2 1. One of Buddha's Noble Eightfold Paths to relieve suffering and end desire is to a. meditateb. follow caste rulesc. give money to the Brahmansd. pray to BuddhaBuddha taught that one path to achieve relief from suffering and desire is to meditate, which means to focus one's thoughts. Meditation can be assisted by fasting, isolation, and freedom from distractions of family and material culture. He rejected the caste system. He did not claim to be a god.
3 2. Which best describes nirvana as a goal of Buddhists? a. the forgiveness of sins granted by Buddhist priests forperforming religious ritualsb. the respect received by peers for following the Eightfold Pathc. the eternal bliss the soul experiences when it escapes fromthe cycle of death and rebirthd. the peace of mind that one experiences after spending a yearin a Buddhist monasteryBuddhists seek nirvana as their goal to escape from the cycle of life, death, and reincarnation into another life-form. The person who achieves nirvana has eliminated desire by following the Noble Eightfold Path.
4 3. India is often referred to as a subcontinent because it is a. larger than most nationsb. larger than some continentsc. a peninsula separated from the rest of Asia by mountainsd. a peninsula ethnically and culturally isolated from the restof AsiaIndia is referred to as a subcontinent because it is a peninsula that projects south from the Asian landmass, but is separated from it by the highest mountains in the world. India is larger than most nations; however, China, Canada, and the United States are larger than India, but are not considered to be subcontinents. All of the continents are larger than India. Australia, the smallest continent, is more than twice as large as India. Indian culture has influenced and been influenced by other nations. Its people are related to other ethnic groups in Southwest and Central Asia.
5 4. The economies of the early civilizations of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were based primarily on a. growing cotton for exportb. collecting taxesc. growing foodd. trade with ChinaThe economies of early civilizations were based on growing a surplus of food. The surplus provided essential food for people such as priests, government officials, builders, artists, and artisans who helped make the culture richer and more complex. Taxes were collected as a consequence of a thriving economy, but were not its basis. Cotton was grown, and some was exported; however, food production was basic. The early cities traded with Mesopotamia, not China.
6 5. The people who MOST likely established the first civilizations at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were thea. Aryansb. Dravidiansc. Tibetansd. MongolsThe builders of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were most likely the Dravidians. At one time, the Dravidians, a people with dark skin and slight stature, lived throughout the subcontinent. People of Dravidian heritage are more likely found today in southern India. Writings of the Aryans describe the early residents of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa as people similar in appearance to the Dravidians. Aryans and Mongols came to northern India later.
7 6. Sanskrit isa. a city on the Ganges River in northern Indiab. the language of the Aryansc. the location of a major battle between Aryans and invadersd. one of the major Hindu godsSanskrit was the Indo-European language of the Aryan invaders who came to northern India between 1600 B.C. and 1500 B.C. The Vedas were written in Sanskrit and Sanskrit is the basis of many contemporary languages of India. Though classical Sanskrit is not a spoken language, it is recognized in the Indian Constitution as an official language because it is used in religious rites.
8 7. According to Hindu beliefs, what happens to the soul or spirit of a person upon death? a. The spirit joins its ancestors in paradise.b. The spirit enters the body of another life-form.c. The spirit also dies and fades into nothingness.d. The spirit enters the underworld ruled over by the godof death.Hindus believe in the reincarnation of the spirit of the deceased. The soul enters another life-form, which could be another animal or an insect, or a human of a higher or lower caste, depending on the behavior of the person in his former life.
9 8. Reincarnation into a higher or lower caste or life-form depends on the a. number of prayers said by the deceased person's relativesb. decision of the Brahman priests of the templec. deceased person's karmad. wealth and importance of the deceasedA Hindu's karma determines whether or not the spirit of the deceased will enter the body of a person born to a higher or lower caste. Karma is the sum of a person's behavior throughout his life, primarily the extent to which he has followed the dharma of his caste in the previous life.
10 9. The effect of the caste system is to create a society that a. encourages initiative and creativityb. promotes instability and rebelliousnessc. provides opportunities for the best and the brightestd. has little social mobilityA society with a caste system has little social mobility. People are discouraged from leaving their villages and changing their occupations. A society with a caste system can become stagnant; however, it is stable because rebelliousness is a violation of a Hindu's dharma and leads to bad karma.
11 10. Which BEST describes the origins of Hinduism? a. It was a merging of Aryan traditions with those of the IndusValley civilizations.b. It was a revelation from above to the followers of the Hindu gods.c. It evolved from the animism of primitive tribes in the forests of India.d. It was developed by the disciples of the first religiousleader of the Aryans.Hinduism was a blend of Aryan traditions and the culture of the cities of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa of the Indus Valley civilizations. The Indus Valley civilizations were already in decline when the Aryans arrived in northern India; however, they were still more advanced than the culture of the Aryans. The Aryans adopted many cultural characteristics of the people they conquered. Archaeological diggings at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa show that religious beliefs were among the Indus Valley cultural characteristics that found their way into Aryan culture.