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Old Testament in the New Matthew 4:4 MGVH – LTSG.

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Presentation on theme: "Old Testament in the New Matthew 4:4 MGVH – LTSG."— Presentation transcript:

1 Old Testament in the New Matthew 4:4 MGVH – LTSG

2 Old Testament in the New Matthew 4:4 In most cases (and when in doubt!), you can click anywhere on the screen to advance to the next slide. Some slides will ask you to click on a specific spot. If you want to backtrack, use the back arrow on your keyboard or on the lower left of the screen. This slideshow is linked to videos that will show you how to use BibleWorks7 to obtain the correct answers. (Note: the video links will initiate a download from the Internet. If you have obtained copies of the videos, it will be much better running them locally. The correct video to watch is listed below each link.) It will be most helpful if you have BibleWorks7 open and pause the video as needed to run the steps yourself. Return to the show after viewing the video.

3 Old Testament in the New Matthew 4:4 Goals for this exercise Using Matthew 4.4 as a focus, learn about the various resources in BibleWorks7 and how to use them Learn about the resources available in the NET Bible and elsewhere and how to use them Discover the kinds of questions and issues to be considered when doing work in the area of Old Testament in the New Testament

4 Old Testament in the New Matthew 4:4 Resources you will use BibleWorks7 setting limits, simple word searches, command line examples, use of versions, Word Analysis and Resource Analysis tabs features Report Generator Synopsis Tool (and various SDF files) Treasury of Scripture Knowledge (TSK) Archer & Chirichignos OT Quotes in the NT Tovs Parallel BHS and LXX The NET Bible (Greek-English diglot) Margin and Text critical notes Loci Citati vel Allegati index at the back Internet Sites (but remember that looking for the books in the library will often be better!)

5 Old Testament in the New Matthew 4:4 Outline for this exercise What indication is there that Scripture is being cited in Matthew 4.4? What is Scripture is being cited in Matthew 4.4? What version of the Old Testament text is being cited? Where else and how is this Old Testament text used? Why is this particular Old Testament text cited in the New Testament?

6 Matthew 4:4 - It is written… γ γραπται δ ποκριθε ς ε πεν · γ γραπται · ο κ π ρτ μ ν ζ σεται νθρωπος, λλ π παντ ματι κπορευομ ν δι στ ματος θεο. It is written But he answered, "It is written, 'One does not live by bread alone, but by every word that comes from the mouth of God.'" Where else in Matthew does γ γραπται occur? Click to view video Click to view video Mat4.4a.wmv (1.5Mb)

7 It is written… Where else in Matthew does γ γραπται occur? Click on the correct answer to proceed to the next step. 2:5; 4:4, 6, 7, 10; 11:10; 21:13; 26:24, 31, 37 4:3f; 6:11; 7:9; 12:4; 14:17, 19; 15:2, 26, 36; 26:26 2:8; 4:4, 10; 12:11; 23:23; 25:21 2:5; 4:4, 6, 7, 10; 11:10; 21:13; 26:24, 31

8 It is written… This is not correct. Look again at the video to see how to find the correct answer. Click on the arrow to return to the previous screen.

9 Oops… Click on the arrow to return to the previous slide.

10 It is written… Great! Now look at those instances where γεγραπται occurs, including our focus verse, 4:4. It is written But he answered, "It is written, 'One does not live by bread alone, but by every word that comes from the mouth of God.'" What do you notice about how it is used? That is, to what is it referring when it says that something is written?

11 It is written… Great! Now look at those instances where γεγραπται occurs, including our focus verse, 4:4. It is written But he answered, "It is written, 'One does not live by bread alone, but by every word that comes from the mouth of God.'" What do you notice about how it is used? That is, to what is it referring when it says that something is written? In each instance (except perhaps 26.24?), it refers to a citation from Scripture.

12 What Scripture? γ γραπται δ ποκριθε ς ε πεν · γ γραπται · ο κ π ρτ μ ν ζ σεται νθρωπος, λλ π παντ ματι κπορευομ ν δι στ ματος θεο. It is written But he answered, "It is written, 'One does not live by bread alone, but by every word that comes from the mouth of God.'" What Scripture is Jesus citing? How will you find out? Click to view video Click to view video Mat4.4b.wmv (3.9Mb)

13 What Scripture? What Scripture is Jesus citing? Click on the correct answer Exodus 13.6 Leviticus 8.31 Numbers Deuteronomy 8.3 Genesis 3.19

14 What Scripture? This is not correct. Look again at the video to see how to find the correct answer. Click on the arrow to return to the previous screen.

15 Oops… Click on the arrow to return to the previous slide.

16 What Scripture? Excellent! BONUS MATERIAL (Hover your mouse over the ANSWER box) What other text was given as a possible reference in the margin of the Greek text of the NET Bible? ANSWER Why were some of the references in the NET Bible italicized?

17 Which Version of Deuteronomy 8.3? A quick review of the history of the Old Testament text Latin(Vulgate) Syriac(Peshitta) English… (translations) Aramaic(Targums)Greek(LXX) Original Hebrew ?? Hebrew (Masoretic Text) This is a very rough approximation of how the versions developed The diagram is roughly chronologically correct The connections between versions are not necessarily direct but may simply indicate influences Remember that there is still variety within each version

18 Which Version of Deuteronomy 8.3? Which version of Scripture is Jesus citing? Are there any differences of significance between the versions? Click to view video Click to view video Jesus spoke in Aramaic, but he may have known Greek, and he may have cited Scripture in Hebrew Matthews Gospel is in Greek (though some wonder if there was a prior Hebrew/Aramaic text) Deuteronomy 8.3 was available both in Hebrew (probably something very close to the later Masoretic text) and Greek (the Septuagint = LXX), but it was also being translated into Aramaic in the synagogue readings So… Mat4.4c.wmv (5Mb)

19 Which Version of Deuteronomy 8.3? Which version of Scripture is Jesus citing? Are there any differences of significance between the versions? You should have created a document that looks something like this:

20 Which Version of Deuteronomy 8.3? Hebrew (NAU translation) … but man lives by everything that proceeds out of the mouth of the LORD. Aramaic (PJE translation) … but by all that is created by the Word of the Lord doth man live. Greek (LXE translation) … but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God shall man live. What is meant by the Hebrews everything that proceeds out of the mouth of the Lord? Both the Aramaic and Greek understand it to be Gods Word The Aramaic adds the idea of created by We will compare the Hebrew and Greek more closely in the next step. For now, look closely at the last part of the quotation as the original Hebrew is rendered in the Aramaic and Greek.

21 Which Version of Deuteronomy 8.3? Hebrew (NAU translation) … but man lives by everything that proceeds out of the mouth of the LORD. Greek (LXE translation) … but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God shall man live. Latin Vulgate (DRA translation) … but in every word that proceedeth from the mouth of God. Is the Vulgate more dependent on the Hebrew or the Greek? Its inclusion of word indicates its reliance on the LXX Its omission of the final phrase (shall a person live) indicates that its rendering of Deuteronmy 8.3 is influenced by its reading of Matthew 4.4! Now, look closely at the last part of the quotation as the original Hebrew is rendered in the Greek and the Latin.

22 Which Version of Dt 8.3 in Mt 4.4? Which version of Scripture is Matthew citing? What tools can you use to find out? Click to view video Click to view video Now that we are aware of some of the dynamics of the text of Deuteronomy 8.3, we want to compare the versions of that text with the text as we now have it in Matthew 4.4. Mat4.4d.wmv (3.6Mb)

23 Which Version of Dt 8.3 in Mt 4.4? Is Matthew actually citing the LXX or is it an independent translation of the Hebrew? What tools can you use to find out? Click to view video Click to view video Its easy to see that Matthew is indeed close to the Greek text, but we will want to investigate more closely. Deut 8.3 ο κ π ρτ μ ν ζ σεται νθρωπος λλ π παντ ματι τ κπορευομ ν δι στ ματος θεο ζ σεται νθρωπος ο κ π ρτ μ ν ζ σεται νθρωπος, λλ π παντ ματι κπορευομ ν δι στ ματος θεο. Matt 4.4 Mat4.4e.wmv (8.0Mb)

24 Which Version of Dt 8.3 in Mt 4.4? Is Matthew actually citing the LXX or is it an independent translation of the Hebrew? >>> In this instance, it does indeed appear that Matthew is familiar with and using the LXX translation of Deuteronomy 8.3. Why? The use of θεος in both the LXX and Mt 4.4 The main issues are: Why? The inclusion of ματι in both the LXX and Mt 4.4

25 Which Version of Dt 8.3 in Mt 4.4? BONUS MATERIAL (Hover your mouse over the ANSWER box) Compare a literal translation of Deut 8.3 such as the NASB (=NAU) with the intentionally neutral text of the NRSV with the intentionally Christian text of the NIV. NAU: …man does not live by bread alone, but man lives by everything that proceeds out of the mouth of the LORD. NRS: … one does not live by bread alone, but by every word that comes from the mouth of the LORD. 1 1 Or by anything that the LORD decrees NIV: … man does not live on bread alone but on every word that comes from the mouth of the LORD. With the information you have gained about Deut 8.3 and its translation history, which version has influenced these translations? NAU NRS NIV

26 Where else is Deuteronomy 8.3 cited? Where else is Deuteronomy 8.3 cited? What tools can you use to find out? Click to view video Click to view video We know that Deuteronomy 8.3 is quoted in Matthew 4.4, but now we want to see if this passage is cited elsewhere in the OT (this is possible!) or in the Apocrypha or in the NT. We will also want to note why this passage is being cited to begin to think about why it is used in Matthew 4.4. Mat4.4f.wmv (8.7Mb)

27 Where else is Deuteronomy 8.3 cited? Here is a scan from the Loci Citati vel Allegati index at the back of the NET Bible for Dt 8.3. Why are the Matthew and Luke references in italics? ANSWER What is 1 K 10,3? ANSWER How is it related to Dt 8.3? ANSWER

28 Where else is Deuteronomy 8.3 cited? We will come back to Matthew 4.4 and Luke 4.4 in a moment. They will not prove particularly helpful in the case of Dt 8.3 and Mt 4.4, but in a more comprehensive study, we would want to track down references to either of these texts as they occur in the OT Apocrypha and Pseudepigraph, the NT Apocrypha, the early Christian Fathers, the rabbinic literature, and more. The next few slides will point you to resources for doing such a comprehensive study. If we were doing a more comprehensive study, where else would you look to find references to Deuteronomy 8.3? Ill worry about that stuff later. Lets stick with our work on Mt 4.4 and Dt 8.3.

29 For further research Apocryhpa (books of the OT in the LXX but not in the Hebrew Bible) We already found these in our BW7 search of the LXX Old Testament Pseudepigrapha RH Charles edited the OT Pseudepigrapha in 1913, and this edition is part of BW7. (Resources > Miscellaneous > Charles) If there is a reference to an OT text, you will see it in the Resource Summary tab. If you open the resource directly, you can also search in it. (In our case, you might look for something like bread and see what you can find.) Charles work has been superceded by the much superior 2 volume edition of the OT Pseudepigrapha (OTP) by James H. Charlesworth. Note these links to volumes 1 and 2! They will bring you to Amazon where you can Search Inside the books. In our case, you might search for something like bread or deut 8. (Note that the Search Inside feature doesnt let you look exactly for Deut 8:3, so you will have to weed out lots of results.) The Index to both volumes is at the end of volume 2, so that is an especially good place to look for hits.1 2 But let me show you a better way! There is an index to the marginal citations of Charlesworths OTP compiled by Kevin P. Edgecomb here: Download the 178 page PDF file and search for the text you want.index to the marginal citations of Charlesworths OTP Additionally, Edgecomb has provided a collection of NT Allusions to Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha garnered from the NA27 index and added a few more of his own. Also check Deuterocanonical References in the NT compiled by James Akin.NT Allusions to Apocrypha and PseudepigraphaDeuterocanonical References in the NT

30 For further research Other Jewish Literature Follow the links I provide on the Bibliography page for this class, but in particular, note the following:Bibliography Josephus: There is quite a bit online, but all of Josephus in both Greek and English is available within BW7. You will need to search by word/phrase. You cannot search for a particular verse of Scripture, but note that Josephus Antiquities is a recounting of biblical history, and you can locate passages parallel to the biblical account. Philo: There is quite a bit online, but all of Philo in both Greek and English is available within BW7. You will need to search by word/phrase. A few of his works align with the biblical text, e.g., the ones on Abraham, Joseph, Moses… Rabbinic Literature: It is more difficult to work with this material. Look at the notes I provide on the Bibliography page. From the perspective of an OT in the NT approach, Ginzbergs Legends and Midrash Rabbah are most interesting.

31 For further research Early Christian Literature Follow the links I provide on the Bibliography page for this class, but in particular, note the following:Bibliography Ante-Nicene, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers The early Church Fathers provide an outstanding view to Christian interpretation of Scripture. Note that the Apostolic Fathers and part of the Ante-Nicene Fathers series are avaialable within BW7 as addins. (Look here.)here Perhaps more helpful is e-Catena: Compiled Allusions to the NT in the Ante-Nicene Fathers. This online resource can also be added as a BW7 module with references showing up in the Resource tab.e-Catena: Compiled Allusions to the NT in the Ante-Nicene Fathersadded as a BW7 module The Christian Classics Ethereal Library has many of the texts you want. Be sure to follow this link that searches by Scripture text.Christian Classics Ethereal Library Be sure to note the Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture series. The link will bring you to Amazon, and you can make very good use of the Search Inside feature.Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture Early Church Fathers (not included in ANF, NF, PNF texts): In particular, Eusebius Demonstratio Evangelica = Proof of the Gospel is a treasure of early Xn scripture interpretation.Early Church Fathers

32 For further research Early Christian Literature Other Early Christian Writings We are now wanting to look at texts that fall somewhat outside what became mainstream Christianity, a collection of writings known as the NT Apocryhpa. Again, note the links on the Bibliography page but especially look at the Gospel of Peter, the Gospel of Thomas material, Nag Hammadi texts, and the collection of materials accumulated at the Wesley Center.BibliographyWesley Center The standard written texts in this area are: MR James The Apocryphal New Testament (1924) was the old standard. Its text is in the public domain, so it is available online. Note that this text is included in BW7, so references to biblical passages will show up in the Resource tab, and it is easily searchable. This work has, however, been superceded by the following books. Hennecke & Schneemelcher's New Testament Apocrypha (vol 1 and vol 2)vol 1vol 2 Elliott's The Apocryphal New Testament : A Collection of Apocryphal Christian Literature in an English TranslationThe Apocryphal New Testament : A Collection of Apocryphal Christian Literature in an English Translation Ehrman's Lost Scriptures : Books that Did Not Make It into the New Testament.Lost Scriptures : Books that Did Not Make It into the New Testament Note that the links will bring you to Amazon where you can use the "Search Inside" feature.

33 How is Deut 8.3 cited in the NT? Lets compare the citation of Dt 8.3 in Mt 4.4 and Lk 4.4. Matthew 4:4 δ ποκριθε ς ε πεν· γ γραπται· ο κ π ρτ μ ν ζ σεται νθρωπος, λλ π παντ ματι κπορευομ ν δι στ ματος θεο. κα πεκρ θη πρ ς α τ ν ησο ς· γ γραπται τι ο κ π ρτ μ ν ζ σεται νθρωπος. Luke 4:4 What obvious difference do you note? ANSWER

34 How is Deut 8.3 cited in the NT? The difference in citation should lead you to check the text critical notes in your NET Bibles NA27 Greek text at both Mt 4.4 and Lk 4.4. Heres the Lk 4.4 text: What do you notice? ANSWER

35 Why is Deut 8.3 cited in Mt 4.4? Now we are finally getting to the point of all our work: Why does Matthew record that Jesus cited Deuteronomy 8.3 in response to the Tempters challenge? Weve focused on the texts so far. Lets now consider the contexts. Read Deuteronomy What is the context? What is the main concern? ANSWER

36 Why is Deut 8.3 cited in Mt 4.4? Now we are finally getting to the point of all our work: Why does Matthew record that Jesus cited Deuteronomy 8.3 in response to the Tempters challenge? With Deuteronomy in mind, look at Matthew 4. Read Matthew What is the context? What is the main concern? ANSWER

37 Why is Deut 8.3 cited in Mt 4.4? Now we are finally getting to the point of all our work: Why does Matthew record that Jesus cited Deuteronomy 8.3 in response to the Tempters challenge? The logic connecting Dt 8.3 with its use in Mt 4.4 seems clear. Israels 40 years in the wilderness // Jesus 40 days in the wilderness There is the issue of bread that is needed It is a matter of testing / πειραζω

38 Why is Deut 8.3 cited in Mt 4.4? Why does Matthew record that Jesus cited Deuteronomy 8.3 in response to the Tempters challenge? So what? What is the testing about? What does this prove about Jesus? The similar situations establish a relationship between Israel and Jesus The issue of bread in the wilderness was a matter of reflection (Recall that WisSol cited the passage, and there is much more in the rabbinic literature) Also recall the interpretive addition made by the LXX to the Hebrew clarifying the importance of Gods word (and that Mt makes a point of including it) It is a matter of testing / πειραζω

39 Why is Deut 8.3 cited in Mt 4.4? Why does Matthew record that Jesus cited Deuteronomy 8.3 in response to the Tempters challenge? Here is really where a discussion should begin, but for this exercise, Ill make a few observations: Dt 8.3 is not a messianic text. Jesus citation of it does not have anything to do with whether he is the Messiah or not Why is Jesus compared to Israel? (And look at Mt 2.15 which quotes Hosea 2.11: Out of Egypt I have called my son…) >> Where Israel proved to be unfaithful, Jesus proves to be faithful

40 Why is Deut 8.3 cited in Mt 4.4? Why does Matthew record that Jesus cited Deuteronomy 8.3 in response to the Tempters challenge? For Christians reflecting on the identity of Jesus, this event confirms his role as a faithful representative of Israel. Jesus will be a reliable witness to Gods Word. (Note that Matthews inclusion of the final phrase of Dt 8.3 emphasizes this point.) It suggests that, as we read the rest of the Gospel, Jesus will succeed in living out this Word of God.

41 Whats next? This exercise is an example of how to work with a NT passage that relates to an OT one. Youre now ready to try out these new learnings for yourself!


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