction - thick mug illusion by Paul G Hewitt - YouTube

31 Wave Diffraction A change in the direction of a wave when the wave finds an obstacle or an edge, such as an opening.

32 Wave Interference When the crest line up with crests, the resulting wave is increased (constructive interference) When the crests line up with troughs, the resulting wave is decreased (destructive interference) Wave Interference – YouTubeWave Interference – YouTube Beats (acoustics) - YouTubeBeats (acoustics) - YouTube

33 Standing Wave A pattern of vibration that simulates a wave that is standing still. Creating Standing Waves – YouTube Standing Wave River Surfing at Waimea Bay - YouTube Standing Waves Generated by String Vibration - YouTube

34 Resonant frequency The frequency at which standing waves are made.

35 Resonance breaking a wine glass using resonance – YouTubebreaking a wine glass using resonance – YouTube Girl breaks glass with voice – YouTube Myth busters Breaking Glass with your voice!! part 2 - YouTubeMyth busters Breaking Glass with your voice!! part 2 - YouTube

36 Resonance Wine Glass Music – YouTube Glass music-Dance of the sugar plum fairy-Tchaikovsky – YouTubeGlass music-Dance of the sugar plum fairy-Tchaikovsky – YouTube

37 Resonance – sympathetic vibrations of tuning forks Resonance – YouTube (tuning forks)Resonance – YouTube interference of sound beats - YouTube Car on the Tacoma Narrow Bridge - YouTube Tacoma Bridge – YouTube

38 Sonic Boom Sonic Boom - YouTube If an object can travel faster than the speed of sound, it will catch up to its own sound. The sound waves will compress and make a large BOOM.

39 Doppler Effect

40 Link to …

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42 /Lindwall.html

43 Wave Terminology Wave – Any disturbance that transmits energy through matter or empty space Medium – a substance through which a wave can travel Mechanical Wave – Waves that need a medium (substance) Electromagnetic Wave - Waves that transfer energy without going through a medium Transverse Wave – Waves in which the particles of the medium move perpendicular to the direction the wave is traveling Longitudinal Wave - Waves in which the particles of the medium move in the same direction as the direction the wave is traveling Surface Wave – Waves in which the particles of the medium move both perpendicular to and in the same direction as the direction the wave is traveling resulting in a circular motion Perpendicular – At right angles to Crest – The highest point of a transverse wave Trough - The lowest point of a transverse wave Compression – A part of a longitudinal wave where the particles are crowded together Rarefaction - A part of a longitudinal wave where the particles are spread apart

44 Wave Terminology Wave – Any disturbance that transmits energy through matter or empty space Medium – a substance through which a wave can travel Mechanical Wave – Waves that need a medium (substance) Electromagnetic Wave - Waves that transfer energy without going through a medium.

45 Transverse Wave – Waves in which the particles of the medium move perpendicular to the direction the wave is traveling. Longitudinal Wave - Waves in which the particles of the medium move in the same direction as the direction the wave is traveling. Surface Wave – Waves in which the particles of the medium move both perpendicular to and in the same direction as the direction the wave is traveling resulting in a circular motion

46 Perpendicular – At right angles to Crest – The highest point of a transverse wave Trough - The lowest point of a transverse wave Compression – A part of a longitudinal wave where the particles are crowded together Rarefaction - A part of a longitudinal wave where the particles are spread apart

47 Waves (1-2) Terms and Definitions Amplitude Wavelength Frequency Hertz Wave Speed

48 Amplitude – The maximum distance that the particles of the waves medium vibrate from their rest position. Wavelength – The distance from any point on a wave to an identical point on the next wave. Frequency – The number of waves produced in a given amount of time. Hertz – The units used when measuring wave frequency (number of waves per second). Wave Speed – The speed at which a wave travels through a medium.

49 Waves (1-3) Terms and Definitions Reflection Echo Refraction Diffraction Interference Constructive Interference Destructive Interference Standing Wave Resonant Frequencies Resonance

50 Reflection – The bouncing back of a ray of light, sound, or heat when the ray hits a surface that it does not go through. Echo – A reflected sound wave Refraction – The bending of a wave as the wave passes between two substances and the speed of the wave changes. Diffraction – The bending of a wave around an obstacle or through an opening. Interference – The combination of two or more waves that result in a single wave. Constructive Interference – When two waves overlap and their energy is combined (crests line up with crests) to produce a wave with a larger amplitude and more energy than the original waves. Destructive Interference - When two waves overlap and their energy is canceled by the other wave (crests line up with troughs) to produce a wave with a smaller amplitude and less energy than the original waves. Standing Wave – A wave produced by both constructive and destructive interference that appears to be standing still. Resonant Frequencies – The frequency at which standing waves are made. Resonance – A phenomenon that occurs when two objects naturally vibrate at the same frequency: the sound produced by one object causes the other object to vibrate.

51 Reflection – The bouncing back of a ray of light, sound, or heat when the ray hits a surface that it does not go through. Echo – A reflected sound wave Refraction – The bending of a wave as the wave passes between two substances and the speed of the wave changes. Diffraction – The bending of a wave around an obstacle or through an opening.

52 Interference – The combination of two or more waves that result in a single wave. Constructive Interference – When two waves overlap and their energy is combined (crests line up with crests) to produce a wave with a larger amplitude and more energy than the original waves. Destructive Interference - When two waves overlap and their energy is canceled by the other wave (crests line up with troughs) to produce a wave with a smaller amplitude and less energy than the original waves.

53 Standing Wave – A wave produced by both constructive and destructive interference that appears to be standing still. Resonant Frequencies – The frequency at which standing waves are made. Resonance – A phenomenon that occurs when two objects naturally vibrate at the same frequency: the sound produced by one object causes the other object to vibrate.


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