2 LOOK AT THE WORLD MAPS LABEL THE 7 CONTINENTS LABEL THE 3 MAJOR OCEANS
3 PANGAEA MAP SHARE WITH CLASS WORK IN PARTNERS – PLACE THE 6 WORLD MAPS FROM OLDEST TO NEWESTSHARE WITH ANOTHER GROUP OF PARTNERS TO SEE IF YOU ARE CORRECTSUPPORT WHY YOU PLACED THEM IN THE ORDER YOU HAVE TO YOUR NEW PARTNER GROUPSHARE WITH CLASS
4 TECTONIC ACTIVITY MAP ANALYZE THE MAPS OF VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES 1) Dots represent earthquakes2) Red Triangles represent volcanic eruptionsCOMPOSITION NOTEBOOKS – Answer the following1) Compare and Contrast the placement of the earthquakes and volcanoes (How are they the same, how are they different)2) If there are any continents that have different locations of the earthquakes and volcanoes, identify where they are.3) Explain why these may be different
5 PLATE TECTONICS MAPTAKE THE PUZZLE PIECES AND GLUE THEM ON THE GIVEN PIECE OF PAPER1) How many plates are on this map?2) Explain how this relates to the continents….COMPARE THE PLATES MAP TO THE MAP OF VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES3) What do you notice about the location of the volcanoes and earthquakes in relation to the location of the plates?4) Use the information you learn from analyzing these maps to explain why there is volcanoes and earthquakes in the middle of the ocean.
6 PANGAEAScientists believe that the Earth once had a single landmass that broke into large pieces, which have since drifted apart.This mass was called PANGAEA
7 CONTINENTAL DRIFT THEORY Alfred Wegener was the first scientist to build a scientific case to support the CONTINENTAL DRIFT THEORY.Evidence from FOSSILS, glacial deposits and other kinds of ROCK deposits found in continents separated by miles of ocean support that they were once joined together.
8 THE EARTH’S INTERIORIn order to understand how the earth moves, we must review the layers of the earth.The earth is made up of 4 layers.INNER COREOUTER COREMANTLECRUST
9 INNER COREInnermost layer of the earthMade of IRON and NICKELSOLID state of matter3200 – 4000 miles to the center800 miles thickReaches temperatures of 9032˚FMost DENSE layer3.25 million atmospheric pressure
10 OUTER CORE Next to the inner core toward the Earth’s surface Made of MOLTEN IRON and NickelLIQUID state of matter1800 – 3200 miles from the surface1400 miles thickReaches temperatures 4000˚ ˚F1.5 million atm
11 MANTLE Layer beneath the crust Made of Silicon and OXYGEN PLASTICITY state of matterStarts miles down and goes to milesAbout 1800 miles thick1600˚ ˚ F1.5 million atm
12 MAKE SURE YOU HAVE READING BOOKS!!! Unified Science: Please get out your composition notebook AND your lab sheet from yesterday!!!MAKE SURE YOU HAVE READING BOOKS!!!GO GET THEM BEFORE BELL!!!!Today: Sept 18Explain the different compositions of Earth’s Layers
13 Plasticity Demonstration Refer to your handoutObserve the phases of plasticityCombination of water and cornstarchAnswer Observation questions as a classAnswer rest of questions with partners
14 Outermost layer of the Earth Made of Silicon, OXYGEN, Aluminum, Sodium crustOutermost layer of the EarthMade of Silicon, OXYGEN, Aluminum, SodiumSOLID state of matterSurface to 43 miles4 – 43 miles thick140˚F
15 EARTH’S CRUST The Earth’s crust is its THINNEST, outermost layer. It is made of 3 types of rock:1) SEDIMENTARYFormed by the compression and cementing of sand, rock fragments and other particles2) METAMORHICFormed by change in the rocks from intense heat and/or pressure3) IGNEOUSFormed by the cooling and hardening of molten rock
16 Earth’s crust (continued) There are 2 types of crust1) OCEANIC crust is located beneath the oceans that averages less than 10 km thick. MORE DENSE2) CONTINENTAL crust is located beneath the continents that has an average thickness of about 8 km. Beneath MOUNTAINS, the crust is much thicker. At times it can have a thickness of greater than 70 km.
17 Earth’s crust (continued) The LITHOSPHERE is (Definition: the solid topmost part of the Earth.)It is broken into large sections called PLATES ( km thick)There are at least 7 major platesName them…how many can you remember?
18 EARTH’S CRUST (CONTINUED) The ASTHENOSPHERE is the layer directly beneath the lithosphere which is km thick. Definition: The material on which the lithospheric plates move.It is considered to be the upper edge of the mantleMade up of hot, molten MAGMAHas the property of PLASTICITY.- a solid that has the ability to flow
19 Class Demonstration of Lithosphere and Asthenosphere Materials: bread, jelly, foil covered cardboard,the cornstarch/water mixture (plasticity)Procedure:Cover cardboard with aluminum foilSpread cornstarch/water mixtureSpread jelly on top of mixtureCut bread into different shapesPlace on top of jelly layer….Move the cardboard gently to watch movement of the plates (bread)
20 Unified Science: Get out notes packet and composition Notebook! Today: Sept 19BellworkReview Questions from LabDescribe composition of Earth’s LevelsDescribe how plates moveQUIZ WEDS OF NEXT WEEK!!!
21 Composition notebook questions 1. What does the cornstarch/water mixture represent? The cornstarch and water mixture represents the …..2. What does the jelly represent? The jelly represents the …..3. What does the bread represent? The bread represents the ….4. Describe how this demonstration relates to plate tectonics…
22 Worksheet completion1. Complete questions on the class demonstration worksheet2. Label the layers of the Earth at the end of your notes3. Label the layers of the Earth on the back page of your notes with a partner….4. Add definitions to your glossary
23 What causes plates to move? Scientists are not for sure what causes the plates to move but they have a good theory.‘CONVECTION CURRENTS’ within the Earth causes the plates to move.Definition: the movement of material caused by differences in temperature.
24 Convection Currents in the Earth Convection currents move the plates of the lithosphere by:Mantle material close to the core is very hotMantle material farther from the core is cooler and less denseCooler denser material sinks downHot material is then pushed up to replace the cooler material.As cooler material sinks toward the core, it gets hot again then rises.Rising and sinking cycle repeats over and over againThis circular motion carries the plates of the lithosphere with it, causing continents/plates to move
29 Earth’s StressAs the rocks of the crust undergo stress, they slowly change SHAPE and VOLUME. They also move UP or DOWN, or SIDEWAYS.The movement causes the rocks to break, TILT or fold. The breaking, tilting and folding of rocks is called DEFORMATION.
30 3 Basic Types of StressThere are 3 basic types of stress which deforms the crust in different ways.1) COMPRESSION2) TENSION3) SHEARING
31 1) compressionCOMPRESSION squeezes the rocks of the crust causing the particles in the crustal rocks to move closer together, making the rocks denser and smaller in volume.As crustal rocks are compressed, they are pushed both HIGHER UP and DEEPER DOWN.
32 2) TENSIONTENSION pulls on the rocks of the crust, causing them to stretch out over a larger area.A rock under the tension becomes THINNER in the middle than on the ends.As the volume of the rock INCREASES, the density DECREASES.