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Mirjam Fried Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague Constructional and Lexical Semantic Approaches to Russian March 24-26, 2011, St. Petersburg, Russia.

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Presentation on theme: "Mirjam Fried Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague Constructional and Lexical Semantic Approaches to Russian March 24-26, 2011, St. Petersburg, Russia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mirjam Fried Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague Constructional and Lexical Semantic Approaches to Russian March 24-26, 2011, St. Petersburg, Russia

2 Introduction Classification of relative clauses semantics : restrictiveness vs. non-restrictiveness function : attributive vs. non-attributive formation types: RC coding strategies (relative position; nominalization, etc.) coding of head Ns function in RC (cf. Comrie 1981) internally headed RC pronoun-retention (aka echoing/ resumptive pronoun in RC) relative pronoun no overt indication 2

3 Introduction Classification of relative clauses semantics : restrictiveness vs. non-restrictiveness function : attributive vs. non-attributive formation types: RC coding strategies (relative position; nominalization, etc.) coding of head Ns function in RC (cf. Comrie 1981) internally headed RC pronoun-retention (aka echoing/ resumptive pronoun in RC) relative pronoun no overt indication 3

4 Slavic RCs relative pronoun strategy (frequent in European lgs) : e.g. kotoryj (R) & its equivalents in other languages absolutive relativizer + personal pronoun (frequent in non-European lgs) : e.g. deto (Blg), što (Mac), ki (Slovene), ieže (OCS) što (BR, R?) co (Cz, P?), kiž/kenž (U/LSorb) -- not well described or incorporated in RC family 4

5 In this talk… Summarize the absolutive pattern in Czech: (based on qualitative & frequency-based quantitative evidence, Fried 2011) corpus-based description of its properties & distribution relationship to který -RCs within the same functional space, capturing the dynamic/fluid aspects of the pattern Sketch a (sample) constructional analysis (e.g. Fillmore 1989, Fried & Östman 2004) Revisit questions for investigating the absolutive patterns in other Slavic languages 5

6 Background Relative clauses with který which: restrictive/non-restrictive no obligatory marking of (non-)restrictiveness agreement in number/gender with head N stylistically neutral (in terms of register, genre, text-type) typologically: relatively low on accessibility hierarchy relatively less explicit can be organized in a semantic & functional taxonomy 6

7 A. restrictive RCs with relative pronoun který RC meaning/function I. determinative II. non-determinative B. non-restrictive (5) 1. category2. kind individuating 3. identification4. characterization A. explicative (6) B. Continuative (7) (TEN) *TEN [TEN proper N][proper N] *TEN (synthesis of Grepl & Karlík 1998 and Svoboda 1972) 7

8 RCs with absolutive co (8) ta paní, co u násbydlí,je moc hezká that woman CO at us livesis much pretty the woman [CO] lives with us is very pretty (9) Ten člověk, co jste ho za mnou kdysi poslal, that man CO AUX.2PL 3SG.ACC after me once sent {viděl jste ho ještě někdy potom?} The man [CO] you sent [him] to me a while back, {did you ever see him again}? 8

9 A non-standard variant of relative pronoun?? Relative clauses with co : absolutive, non-declineable relativizer co personal pronoun to indicate head Ns grammatical function in RC; agrees with head N in number/gender often interchangeable with který typologically (pronoun retention pattern, Comrie 1981): relatively high on accessibility hierarchy relatively more explicit lots of unanswered questions about their properties in Slavic… 9

10 Existing analyses only restrictive meaning no usage of type II strongly deictic (also their hypothesized origin) collocates with TEN that on head N head N cannot be a bare proper noun resumptive (echoing, anaphoric) pronoun: no pronoun in NOM, i.e. SUB function (ex. 8) optional in ACC (ex. 9a vs. 9b) obligatory elsewhere 10

11 Existing analyses in relativization space RC meaning/function I. determinative II. non-determinative A. restrictive B. non-restrictive (5) 1. category2. kind individuating 3. identification4. characterization A. Explicative (6) B. Continuative (7) (TEN) *TEN [TEN proper N][proper N] *TEN CO*CO 11

12 kter- construction 12 cat n cat v fin. cat pro rel. role head role modifier case [ ] num. #2[ ] gnd. #3[ ] morph. lxm KTER- syn max [ ] lex [ ] sem frame […] FE #1 [ ] val {#1 [ case #4[ ] ] } case #4[ ] num. #2[ ] gnd. #3[ ] RC RC modification #1

13 kter- construction 13 cat n cat v fin. cat pro rel. role head role modifier case [ ] num. #2[ ] gnd. #3[ ] morph. lxm KTER- syn max [ ] lex [ ] sem frame […] FE #1 [ ] val {#1 [ case #4[ ] ] } case #4[ ] num. #2[ ] gnd. #3[ ] RC RC modification #1

14 kter- construction 14 cat n cat v fin. cat pro rel. role head role modifier case [ ] num. #2[ ] gnd. #3[ ] morph. lxm KTER- syn max [ ] lex [ ] sem frame […] FE #1 [ ] val {#1 [ case #4[ ] ] } case #4[ ] num. #2[ ] gnd. #3[ ] RC RC modification #1

15 co RC construction ?? 15 cat n cat v fin. cat ??. role head role modifier case [ ] num. #2[ ] gnd. #3[ ] morph. lxm CO syn max [ ] lex [ ] sem frame […] FE #1 [ ] val {#1 [ case #4[ ] ] } RC Absolutive RC modification #1 case #4[ ] num. #2[ ] gnd. #3[ ] morph. cat pro pers. #1

16 co RC construction ?? 16 cat n cat v fin. cat ??. role head role modifier case [ ] num. #2[ ] gnd. #3[ ] morph. lxm CO syn max [ ] lex [ ] sem frame […] FE #1 [ ] val {#1 [ case #4[ ] ] } RC Absolutive RC modification #1

17 co RC construction: SUB function in RC 17 cat n cat v fin. cat ??. role head role modifier case [ ] num. #2[ ] gnd. #3[ ] morph. lxm CO syn max [ ] lex [ ] sem frame […] FE #1 [ ] val {#1 [ case NOM] } RC Absolutive RC modification #1

18 co RC construction: OBL function in RC 18 cat n cat v fin. cat ??. role head role modifier case [ ] num. #2[ ] gnd. #3[ ] morph. lxm CO syn max [ ] lex [ ] sem frame […] FE #1 [ ] val {#1 [ case #4[ ] ] } RC Absolutive RC modification #1 case #4[ ] num. #2[ ] gnd. #3[ ] morph. cat pro pers. #1 gf obl

19 Remaining problems optionality of resumptive pronoun in ACC additional, special patterns (cf. Fried, In press) : temporal RCs quantifying RCs 19

20 ACC pronoun in RC (9) a. Ten člověk, co jste ho za mnou kdysi poslal, that man CO AUX.2PL 3SG.ACC after me once sent {viděl jste ho ještě někdy potom?} The man [CO] you sent [him] to me a while back, {did you ever see him again later}? b. {Připravil jsem si tu pro každého z vás tisíc korun} za tu práci, co jste ___ se mnou měli for that work COAUX.2PL ACC with me had {For each of you, I have ready a thousand crowns here} for the work [CO] you had with me 20

21 co RC construction: animate OBJ 21 cat n cat v fin. cat ??. role head role modifier case [ ] num. #2[ ] gnd. #3[ ] morph. lxm CO syn max [ ] lex [ ] sem frame […] FE #1 [ ] val {#1 [ gf obj ]]} RC Absolutive RC modification #1 case ACC num. #2[ ] gnd. #3[ ] morph. cat pro pers. #1 sem [anim +]

22 co RC construction: inanim. OBJ 22 cat n cat v fin. cat ??. role head role modifier case [ ] num. #2[ ] gnd. #3[ ] morph. lxm CO syn max [ ] lex [ ] sem frame […] FE #1 [ ] val {#1 [ gf obj ]]} RC Absolutive RC modification #1 sem [anim -] sem restrictive

23 co RC construction: inanim. OBJ 23 cat n cat v fin. cat ??. role head role modifier case [ ] num. #2[ ] gnd. #3[ ] morph. lxm CO syn max [ ] lex [ ] sem frame […] FE #1 [ ] val {#1 [ gf obj ]]} RC Absolutive RC modification #1 case ACC num. #2[ ] gnd. #3[ ] morph. cat pro pers. #1 sem [anim -] sem explicative (= type II-A)

24 Special patterns (10) Temporal … od doby, co nám na Národní zavřeli Klub spisovatelů … … from the time [CO] our Writers Club on Národní has been closed down on us … (11) Quantifying {Byl to nuzák […]; pomyslné vlastnictví lodí však vydalo} za všechny drachmy, co jich bylo v Helladě. for all drachmas. ACC CO 3PL.GEN was in Hellada {He was a pauper […]; but the imaginary ownership of ships was equivalent} to all the drachmas [CO] were [of them] in Greece. 24

25 co RC construction: OBL function in RC 25 cat n cat v fin. cat ??. role head role modifier case [ ] num. #2[ ] gnd. #3[ ] morph. lxm CO syn max [ ] lex [ ] sem frame […] FE #1 [ ] val {#1 [ case #4[ ] ] } RC Absolutive RC modification #1 case #4[ ] num. #2[ ] gnd. #3[ ] morph. cat pro pers. #1 gf obl

26 co RC construction: quantifying RC cat n cat v fin. cat ??. role modifier case [ ] num. pl. gnd. [ ] lxm CO syn max [ ] lex [ ] sem … val {#1 [ ] } RC Absolutive RC modification #1 case GEN num. pl. morph. cat pro pers. #1 sem quantity univ. scope marker EVER univ. quant. ALL property expressed by RC applies to all instances of head N; quantity is judged unusually high sem

27 Existing analyses only restrictive meaning no usage of type II 27

28 Restrictiveness only restrictive meaning no usage of type II Hierarchy of semantic preferences: identification (type I-A-3) > characterization (I-A-4) > explicative (II-A) [ex. (11), (12)] > kind-of (I-A-2) > non-restr. determinative (I-B) > category (type I-A-1) > *continuative (II-B) 28

29 Existing analyses only restrictive meaning no usage of type II strongly deictic head N collocates with TEN that 29

30 Deixis only restrictive meaning no usage of type II strongly deictic head N collocates with TEN that Hierarchy of deictic contexts ( TEN N, co), cf. Fried 2011 : N = Anim. sg > Inanim. sg > Anim. pl > Inanim. pl in %: Individuation issue, rather than simply deixis: highly individuated/referential > less individuated 30

31 Existing analyses only restrictive meaning no usage of type II strongly deictic (also their hypothesized origin) collocates with TEN that on head N resumptive (echoing, anaphoric) pronoun: no pronoun in NOM, i.e. SUB function (ex. 8) in ACC (exs. 9, 10) more common with inanimate head Ns and only optional with animate head Ns 31

32 Resumptive pronoun & animacy resumptive pronoun is (almost) obligatory with animate Ns in OBJ function (animate Ns less expected to be non-subjects, therefore marked; for discussion cf. Fried 2010 ) resumptive pronoun is dispreferred with inanimate Ns; presence/absence depends on semantic type of RC – explicative vs. restrictive 32

33 Existing analyses only restrictive meaning no usage of type II strongly deictic (also their hypothesized origin) collocates with TEN that on head N resumptive (echoing, anaphoric) pronoun: no pronoun in NOM, i.e. SUB function (ex. 8) in ACC (exs. 9, 10) more common with inanimate head Ns and only optional with animate head Ns co -clauses are not part of standard language 33

34 Stylistic register of absolutive co non-determinative uses (type II) – tend to be used in emotional, expressive speech, but not exclusively so special, formulaic patterns (quantifying, temporal) are register-neutral rest is mixed 34

35 Synthesis Most robustly attested RC with absolutive co : Function: determinative restrictive Semantics: individuation of head referent Head N: concrete, animate, singular entity Syntax: mix of pronoun-retention & no overt marking strategies Non-random distribution of additional functions: spread from identification to non-restrictive contexts 35

36 Two relativization strategies in existing accounts: RC meaning/function I. determinative II. non-determinative A. restrictive B. non-restrictive 1. category2. kind individuating 3. identification 4. characteriz. A. explicative B. continuative (TEN) *TEN [TEN proper N] [proper N] *TEN CO*CO 36

37 Two relativization strategies in corpus sample: RC meaning/function I. determinative II. non-determinative A. restrictive B. non-restrictive 1. category2. kind individuating 3. identification 4. characteriz. A. explicative B. continuative (TEN) *TEN [TEN proper N] [proper N] *TEN ( CO ) *CO temporal quantif. CO 37

38 What to do next? Absolutive relativization in Slavic e.g. deto (Blg), što (Mac), ki (Slovene), ieže (OCS) što (BR, R?) co (Cz, P?), kiž/kenž (U/LSorb) existing commentary: colloquial/non-standard; resumptive pronoun optional in non-NOM function, BUT: szczęśliwy ten wojak, co on domu przyjdzie happy is the soldier that CO [he] comes home (Rospond 1971) 38

39 What to do next? Absolutive relativization in Slavic What are its actual properties and distribution? In what sense is the resumptive pronoun optional, and what determines its use? Why is this strategy missing in some languages? (or is it??) 39

40 Thank you! 40


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