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Approach to The Low Risk Chest Pain Patient John P Erwin, III, MD, FACC, FAHA Associate Professor of Medicine Scott and White Heart and Vascular Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "Approach to The Low Risk Chest Pain Patient John P Erwin, III, MD, FACC, FAHA Associate Professor of Medicine Scott and White Heart and Vascular Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 Approach to The Low Risk Chest Pain Patient John P Erwin, III, MD, FACC, FAHA Associate Professor of Medicine Scott and White Heart and Vascular Institute Texas A&M College of Medicine

2 Background 8 million ED visits annually –At least three times that many presenting to ambulatory clinics –Only a minority of these patients have a life- threatening condition Failure to detect acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and inadvertent discharge of such patients from the ED may exceed 2% –Risk adjusted mortality ratio that is nearly 2-fold that of patients hospitalized for ACS –Associated with substantial liability

3 Goals Accurate risk stratification Find the appropriate modality of evaluation for the circumstance Patient reassurance Appropriate utilization of resources Stay out of court!

4 Life isn't like a box of chocolates. It's more like a jar of jalapenos. What you do today, might burn your butt tomorrow.

5 NON-CARDIAC DIAGNOSIS

6 Most Common Non-Cardiac Etiologies of Chest Pain Aortic Dissection Pericarditis Lung diseases (Dont miss PTX and PE) Musculo-skeletal (including cervical and thoracic disc herniation) Esophageal (even with normal manometry studies) Upper abdominal disease Psycho-somatic Functional

7 See ACC/AHA Guidelines for Chronic Stable Angina

8 Criteria for Hospital Admission for Chronic Angina Worsening ("crescendo") angina attacks Sudden-onset angina at rest Angina lasting more than 15 minutes Symptoms of unstable angina

9 See ACC/AHA Guidelines for NSTEMI ACS See ACC/AHA Guidelines for STEMI

10 POSSIBLE ACS

11 1.Immediate ECG 2. Observe 3. Study

12 Likelihood That Signs and Symptoms Represent an ACS Secondary to CAD

13

14

15 1.Immediate ECG 2. Observe 3. Study

16 1.Immediate ECG 2. Observe 3. Study

17 RISK SCORES SIMPLE!! IS THE TROPONIN ELEVATED (ecg abnormal)?

18 ED triage of patients with acute chest pain by means of rapid testing for cardiac troponin I Protocol: Chest pain less than 12 hours duration and no STE or new LBBB on ECG CKMB and TnI within 15 minutes of evaluation and 4 hours later (or at least 6 hours from onset of chest pain) Findings: The overall event rate for patients with negative troponin I = 0.3%. NEJM. 337: December 4, 1997.

19 Chest Pain Evaluation Units Chest pain units manage patients at low risk for myocardial infarction: 1. As effectively as inpatient admission 2.At less cost. West J Med December; 173(6): 403–407.

20 Chest Pain Evaluation Units Randomized controlled trial comparing patient satisfaction between those admitted to a chest pain observation unit and controls admitted for routine care –The chest pain unit scored higher than inpatient management on all 7 satisfaction indices –Attainment of a statistically significant difference in 4 of these scores. Ann Emerg Med 1997;29:

21 Exercise Stress Testing in Accelerated Diagnostic Protocols (ADPs)

22 Rest Myocardial Pefusion Imaging

23

24 Stress Echo

25 Coronary Calcium Scoring In patients presenting to the ED with undifferentiated chest pain, a zero CAC score has been associated with: – a negative predictive value approaching 100% for early adverse events –This prognostic value was maintained on follow-up of 4 years. –High sensitivity, low positive predictive value often entails additional evaluation. –Increasing CAC is associated with advancing age and male sex. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53:1642–1650. Ann Emerg Med. 2010;56:220 –229.

26 Coronary CT Angiogram(CCTA) Provides anatomic rather than functional information regarding coronary patency and produces a noninvasive coronary angiogram. In a series of 103 patients presenting to the ED with chest pain, CTCA revealed: –Normal vessels or non-obstructive CAD (negative predictive value 100%) –None of the patients discharged from the ED had a major adverse cardiovascular event at 5 months.

27 Follow-up After Negative Evaluations Reconsider the possibility of non-cardiac chest pain etiologies In up to 40% of these patients, panic attack or somatoform disorders may be the causative factors False negatives are low, but re-take history and address CV risk factors Recidivism is high –Still may be a role for angiography (invasive vs CT)

28 References See articles provided for your handouts Guidelines can all be found and downloaded at acc.org

29 Conclusion Low risk chest pain is the most common category of chest pain syndromes that primary care providers encounter on a daily basis Develop a consistent algorithm of work-up founded upon a thorough H&P Good technology available to help us further risk stratify If negative work-up for CV cause, treat CV risk factors and address the non-cardiac etiologies of chest pain to help reduce recidivism

30 An anxious heart weighs a man down,but a kind word cheers him up. --Proverbs 12:25


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