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A LPINE TUNDRA E ARTH FORMATIONS. MAPS LOOK AT THE WORLD MAPS LABEL THE 7 CONTINENTS LABEL THE 3 MAJOR OCEANS.

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Presentation on theme: "A LPINE TUNDRA E ARTH FORMATIONS. MAPS LOOK AT THE WORLD MAPS LABEL THE 7 CONTINENTS LABEL THE 3 MAJOR OCEANS."— Presentation transcript:

1 A LPINE TUNDRA E ARTH FORMATIONS

2 MAPS LOOK AT THE WORLD MAPS LABEL THE 7 CONTINENTS LABEL THE 3 MAJOR OCEANS

3 PANGAEA MAP WORK IN PARTNERS – PLACE THE 6 WORLD MAPS FROM OLDEST TO NEWEST SHARE WITH ANOTHER GROUP OF PARTNERS TO SEE IF YOU ARE CORRECT SUPPORT WHY YOU PLACED THEM IN THE ORDER YOU HAVE TO YOUR NEW PARTNER GROUP SHARE WITH CLASS

4 TECTONIC ACTIVITY MAP ANALYZE THE MAPS OF VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES 1) Dots represent earthquakes 2) Red Triangles represent volcanic eruptions o COMPOSITION NOTEBOOKS – Answer the following o 1) Compare and Contrast the placement of the earthquakes and volcanoes (How are they the same, how are they different) o 2) If there are any continents that have different locations of the earthquakes and volcanoes, identify where they are. o 3) Explain why these may be different

5 PLATE TECTONICS MAP TAKE THE PUZZLE PIECES AND GLUE THEM ON THE GIVEN PIECE OF PAPER 1) How many plates are on this map? 2) Explain how this relates to the continents…. COMPARE THE PLATES MAP TO THE MAP OF VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES 3) What do you notice about the location of the volcanoes and earthquakes in relation to the location of the plates? 4) Use the information you learn from analyzing these maps to explain why there is volcanoes and earthquakes in the middle of the ocean.

6 PANGAEA Scientists believe that the Earth once had a single landmass that broke into large pieces, which have since drifted apart. This mass was called PANGAEA

7 CONTINENTAL DRIFT THEORY Alfred Wegener was the first scientist to build a scientific case to support the CONTINENTAL DRIFT THEORY. Evidence from FOSSILS, glacial deposits and other kinds of ROCK deposits found in continents separated by miles of ocean support that they were once joined together.

8 THE EARTHS INTERIOR In order to understand how the earth moves, we must review the layers of the earth. The earth is made up of 4 layers. INNER CORE OUTER CORE MANTLE CRUST

9 INNER CORE Innermost layer of the earth Made of IRON and NICKEL SOLID state of matter 3200 – 4000 miles to the center 800 miles thick Reaches temperatures of 9032˚F Most DENSE layer 3.25 million atmospheric pressure

10 OUTER CORE Next to the inner core toward the Earths surface Made of MOLTEN IRON and Nickel LIQUID state of matter 1800 – 3200 miles from the surface 1400 miles thick Reaches temperatures 4000˚ - 9032˚F 1.5 million atm

11 MANTLE Layer beneath the crust Made of Silicon and OXYGEN PLASTICITY state of matter Starts 20-40 miles down and goes to 1800 miles About 1800 miles thick 1600˚ - 4000˚ F 1.5 million atm

12 Unified Science: Please get out your composition notebook AND your lab sheet from yesterday!!! MAKE SURE YOU HAVE READING BOOKS!!! GO GET THEM BEFORE BELL!!!! Today: Sept 18 Explain the different compositions of Earths Layers

13 P LASTICITY D EMONSTRATION Refer to your handout Observe the phases of plasticity Combination of water and cornstarch Answer Observation questions as a class Answer rest of questions with partners

14 CRUST Outermost layer of the Earth Made of Silicon, OXYGEN, Aluminum, Sodium SOLID state of matter Surface to 43 miles 4 – 43 miles thick 140˚F

15 EARTHS CRUST The Earths crust is its THINNEST, outermost layer. It is made of 3 types of rock: 1) SEDIMENTARY Formed by the compression and cementing of sand, rock fragments and other particles 2) METAMORHIC Formed by change in the rocks from intense heat and/or pressure 3) IGNEOUS Formed by the cooling and hardening of molten rock

16 E ARTH S CRUST ( CONTINUED ) There are 2 types of crust 1) OCEANIC crust is located beneath the oceans that averages less than 10 km thick. MORE DENSE 2) CONTINENTAL crust is located beneath the continents that has an average thickness of about 8 km. Beneath MOUNTAINS, the crust is much thicker. At times it can have a thickness of greater than 70 km.

17 E ARTH S CRUST ( CONTINUED ) The LITHOSPHERE is (Definition: the solid topmost part of the Earth.) It is broken into large sections called PLATES (50-100 km thick) There are at least 7 major plates Name them…how many can you remember?

18 EARTHS CRUST (CONTINUED) The ASTHENOSPHERE is the layer directly beneath the lithosphere which is 130-160 km thick. Definition: The material on which the lithospheric plates move. It is considered to be the upper edge of the mantle Made up of hot, molten MAGMA Has the property of PLASTICITY.- a solid that has the ability to flow

19 C LASS D EMONSTRATION OF L ITHOSPHERE AND A STHENOSPHERE Materials : bread, jelly, foil covered cardboard, the cornstarch/water mixture (plasticity) Procedure: 1. Cover cardboard with aluminum foil 2. Spread cornstarch/water mixture 2. Spread jelly on top of mixture 3. Cut bread into different shapes 4. Place on top of jelly layer…. 5. Move the cardboard gently to watch movement of the plates (bread)

20 Unified Science: Get out notes packet and composition Notebook! Today: Sept 19 Bellwork Review Questions from Lab Describe composition of Earths Levels Describe how plates move QUIZ WEDS OF NEXT WEEK!!!

21 C OMPOSITION NOTEBOOK QUESTIONS 1. What does the cornstarch/water mixture represent? The cornstarch and water mixture represents the ….. 2. What does the jelly represent? The jelly represents the ….. 3. What does the bread represent? The bread represents the …. 4. Describe how this demonstration relates to plate tectonics…

22 W ORKSHEET COMPLETION 1. Complete questions on the class demonstration worksheet 2. Label the layers of the Earth at the end of your notes 3. Label the layers of the Earth on the back page of your notes with a partner…. 4. Add definitions to your glossary

23 W HAT CAUSES PLATES TO MOVE ? Scientists are not for sure what causes the plates to move but they have a good theory. CONVECTION CURRENTS within the Earth causes the plates to move. Definition: the movement of material caused by differences in temperature.

24 C ONVECTION C URRENTS IN THE E ARTH Convection currents move the plates of the lithosphere by: Mantle material close to the core is very hot Mantle material farther from the core is cooler and less dense Cooler denser material sinks down Hot material is then pushed up to replace the cooler material. As cooler material sinks toward the core, it gets hot again then rises. Rising and sinking cycle repeats over and over again This circular motion carries the plates of the lithosphere with it, causing continents/plates to move

25 CONVECTION CURRENTS

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29 E ARTH S S TRESS As the rocks of the crust undergo stress, they slowly change SHAPE and VOLUME. They also move UP or DOWN, or SIDEWAYS. The movement causes the rocks to break, TILT or fold. The breaking, tilting and folding of rocks is called DEFORMATION.

30 3 B ASIC T YPES OF S TRESS There are 3 basic types of stress which deforms the crust in different ways. 1) COMPRESSION 2) TENSION 3) SHEARING

31 1) COMPRESSION COMPRESSION squeezes the rocks of the crust causing the particles in the crustal rocks to move closer together, making the rocks denser and smaller in volume. As crustal rocks are compressed, they are pushed both HIGHER UP and DEEPER DOWN.

32 2) TENSION TENSION pulls on the rocks of the crust, causing them to stretch out over a larger area. A rock under the tension becomes THINNER in the middle than on the ends. As the volume of the rock INCREASES, the density DECREASES.

33 T ENSION

34 SHEARING SHEARING pushes rocks of the crust on 2 opposite directions. This causes the rocks to TWIST and TEAR apart. During shearing, rocks simply bend or BREAK apart.

35 SHEARING

36 S TRESS C ONT D Compression, tension and shearing can change a rocks VOLUME, its SHAPE, or both. Stresses can also cause the rock to FRACTURE, or crack.


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