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What we have learned from 20 Years of School Effectiveness and School Improvement Research, and what this means for schools and teachers Tony Townsend.

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Presentation on theme: "What we have learned from 20 Years of School Effectiveness and School Improvement Research, and what this means for schools and teachers Tony Townsend."— Presentation transcript:

1 What we have learned from 20 Years of School Effectiveness and School Improvement Research, and what this means for schools and teachers Tony Townsend Faculty of Education Monash University Tomorrows Teachers: Success through Standards March 31 - April 1, 2002 Zayed University

2 Perception Our view of the world is a product of what we are looking at, where we are standing when we are looking at it and how we feel about ourselves and the thing we are looking at.

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8 Perception Our view of the world is a product of what we are looking at, where we are standing when we are looking at it and how we feel about ourselves and the thing we are looking at. We can, however, change peoples perceptions of the world by providing them with new information.

9 ...this one most vital area of our national life - public education - has not undergone the process of revitalising change. In our economic and social life we expect change, but in the public schools we have clung tenaciously to the ideas and techniques of earlier decades and even previous centuries. Gerstner et al., 1994: 3

10 Schools are still modelled on a curious mix of the factory, the asylum and the prison... We are glad to see the end of the traditional factory; why should we expect the school modelled on it to be welcome to children? Hargreaves, 1994: 43-44

11 Hood, 1998:3 Structurally the curriculum is much the same as it has been for the last 50 years, as is how teachers approach the curriculum. Students are still divided into classes of about the same number, primarily based on age. The day is rigidly fixed within specific timeframes and divided by inflexible timetables. Teachers teach subjects, and front up each hour to a different group of students. Classrooms are designed and used as they were 50 years ago, even though the décor might have changed. Assessment of learning is still dominated by national external examinations.

12 From 2nd to 3rd Millennium Schools FocusScope of an of delivery effective education From 1000 to 1870 Individual few From 1870 to 1980 Local some From 1980 to 2000 National many

13 Townsend, 1998: 248 We have conquered the challenge of moving from a quality education system for a few people to a quality education system for most people. Our challenge now is to move from having a quality education system for most people to a quality education system for all people.

14 From 2nd to 3rd Millennium Schools FocusScope of an of delivery effective education From 1000 to 1870 Individual few From 1870 to 1980 Local some From 1980 to 2000 National many From 2000 Global all

15 Coleman et al., 1966:325 Schools bring little influence to bear on a child's achievement that is independent of his background and general social context... this very lack of an independent effect means that the inequalities imposed on children by their home, neighbourhood and peer environment are carried along to become the inequalities with which they confront adult life at the end of school. For equality of educational opportunity must imply a strong effect of schools that is independent of the child's immediate environment, and that strong independence is not present in American schools.

16 Edmonds, 1978:3 I define an effective school as being instructionally successful for all children excepting those of certifiable physical, emotional or mental handicap. Specifically, I require that an effective school bring the children of the poor to those minimal masteries of basic school skills that now describe minimally successful pupil performances for the children of the middle class.

17 Possible Goals for Effective Schools Literacy Numeracy Other Academic Goals (eg science, history) Behaviour Attendance Self-concept Citizenship Employment Other Educational Goals (eg values, attitudes) Community Goals (eg involvement, safety)

18 Townsend, 1994: 37 Possible goals for schools LNOABASCCEOECom

19 Mortimore et al, 1988: 176 The study of fifty English junior schools, sought to find a way of comparing schools' effects on their pupils, while acknowledging the fact that schools do not all receive pupils of similar abilities and backgrounds.

20 Value Added and Mediating Effectiveness Value Adding

21 Value Added and Mediating Effectiveness Value Adding

22 Value Added and Mediating Effectiveness Value Adding Mediating

23 Value Added and Mediating Effectiveness Value Adding Mediating

24 Value Added and Mediating Effectiveness Value Adding Mediating

25 Townsend, 1994: 46 Techniques for measuring effective schools OUTCOME BASIS VALUE-ADDED BASIS

26 Townsend, 1994: 42 Techniques for identifying effective schools STANDARDISED TESTING REPUTATIONAL APPROACH COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT SCHOOL REVIEW AND EVALUATION

27 Townsend, 1994: 47 Model for recognising effective schools LNOABASCCEOECom COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT SCHOOL REVIEW AND EVALUATION REPUTATIONAL APPROACH STANDARDISED TESTING V A L U E A D D E D O U T C O M E S

28 Edmonds, 1979

29 Townsend, 1994:48 An effective school is one that develops and maintains a high quality educational programme designed to achieve both system-wide and locally identified goals. All students, regardless of their family or social background, experience both improvement across their school career and ultimate success in the achievement of those goals, based on appropriate external and school-based measuring techniques.

30 McGaw et al. (1992:174) School effectiveness is about a great deal more than maximising academic achievement. Learning, and the love of learning; personal development and self-esteem; life skills; problem solving and learning how to learn; the development of independent thinkers and well-rounded, confident individuals; all rank as highly or more highly in the outcomes of effective schooling as success in a narrow range of academic disciplines.

31 Townsend, 1994 The core-plus curriculum ensures that both: The CORE areas, those areas identified by the state as being so important that every child should learn and know them, AND The PLUS areas, those areas identified by the school community as being important to their children, are given the time, attention and resources necessary for those skills, attitudes and knowledge to be planned for, learned and evaluated.

32 Townsend, 1994 The core-plus school gives attention to both: Its CORE responsibility, namely, the education of the children in its care, AND Its PLUS activities, namely, the development of processes, programs and practices that will assist the local community to identify and resolve the educational needs of its members.

33 McGaw, Banks &Piper, 1991: 15 There is no definitive how of effective schools and so there can be no one recipe for every school to try. Schooling is too complex a business for a recipe.

34 Codding, 1994: 5 Schools must do the job well and be held accountable for results. But there is also the growing feeling nationally that schools cannot do it alone. Children attend school for about one day of every two during the year and then for only 7 or 8 hours a day. For the rest of the time our American children are subject to the influence of the family, the neighborhood, the streets, the peer culture, and the media. We all create the conditions in which children learn and grow. And there is a growing belief that if we wish them to learn and grow well, we must attend to the quality of these conditions.

35 School and Class Effects Percent of Variance in Value-Added Measures of English and Mathematics Achievement Accounted for by School and Class Effects Class (%)School (%) English Primary 45 9 Secondary 38 7 Mathematics Primary 55 4 Secondary 53 8 Peter Hill, 1997: 9

36 A world class school a clear vision, underpinned by a set of values which will guide its policies, procedures and practices; a strong focus on the student outcomes to improve both curriculum and teaching practices; a professional learning community which adopts knowledge-based practices based on continuous self-evaluation in the pursuit of excellence; HK SBM Consultation Document, 1999

37 A world class school a strong alliance of stakeholders, including parents, teachers and community members, working in partnership to develop the potential of each and every student to the fullest extent; school management which is open, transparent and publicly accountable for its educational achievements and proper use of public funds. HK SBM Consultation Document, 1999

38 Stoll & Fink (1997) Effective Ineffective ImprovingDeclining Moving StrugglingSinking Cruising Strolling

39 What school is your school? Moving (effective and improving) Cruising (effective but declining) Strolling (OK but not going anywhere) Struggling (not effective but getting better) Sinking (not effective and getting worse)

40 What school is your school? Student achievement Staff-student relationships Student welfare Literacy attainment Numeracy attainment Balanced curriculum Student responsibility School facilities and environment Parent involvement School leadership Professional development Fund raising Marketing the school Staff-administration relationship Communication to parents Relations with the wider community Extra curricular activities Sporting achievement Staff health and well-being Student attendance Staff involvement in decisions Financial management Student behaviour School ethos and climate Curriculum development Assessment of student progress Reporting to parents Relations with region/department Staff cooperation Inducting new staff Student group learning Celebrate achievement

41 2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking Second Millennium Thinking Important learning can only occur in formal learning facilities.

42 2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking Second Millennium Third MillenniumThinking Important learning People can learn can only occur in things from many formal learning sources. facilities.

43 2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking Second Millennium Third MillenniumThinking Everyone must learn a common core of content.

44 2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking Second Millennium Third MillenniumThinking Everyone must learn a common understand the core of content.learning process and have basic learning skills.

45 2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking Second Millennium Third Millennium Thinking The learning process is controlled by the teacher. What is to be taught, when it will be taught and how it should be taught all be determined by a professional person.

46 2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking Second Millennium Third Millennium Thinking The learning process is controlled by the teacher. controlled by the What is to be taught, learner. What is to be when it will be taught and taught, when it should be how it should be taught taught and how it should all be determined by a be taught will all be professional person. determined by the learner.

47 2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking Second Millennium Third MillenniumThinking Education and learning are individual activities. Success is based on how well learners learn as individuals.

48 2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking Second Millennium Third MillenniumThinking Education and Education and learning learning are are highly interactive individual activities. activities. Success is Success is based on based on how well how well learners learners work together learn as individuals. as a team.

49 2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking Second Millennium Third MillenniumThinking Formal education prepares people for life.

50 2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking Second Millennium Third MillenniumThinking Formal education prepares people is the basis for for life. lifelong learning.

51 2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking Second Millennium Third Millennium Thinking Once you leave formal education, you enter the real world.

52 2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking Second Millennium Third Millennium Thinking Once you leave Formal education formal education, provides a range of you enter the real interactions between world. learners and the world of business, commerce and politics.

53 2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking Second Millennium Third MillenniumThinking The more formal qualifications you have the more successful you will be.

54 2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking Second Millennium Third MillenniumThinking The more formal The more capability qualifications you and adaptability you have the more successful you successful you will will be. be.

55 2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking Second Millennium Third MillenniumThinking Basic education is funded by government.

56 2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking Second Millennium Third MillenniumThinking Basic education is funded by funded by both government.government and private sources.

57 2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking Second Millennium Third MillenniumThinking The terms education and school mean almost the same thing.

58 2nd Millennium and 3rd Millennium Thinking Second Millennium Third MillenniumThinking The terms School is only one education and of a multitude of school mean possibilities on the almost the same education journey. thing.

59 Challenges for the Future How do technological developments impact on the school?

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61 Townsend; 1997: 20 We need to deal with the possibility, that somewhere in the future, that we will have virtual classrooms, with students plugging their helmet and gloves into their computer at home to become virtually surrounded by their classmates and the teacher. Or we could have students walking out their front door onto the Steppes of Africa or the ice of Antarctica. Such developments are no more or less feasible than the internet would have been to the scientists of the 1940s who would walk for five minutes to get from one end of their computer to the other.

62 Townsend; 1997: 20 We need to deal with the possibility, that somewhere in the future, that we will have virtual classrooms, with students plugging their helmet and gloves into their computer at home to become virtually surrounded by their classmates and the teacher. Or we could have students walking out their front door onto the Steppes of Africa or the ice of Antarctica. Such developments are no more or less feasible than the internet would have been to the scientists of the 1940s who would walk for five minutes to get from one end of their computer to the other.

63 Townsend; 1997: 20 We need to deal with the possibility, that somewhere in the future, that we will have virtual classrooms, with students plugging their helmet and gloves into their computer at home to become virtually surrounded by their classmates and the teacher. Or we could have students walking out their front door onto the Steppes of Africa or the ice of Antarctica. Such developments are no more or less feasible than the internet would have been to the scientists of the 1940s who would walk for five minutes to get from one end of their computer to the other.

64 Townsend; 1997: 20 We need to deal with the possibility, that somewhere in the future, that we will have virtual classrooms, with students plugging their helmet and gloves into their computer at home to become virtually surrounded by their classmates and the teacher. Or we could have students walking out their front door onto the Steppes of Africa or the ice of Antarctica. Such developments are no more or less feasible than the internet would have been to the scientists of the 1940s who would walk for five minutes to get from one end of their computer to the other.

65 Thomas Watson, Chairman, IBM I think there is a world market for maybe 5 computers 1943

66 Challenges for the Future How do technological developments impact on the school? Are schools cost effective in terms of their accessibility and client base?

67 The 20/20 school serves about 20% of the population (children) for about 20% of the time (61/2 hours per day, 5 days per week, 40 weeks per year). Staples, 1989

68 The 20/20 school serves about 20% of the population (children) for about 20% of the time (61/2 hours per day, 5 days per week, 40 weeks per year). The 100/100 school is open all the time for anyone who wishes to use it. Children, parents, community members all have access to the facilities of the school. Staples, 1989

69 Challenges for the Future How do technological developments impact on the school? Are schools cost effective in terms of their accessibility and client base? Are schools relevant?

70 Carr, 1942: 34 Many schools are like little islands set apart from the mainland of life by a deep moat of convention and tradition. Across the moat there is a drawbridge, which is lowered at certain periods during the day in order that the part-time inhabitants may cross over to the island in the morning and go back to the mainland at night. Why do these young people go out to the island? They go there in order to learn how to live on the mainland.

71 Carr, 1942: 34 Many schools are like little islands set apart from the mainland of life by a deep moat of convention and tradition. Across the moat there is a drawbridge, which is lowered at certain periods during the day in order that the part-time inhabitants may cross over to the island in the morning and go back to the mainland at night. Why do these young people go out to the island? They go there in order to learn how to live on the mainland.

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73 Challenges for 3rd Millennium Schools To develop a curriculum that is appropriate to a modern, technological and culturally diverse society.

74 THE INTENDED CURRICULUM - expectations about learning outcomes and standards to be achieved - content and skills to be taught and learned

75 THE INTENDED CURRICULUM - expectations about learning outcomes and standards to be achieved - content and skills to be taught and learned THE IMPLEMENTED CURRICULUM - what teachers do in classrooms - teaching and learning practices - pedagogy

76 THE INTENDED CURRICULUM - expectations about learning outcomes and standards to be achieved - content and skills to be taught and learned THE IMPLEMENTED CURRICULUM - what teachers do in classrooms - teaching and learning practices - pedagogy THE ATTAINED CURRICULUM - demonstration of learning outcomes by students - actual achievement of students in relation to standards

77 The Four Pillars of the Global Classroom Education for Survival Understanding our place in the world Understanding community Understanding our personal responsibility

78 Challenges for 3rd Millennium Schools To develop a curriculum that is appropriate to a modern, technological and culturally diverse society. To actively engage every student in their learning.

79 Gardners Intelligences linguistic logical-mathematical spatial musical bodily-kinesthetic naturalistic intelligence intrapersonal interpersonal existential

80 Learning Styles Left style - Analytic logical thought sequential approach to tasks excel in language-centred activity step-by-step towards the big picture Right style - Global think in patterns and relationships provide summaries and overviews rather than facts from big picture to smaller detail

81 The RelationaLearning Model (Otero and Sparks, 2000) RECOGNISING Awareness Facts for Forgetting Isolated Learners Engaged Learners Global Self-regulated Learners

82 The RelationaLearning Model (Otero and Sparks, 2000) UNDERSTANDING Adaptability Concepts for Analysing RECOGNISING Awareness Facts for Forgetting Isolated Learners Engaged Learners Interactive/Introspective Learners Global Self-regulated Learners

83 The RelationaLearning Model (Otero and Sparks, 2000) VALUING Interaction Ethics for Discussion UNDERSTANDING Adaptability Concepts for Analysing RECOGNISING Awareness Facts for Forgetting Isolated Learners Engaged Learners Interactive/Introspective Learners Global Self-regulated Learners

84 The RelationaLearning Model (Otero and Sparks, 2000) RELATING Interdependence Options for Positive Action VALUING Interaction Ethics for Discussion UNDERSTANDING Adaptability Concepts for Analysing RECOGNISING Awareness Facts for Forgetting Isolated Learners Engaged Learners Interactive/Introspective Learners Global Self-regulated Learners

85 Survival Values in Learning Attitudes and feelings about subjects, studies, self 100% 80% 70% 50% 35% 10% Thinking skills and processes Motor skills Conceptual schemes Factual material Nonsense syllables Per cent of usefulness retained assuming 100% original effectivenss Elapsed time (months) 0 612

86 Challenges for 3rd Millennium Schools To develop a curriculum that is appropriate to a modern, technological and culturally diverse society. To actively engage every student in their learning. To provide the opportunity for everyone in the school community to become a learner, a teacher and a leader in the third millennium.

87 From Effective Schools to Effective Teachers Modern Teachers need to be developed as capable which is seen as moving beyond initial competencies. The Capable Teacher is what we should be seeking to develop, encourage and honour as the hallmark of our profession. Cairns, 1998: 1

88 Teacher Capability Capability is… having justified confidence in your ability to: take appropriate and effective action communicate effectively collaborate with others learn from experiences in changing and unfamiliar circumstances. Stephenson, 1993

89 Capability Learning Model Three intertwined elements: u Ability (describes both competence and capacity) u Values (the ideals that govern the use of ability) u Self-efficacy (the way people judge their capability to carry out actions effectively)

90 Capability tasks/ problems contexts/situations familiar unfamiliar familiar problems in familiar contexts novel problems in familiar contexts unfamiliar problems in unfamiliar contexts familiar problems in novel contexts

91 Nutrients for a hospitable teacher culture being valued being encouraged being noticed being trusted being listened to being respected Southworth, 2000

92 beliefs and understandings General Design for Improving Learning Outcomes Hill and Crevola 1997 beliefs and understandings

93 beliefs and understandings General Design for Improving Learning Outcomes Hill and Crevola 1997 beliefs and understandings leadership and coordination

94 General Design for Improving Learning Outcomes Hill and Crevola 1997 beliefs and understandings beliefs and understandings standards and targets leadership and coordination

95 beliefs and understandings General Design for Improving Learning Outcomes Hill and Crevola 1997 beliefs and understandings monitoring and assessment standards and targets leadership and coordination

96 General Design for Improving Learning Outcomes Hill and Crevola 1997 beliefs and understandings classroom teaching strategies beliefs and understandings classroom teaching strategies monitoring and assessment standards and targets leadership and coordination

97 General Design for Improving Learning Outcomes Hill and Crevola 1997 beliefs and understandings classroom teaching strategies professional learning teams beliefs and understandings classroom teaching strategies professional learning teams monitoring and assessment standards and targets leadership and coordination

98 General Design for Improving Learning Outcomes Hill and Crevola 1997 beliefs and understandings School and class organisation classroom teaching strategies professional learning teams beliefs and understandings School and class organisation classroom teaching strategies professional learning teams monitoring and assessment standards and targets leadership and coordination

99 General Design for Improving Learning Outcomes Hill and Crevola 1997 beliefs and understandings School and class organisation classroom teaching strategies Intervention and special assistance professional learning teams beliefs and understandings School and class organisation classroom teaching strategies Intervention and special assistance professional learning teams monitoring and assessment standards and targets leadership and coordination

100 General Design for Improving Learning Outcomes Hill and Crevola 1997 beliefs and understandings School and class organisation classroom teaching strategies Intervention and special assistance home, school and community partnerships professional learning teams monitoring and assessment standards and targets leadership and coordination

101 More information If you would like more details contact Tony Townsend: Phone: Int Fax: Int


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