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Chapter 4 The Professional Chef
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Explain the various roles a professional chef must fulfill
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Chefs Many Roles To run a successful commercial kitchen, the chef must fulfill many roles –Cook –Leader –Manager –Artistic innovator –Teacher and mentor
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cook Cooking is the foundation for all the skills and knowledge a chef needs The chef must have experience at each position of the brigade The chef must be able to judge the quality of food products being prepared
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Leader As the leader, the chef must –organize and direct the staff to achieve his or her vision of cuisine –assume responsibility for the health and safety of the staff –enforce policies and discipline staff –set the professional standards for the kitchen –serve as a model
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Manager A chef manages the work of staff as they carry out his or her concept of cuisine
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Manager To be an effective manager, a chef must –clearly communicate the objectives and how they will be achieved –check work while in progress and test finished products –provide feedback to the kitchen staff –give a clear and fair evaluation of the staffs performance
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Manager The chef must also manage nonlabor resources to ensure proper and efficient use of –food –nonfood products –equipment –facilities
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Artistic Innovator Typically, only culinarians with more experience in the professional kitchen are given the chance to exercise creativity
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Artistic Innovator A chefs creativity is based on –extensive knowledge of food ingredients and cooking methods –mastery of the principles of presentation –an understanding of customer preferences –keeping up with current fashion and trends in food
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Teacher and Mentor A chef teaches staff cooking skills, management skills, and how to deal with people Most chefs get a feeling of professional satisfaction seeing someone they mentored succeed in the profession
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Understand the professional traits of successful culinarians
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Professional Traits of a Successful Chef Culinarians are judged for the professionalism they display professionalism
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Professional Traits of a Successful Chef The following behaviors or traits are key for success in the professional kitchen: –Respectful behavior –Punctuality and dependability –Positive attitude –Flexibility –Productivity and speed
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Respectful Demonstrating respectful behavior indicates a genuine desire to become a professional Diversity must be respected to create a healthy work environment Respect for customers is at the core of hospitality
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Punctual and Dependable Being punctual and ready for your scheduled shift is essential to succeed on the job A dependable worker informs their supervisor as soon as possible, of absence or tardiness
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Positive Attitude A cook with a positive attitude is an asset in the professional kitchen and more likely to succeedattitude Treating failures as learning experiences helps to foster a positive attitude, builds knowledge, and advances careers
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Flexible A chef must be prepared to respond to any circumstance and adjust plans as necessary Being open to new techniques, foods, and working conditions makes a better chef and leads to learning and advancement
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Productivity and Speed Skilled cooks demonstrate a combination of speed, accuracy, and safety With experience comes the ability to work efficiently Working in a quick and efficient manner helps increase productivity
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Recognize personal behaviors that contribute to a successful culinary career
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Personal Behaviors of a Successful Chef The following personal behaviors play a big part in building and sustaining a successful culinary career: –Maintaining balance –Managing stress –Maintaining health
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Maintaining Balance Maintaining balance in your life is key to achieving and maintaining success Time spent on career training and advancement must be balanced with other interests and activities
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Managing Stress Sources of stress for culinariansstress –Must perform skillfully under substantial pressure –Frequent and short deadlines –Customer expectations leave little room for error –Long hours of physically demanding work –Work schedule often includes evenings, weekends, and holidays
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Managing Stress Long-term, unmanaged stress often leads to health problems People who cannot cope with stress should seek professional help What are healthy ways people can manage stress?
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Maintaining Health Chefs must be in good physical condition to perform their best In order to maintain health, culinarians should –get proper rest –exercise on a regular basis –maintain a healthy diet
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Explain the various types of knowledge and expertise that a chefs job requires
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. A Chefs Knowledge and Expertise A successful chef must be well versed in areas other than cooking, including –cost accounting –sanitation –laws of the foodservice industry –food chemistry and physics –nutrition –purchasing and storekeeping –food and beverage service –equipment maintenance –public relations
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cost Accounting To run a profitable operation, a chef must be able to –provide cost data for an operations income statement –read and understand financial documents –perform basic mathematics and common bookkeeping procedures
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sanitation The chef is responsible for sanitary conditions and the safety of the food products served
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sanitation Sanitation management requires an understanding of microbiology and basic chemistry Sanitation certification verifies a chefs knowledge of sanitation laws and regulations
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Laws of the Foodservice Industry Chefs must know and understand the laws that affect the foodservice industry, such as –laws governing the hiring and managing of employees –laws regulating transactions between restaurants and their suppliers or customers –Truth in Menu laws –zoning codes –liquor laws –tax laws
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Food Chemistry and Physics Understanding the chemical and physical reactions that take place during the cooking process allows chefs to be better cooks
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Nutrition In all segments of the foodservice industry, chefs are called on to accommodate diners dietary requests Chefs also need a knowledge of nutrition in order to communicate with dietitians and nutritionists
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Purchasing and Storekeeping A chef must be able to –select food and other supplies for purchase –deal with vendors to negotiate the price and payment for supplies –properly receive and store food and nonfood products
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Food and Beverage Service Knowledge of the rules and procedures of table service is essential for chefs Chefs provide guidance about plates and utensils to use or the procedures of service for particular dishes Chefs often suggest appropriate beverages to accompany their dishes
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Equipment Maintenance Chefs must –manage preventive maintenance on stoves, ovens, refrigerators, and appliances –know when to call in maintenance professionals
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Public Relations Chefs often take on the role of spokesperson, which may involve –visiting the dining room to interact with diners –participating in a restaurants marketing and promotions –participating in charity events –giving cooking classes –appearing in advertising
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Summarize training and education options available to those seeking a career in culinary arts
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Education and Training Options Education and training are necessary to succeed in a culinary career Options for education and training include –apprenticeship –formal education –bachelors and advanced degrees –on-the-job training
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Apprenticeship The standard term for a culinary apprenticeship is three yearsapprenticeship The American Culinary Federation (ACF) is responsible for administering professional certification for cooks and chefsAmerican Culinary Federation (ACF) certification After successful completion of the ACF apprenticeship, classwork, and testing, the apprentice receives the first level of professional certification
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Formal Education Career and Technical Schools –Train students to be successful in their chosen careers –Include internships and work-based experience –Industry certifications are obtained on successful completion of the program and passing a written test
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Formal Education High Schools –Recently began offering culinary and hospitality training –Family and consumer sciences courses have been redesigned to be career focused –Entry-level positions can often be obtained upon completion
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Formal Education Associate Degree –Higher learning institutions began offering a culinary arts degree in the late 1940s –Traditionally, culinary programs lasted no longer than two years –It is considered the standard level of education for culinary management positions
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Bachelors and Advanced Degrees Schools recently began offering bachelors degrees in culinary arts Currently, there are no degrees beyond a bachelors degree in culinary arts Hospitality management offers both masters and doctoral degrees
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. On-the-Job Training Many successful chefs have no formal training or apprenticeship Most recognized culinary programs include an internship or work experience component
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Which Option Is Best? Many training options exist in the culinary field Your personality and educational opportunities impact which option is best for you Photo courtesy of Eric Futran/ChefShots
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lifelong Learning Culinary is a dynamic field Successful chefs expand their professional knowledge and skills through –seminars, classes, travel, dining, culinary competitions, and trade shows –reading cookbooks, magazines, and professional journals
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Remember two organizations that help students gain leadership experience
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Developing Leadership Skills Leadership qualities can be developed Many high schools and technical schools offer organizations that help students build and strengthen leadership skills, such as –Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) –SkillsUSA
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) A national career and technical student organization for students in family and consumer sciences education through twelfth grade Stages competitive events for members enrolled in culinary arts and foodservice training programs
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. SkillsUSA A national organization for high school and college students preparing for careers in technical, skilled, and service occupations Offers local, state, and national competitions in culinary arts and commercial baking
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Recall professions that require knowledge and skills similar to those of a chef
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Allied Professions Many foodservice professions require knowledge and skills similar to those of a chef, including –research chef –personal chef –restaurant consultant –marketing and sales –culinary instructor –registered dietitian –food writer
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Research Chef A research chef –works with food manufacturers to create recipes for mass-produced food products –aids food scientists in creating products that can be produced in a manufacturing plant rather than a restaurant kitchen
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Personal Chef Personal chefs –are paid professional culinarians who regularly cook for the same individual, family, or group –must demonstrate professional cooking and management skills
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Restaurant Consultant Restaurant consultants are foodservice professionals who offer their expertise to other foodservice operators for a fee
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Restaurant Consultant Areas of expertise may include –business planning and restaurant start-ups –menu development, marketing, and advertising –suggestions to improve an operations efficiency and profitability –finding and hiring chefs and managers
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Marketing and Sales Many companies that make products for the foodservice industry hire former chefs and managers because of their knowledge and experience Jobs in this field include sales representative, marketing and promotions, and technical support
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Culinary Instructor Culinary instructors are employed in high schools, technical schools, colleges, and the military Many large foodservice companies hire instructors to run their own culinary training programs
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Registered Dietitian Chefs often rely on nutrition professionals, such as registered dietitians (RDs) to verify nutrition information and analyze nutritional content of recipesregistered dietitians (RDs) RDs have extensive knowledge in food science, meal preparation, service, and management
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Food Writer Newspapers, magazines, television, and cookbooks often employ writers specializing in food topics Most food writers have a journalism background or a degree in English, in addition to a love of food and knowledge of cooking
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Describe the numerous roles a professional chef must fulfill –Cook, leader, manager, artistic innovator, teacher, and mentor
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review What traits are necessary to become a successful culinarian? –Respectful behavior, punctuality, dependability, a positive attitude, flexibility, productivity, and speed
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Explain what personal behaviors contribute to a successful culinary career –Balancing personal and work life, managing stress, and maintaining good health
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review What are the various types of knowledge and expertise that a chefs job requires? –Cost accounting, sanitation, laws of the foodservice industry, food chemistry and physics, nutrition, purchasing and storekeeping, food and beverage service, equipment maintenance, public relations
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Summarize the training and education options available to those seeking a career in culinary arts –Apprenticeship, formal education, bachelors and advanced degrees, on-the-job training
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Name two organizations that help students gain leadership experience –Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) and SkillsUSA
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Describe professions that require knowledge and skills similar to those of a chef –Research chef, personal chef, restaurant consultant, marketing and sales, culinary instructor, registered dietitian, food writer
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary American Culinary Federation (ACF). The largest professional organization for culinarians in the United States. apprenticeship. A method of training in which a person learns a trade under the guidance of skilled tradespeople. attitude. How you think and feel about other people and situations.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary certification. Confirmation that a culinarian possesses certain knowledge, skill level, and experience. professionalism. The positive behaviors and appearance exhibited by an individual who is committed to the culinary arts.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary registered dietitian (RD). Nutrition professionals who have completed at minimum a bachelors degree in dietetics, an internship, and passed a national exam. stress. A physical, mental, and emotional response to external pressures.
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