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Fitness Testing 2 By Patty, Joe, Iain and Ashley.

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1 Fitness Testing 2 By Patty, Joe, Iain and Ashley

2 Chronic Adoptions to Exercise Cardiovascular Increase in size of the left ventricle Increase stroke volume Decrease in heart rate Increase in cardiac output Increase blood flow Increased capillarization of trained muscles Greater recruitment of existing capillaries in trained muscles More effective blood flow redistributions from inactive regions Decrease in blood pressure Increase in blood volume Increase plasma volume Increase in red blood volume Faster recovery heart rate after exercise Decrease in peripheral vascular resistance by dilating the arteries

3 Chronic Adoptions to Exercise Respiratory Pulmonary ventilation Unchanged rest Endurance training decreases ventilation during sub maximal exercise at given sub maximal intensity Maximal pulmonary ventilation is increased during endurance training, 2 factors that count for this are : increased tidal volume and increase respiratory frequency at maximal exercise Pulmonary diffusion Unaltered at rest and sub maximal exercise following training Increases during maximal exercise Greater blood flow to the tissue because of more effective blood distribution as a result more oxygen gets to the cells Increased Vo2 max A-Vo2 (arterial venous oxygen) difference increases at maximal exercise

4 Chronic Adoptions to Exercise Muscular Aerobic Type 1 fibres become larger Increase in number of capillaries surrounding muscle fibres. This is one of the most important responses to training as this allows the increase in Vo2 max. Increase muscle myoglobin content Increase in mitochondria as the size of the mitochondria Increase in oxidative enzymes Anaerobic Type 2A and 2X muscle fibres increase in there cross sectional area There is a reduction in the percentage of type 1 fibres and increase percentage of type 2 fibres. The greatest change in type 2A fibres Resistance Chronic hypertrophy, fibre hypertrophy and fibre hyperplasia (increase number of muscle fibres)

5 Physiological Benefits of Exercise Cardiovascular health Reducing the risks of cardiovascular disease (heart attack, stroke) Increase in metabolism causing a reduction in body weight as a result the heart is under less stress Lower levels of bad cholesterol (LDL) Exercise increases the size of major coronary vessels, which increase blood flow to all regions of the heart. Major decrease in triglycerides Lower heart rate levels Reducing the risk of hypertension Increase in plasma volume Greater capacity of venous system Increase in AVo2 max difference

6 Physiological Benefits of Exercise Diabetes Reduce body fat levels which decreases the risk of developing diabetes. Decreases risk of coronary artery disease Exercise and exercise training can improve glycemic control in some diabetic suffers. This is mainly for suffers who are less prone to hypoglycemia Exercise increases the bodies sensitivity to insulin and improves the bodies ability to transport blood sugar to muscle cells

7 Physiological Benefits of Exercise Asthma The more fit an asthmatic can remain then the better he will be able to deal with his asthma. Exercise and sport should not be so rigorous as to cause asthma because this defeats the whole purpose. You must only exercise within your capabilities. exercise strengthens the respiratory muscles and also improves your efficiency at utilising oxygen Decreases sensitivity to shortness of breath Reducing the dependency on medication

8 References References: Eyre, J. (2000). Cardiovascular Adaptations. Retrieved October 9, 2008, from http://www.ultimate- Hall, C.M., Brody L.T., (2004) Therapeutic Exercise: Moving Toward Function (2nd Ed.). Washington, DC, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Leitner, M.J., Leitner S.F., (2004). Leisure Enhancement (3rd Ed.). London. Haworth Press. Real Buzz – Healthy Active Living (2005-2008) Exercise and Asthma. Retrieved October 9, 2008, from Wilmore, J., Costill, D., Kenney, W. (2008). Physiology Of Sport and Exercise (4rd Ed.). South Australia. Australian Human Kimetics. Useful Websites Fsid%3D1640+AVo2+max+difference&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=auhttp:// Fsid%3D1640+AVo2+max+difference&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=au - - %202007%20Campaign%20final1_1.pdf %202007%20Campaign%20final1_1.pdf

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