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Office Ergonomics Awareness Identifying Common Hazards and Taking the Necessary Steps to Keep Yourself Safe.

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Presentation on theme: "Office Ergonomics Awareness Identifying Common Hazards and Taking the Necessary Steps to Keep Yourself Safe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Office Ergonomics Awareness Identifying Common Hazards and Taking the Necessary Steps to Keep Yourself Safe

2 Office Ergonomics Awareness The Chair The chair you choose should be equipped with the adjustable design features that are described in the following images.

3 Office Ergonomics Awareness Backrest Adjustability The chair should have adequate, adjustable lumbar support. –Adjustable in height –Adjustable in depth If not: –Try placing a rolled up towel or attach a removable back support cushion to existing back support.

4 Office Ergonomics Awareness Backrest Adjustability You should be able to recline the backrest either separately from the seat or in synchronicity with the seat at a 3:1 or 5:1 ratio. The backrest should be able to be locked in at least 3 different positions within its adjustment range.

5 Office Ergonomics Awareness Seat Adjustability The seat pan should be cushioned and comfortable. It should be adjustable in depth –2-3 fingers width between front edge of chair and back of your knees. If not: –Choose a chair with 2-3 fingers width between front edge of chair and back of knees. –Attach a removable back support cushion to existing backrest to shorten seat pan.

6 Office Ergonomics Awareness Seat Adjustability You should be able to adjust the chairs seat in height so that you can sit comfortably. –Raise/lower chair to allow feet to rest comfortably flat on floor with hips slightly higher than your knees. –The underside of your thighs should be evenly supported by the surface area of the seat. If not: –Use footrest if keyboard/desk height requires an elevated chair; or, –Use footrest if the seat cannot adjust down to a comfortable height.

7 Office Ergonomics Awareness Seat Adjustability The seat should be able to recline either separately from the backrest or in synchronicity with the backrest at a 1:3 or 1:5 ratio. The seat should be able to be locked in at least 3 different positions within its adjustment range.

8 Office Ergonomics Awareness Chair Base Make sure the casters are appropriate for the floor surface. –Rubber for wooden or concrete surfaces –Hard plastic for carpeted surface If a carpeted surface and it is difficult to roll the chairs casters lay down an acrylic mat to reduce friction.

9 Office Ergonomics Awareness Armrest Adjustability The armrests should be padded and comfortable to rest your elbows and forearms on. They should be able to adjust in height to below your elbows when you are typing and mousing. Your armrests should not prevent you from getting close enough to your work surfaces and the keyboard and mouse. The armrests should be able to adjust in width so that they can be positioned under your elbows and forearms when required.

10 Office Ergonomics Awareness Armrest Adjustability If armrests are too low/too high: –Remove the armrests. –Add padding to bring them up to a comfortable level. –Only use the armrest during short pauses from typing. –Replace with armrests that can be adjusted to the correct height. If armrests are too wide: –Adjust to bring them closer together. –Replace seat pan on chair with a narrower one. –Replace with width-adjustable armrests.

11 Office Ergonomics Awareness Chair Adjustability You should learn how to adjust your chair for optimal fit and comfort. –Ask the vendor to review the chairs adjustability features with you. –Look for an instruction booklet or look to the manufacturers website for assistance.

12 Office Ergonomics Awareness Adjusting Your Chair If you have an adjustable chair and a workstation that allows you to sit comfortably dont limit yourself to just one posture. Learn how to adjust your chair! Our muscles can last longer when we give them many healthy postures to work in. Move by adjusting your chair, your body and your equipment and tools!

13 Office Ergonomics Awareness Adjusting Your Chair Its recommended that you work in a reclined position for minutes of every hour. If your heels come off the floor when you recline then find something to rest your feet on, like a footrest, that will keep your heels grounded. You will also need to adjust your keyboard and mouse platform lower while sliding closer to it to prevent reaching If your keyboard and mouse are on the work surface then you may need to raise your chair a bit and put your feet on a support. When sitting upright you may need to raise or lower your chair while adjusting the height of your keyboard and mouse and your distance from them. If you have to take a phone call stand up!

14 Office Ergonomics Awareness Keyboard The letter H on your keyboard should be aligned with the centre of the monitor. If it is not, –Reposition the keyboard and/or monitor to achieve this positioning.

15 Office Ergonomics Awareness Keyboard Is the keyboard positioned so that your wrists are straight (not bent up / down) while using the keyboard? If not, –Adjust seat height so that keyboard and mouse are at elbow height. –Raise or lower adjustable work surfaces in systems furniture so that they are just below seated elbow height. –Place keyboard and mouse on articulating keyboard tray and adjust tray height and tilt until wrists are straight. –Retract keyboard feet. –Support arms on armrest when keying or mousing. –Use an appropriately sized keyboard (e.g. external keyboard if laptop is used regularly on desk).

16 Office Ergonomics Awareness Mouse / Pointing Device Is the mouse located close to you (so your elbow is close to your body and the hand is as close as possible to the mid-line of your body)? –Place mouse/input device beside keyboard at same height. –Use a mouse bridge (i.e. a hard surface that is placed over number pad on keyboard). –Ensure adequate space on either the desk top or a keyboard tray for input devices. –Purchase a shorter keyboard or a keyboard with number pad on left side.

17 Office Ergonomics Awareness Mouse / Pointing Device Can you place the mouse on your preferred side? If not, –Purchase a keyboard and mouse platform that permits this positioning.

18 Office Ergonomics Awareness Mouse / Pointing Device Can you use the mouse while keeping your wrist straight? If not, –Adjust seat height so that keyboard and mouse are at elbow height. –Raise or lower adjustable work surfaces in systems furniture so that they are just below seated elbow height. –Place keyboard and mouse on articulating tray and adjust tray height and tilt until wrists are straight. –Support arms on armrest when keying or mousing. –Use a mouse that fits your hand size and/or places wrist in a more natural, straight posture.

19 Office Ergonomics Awareness Mouse / Pointing Device Is there enough space for comfortable mouse use? If not, –Try increasing mouse speed and enlarging the pointer. –Get a wider keyboard platform or a shorter keyboard.

20 Office Ergonomics Awareness Keyboard Surface Is the surface on which the keyboard sits at a comfortable height for keyboarding (e.g. about 1 inch) below your elbow height when seated comfortably)? If not, –Adjust seat height so that keyboard and mouse are at elbow height and use a footrest if necessary. –Raise or lower adjustable work surfaces in systems furniture so that they are just below seated elbow height. –Place keyboard and mouse on articulating keyboard tray and adjust tray height and tilt until wrists are straight.

21 Office Ergonomics Awareness Keyboard Surface Does the surface provide a solid and stable support for the keyboard when keying tasks are being performed? If not, –If the fasteners for the support or support surface are loose have them tightened

22 Office Ergonomics Awareness Keyboard Surface Is there adequate space for both the keyboard and the mouse on the same surface, at the same height? If not, –Try increasing mouse speed and enlarging the pointer. –Get a wider keyboard platform or a shorter keyboard.

23 Office Ergonomics Awareness Keyboard Surface Is the keyboard surface adjustable? If not, –Ensure seat height can be adjusted so that keyboard and mouse sit just below elbow height and use a footrest if you are no longer seated comfortably.

24 Office Ergonomics Awareness Keyboard Surface If Yes, how is it adjustable: –Height? –If not, ensure seat height can be adjusted so that keyboard and mouse sit just below elbow height and use a footrest if you are no longer seated comfortably. –sliding in and out? –If not, If platform cannot slide all the way under the work surface have the sliding track reinstalled further back or purchase a shorter adjustable arm. –angle (flat, ± tilt)? –If not, Use the feet on the back of the keyboard to make the keyboarding surface flat.

25 Office Ergonomics Awareness Keyboard Surface Does the keyboard surface have a well- designed palm rest? If not, –If you do not drop your wrists when typing then no corrective actions are required. –If you drop your wrists to the work surface or work surface edge roll up a towel and place it in front of keyboard.

26 Office Ergonomics Awareness Using a Laptop Are you using a laptop for more than 2 hours/day cumulatively? If you are, you are more susceptible to discomfort symptoms in your neck, back, forearms and wrists if you dont take the necessary steps to separate the keyboard, mouse and monitor from eachother.

27 Office Ergonomics Awareness Using a Laptop You should get an external keyboard and mouse and position them comfortably according to the previous information. –This could include raising the laptop to eye height using boxes; –Placing the keyboard and mouse on the work surface, raising you chair up and placing your feet on a footrest.

28 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Postures (seated) Can you adopt a neutral work posture when seated according to what is described in the following slides?

29 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Postures (seated) Feet resting firmly and flat on the floor If not, –Raise/lower chair to allow feet to rest comfortably flat on floor. –Use footrest if keyboard/desk height requires an elevated chair. Knees slightly lower than hips If not, –Adjust chair height so that feet remain flat on floor or footrest but thighs are also parallel to floor.

30 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Postures (seated) Sitting with back pressed firmly up against backrest If not, –Arrange workstation to allow proper back support. (i.e. position keyboard closer to employee, bring monitor closer to employee). –Remove or lower arm rests which may prevent sitting back fully due to contact with front of desk or keyboard tray. –Replace the seat pan if its too long and doesnt allow for sitting back fully in chair.

31 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Postures (seated) Sitting in a slightly reclined posture while working. If not, –Use a footrest if your heals come off the floor when reclining in your chair. –Adjust seat pan angle and/or backrest angle to allow reclining and adjust position of keyboard and mouse (i.e. bring closer or lower if on adjustable platform).

32 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Postures (seated) Visible space between front edge of seat pan and the back of your knee. If not, –Choose a chair with 2-3 fingers width between front edge of chair and back of knees. –Attach a removable back support cushion to existing backrest to shorten seat pan. –Choose a chair with a gently curved front edge on seat pan.

33 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Postures (seated) Head/neck relaxed, upright and chin in. If not, –Raise/lower monitor so that eyes are in line with top line of monitor. Monitor may need to be lowered if you wear bifocals and look at the monitor through the bottom of your lenses. –If using a number of paper documents with computer, use a document holder that sits between you and the monitor.

34 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Postures (seated) Elbows bent at about 90 degrees. If not, –Adjust seat height so that keyboard and mouse are at elbow height and use a footrest if necessary. –Raise or lower adjustable work surfaces, if using systems furniture, so that they are just below seated elbow height. –Place keyboard and mouse on articulating keyboard tray and adjust tray height and tilt until wrists are working in a natural, straight posture.

35 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Postures (seated) Wrists straight while working. If not, –Adjust seat height so that keyboard and mouse are at elbow height. –Raise or lower adjustable work surfaces in systems furniture so that they are just below seated elbow height. –Place keyboard and mouse on articulating keyboard tray and adjust tray height and tilt until wrists are straight. –Retract keyboard feet. –Support arms on armrest when keying or mousing. –Use an appropriately sized keyboard (e.g. external keyboard if laptop is used regularly on desk). –Support arms on armrest when keying or mousing. –Use a mouse that fits your hand size and/or places wrist in a more natural, straight posture.

36 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Postures (seated) Arms hanging relaxed at the side of the body. If not, –Adjust armrests down to below elbow height to allow upper arms to hang comfortably. –Use a wider, split keyboard.

37 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Surface / Equipment Layout Is the height of the work surface appropriate for paper-work (e.g. approx 2 inches) above optimal seated elbow height)? If not, –Raise the seat and use a footrest. –If using adjustable systems furniture adjust the work surfaces down or up to achieve this positioning. –Use a slanted writing surface.

38 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Surface / Equipment Layout Is there adequate work surface space for all required equipment (phone, calculator, computer equipment, etc.)? If not, –Determine if less important and less frequently used items are cluttering up the work surface and create space by storing them elsewhere. –If keyboard and mouse are on the work surface, install a platform to create more work surface space.

39 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Surface / Equipment Layout Is there adequate space for non- computer work (reading, paper work, etc.)? If not, –If a set of drawers are present, can they be removed and their contents stored elsewhere?

40 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Surface / Equipment Layout Is there adequate space for required reference documents, drawings, etc.? If not, –Can a separate table located nearby be used?

41 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Surface / Equipment Layout Can you easily reach the telephone when sitting at all main work areas? If not, –Move the telephone closer to you; or, –Stand up when answering the telephone.

42 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Surface / Equipment Layout Can reference documents/papers be placed in line with the monitor and angled up towards your face? If not, –If using an adjustable keyboard platform, try to position documents between back edge of platform and edge of work surface. –Use an in-line document holder that does not block the monitor.

43 Office Ergonomics Awareness Leg & Knee Room / Movement Is there adequate leg and foot space under the work surface? If not, –Remove materials underneath desk. –Install keyboard tray to increase distance between monitor and desktop and provide more leg room.

44 Office Ergonomics Awareness Leg & Knee Room / Movement Is the space under- the-work-surface free of clutter (boxes, papers, shoes, etc.)? If not, –Remove clutter from underneath desk.

45 Office Ergonomics Awareness Leg & Knee Room / Movement Is there adequate space for the knees, to allow for movement and comfortable sitting? If not, –Remove any obstructions such as drawers that restrict knee space.

46 Office Ergonomics Awareness Leg & Knee Room / Movement Can you move from one area of the workstation to another easily (e.g. no under the work surface obstructions such as work surface supports, etc.)? If not, –Purchase a keyboard support with a slimmer profile if current equipment is hitting thighs. –Remove any drawers that are in the way.

47 Office Ergonomics Awareness Monitor Is the monitor positioned directly in front of you? If not, – Position monitor directly in front of you so that the letter H on the keyboard is aligned with the centre of the monitor.

48 Office Ergonomics Awareness Monitor Is the screen positioned so that you can just see over the top of the screen while sitting in a relaxed, upright posture? If not, –Raise/lower monitor so that eyes are in proper positioning. Monitor may need to be lowered further and/or pushed further back and text increased in size if you wear bifocals and if you look at the monitor through the bottom of your lenses.

49 Office Ergonomics Awareness Monitor Is the screen angled up towards your face? If not, –Angle the screen upwards.

50 Office Ergonomics Awareness Monitor Is the screen free of obvious glare and reflections? If not, –Prevent the source of glare from reaching monitor, (i.e. use opaque vertical blinds, use glare screens). –Place monitor at right angles to windows. –Use an LCD monitor.

51 Office Ergonomics Awareness Monitor Is the screen positioned so that you can easily see / read the information / icons on the screen? If not, –Bring the monitor closer to you. –In your displays properties under the folder tab, Increase the font size to large or extra large. –In your displays properties under the folder tab, button, folder tab, increase the DPI to 120

52 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Environment Issues Is the level of lighting considered adequate? If not, –Use appropriate task lighting. –Reduce the amount of light in work area, especially from ceiling-mounted light fixtures.

53 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Environment Issues Is the monitor positioned to minimize glare? If not, –Prevent source of glare from reaching monitor, (i.e. use opaque vertical blinds, use glare screens). –Place monitor at right angles to windows. –Use LCD monitors.

54 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Environment Issues Is monitors screen free from glare? If No, is the glare from: –overhead lighting? If yes, –Reduce the amount of light in work area, especially from ceiling- mounted light fixtures and use task lighting.

55 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Environment Issues If No, is the glare from: –windows? If yes, –Prevent source of glare from reaching monitor, (i.e. use opaque vertical blinds, use glare screens). –Place monitor at right angles to windows. –Use LCD monitors.

56 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Environment Issues If No, is the glare from: –reflected light (off walls, mirrors, etc.)? If yes, –Remove mirrors and cover up areas of high reflectance.

57 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Environment Issues Are reference materials (documents, forms, binders etc.) free from glare? If not, –Reposition light sources if possible to avoid reflections.

58 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Environment Issues Can you control the illumination level in your work area? If not, –Remove some light bulbs. –Use appropriate task lighting.

59 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Environment Issues Are you able to control the amount of light entering in through the windows? If not, –Install opaque vertical blinds. –Use a glare screen on monitor. –Orientate workstation so that computer workstation is at 90° to windows.

60 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Environment Issues If able to control the amount of light entering in through windows, –are blinds vertical rather than horizontal? –If not, think about Installing opaque vertical blinds. Can you control blinds for windows in/near your work area? –If not, elongate blind controls if required and, if possible.

61 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Environment Issues Is there appropriate and adequate task lighting? If not, –use appropriate task lighting.

62 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Environment Issues Temperature and Humidity –Do you feel that the work area temperature is comfortable (not too hot or too cold)? –If not, raise/lower temperature to individual comfort if possible.

63 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Environment Issues Temperature and Humidity –Do you have any control of the work area temperature? –If not, Wear more/less warm clothing. Use individual heaters where appropriate.

64 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Environment Issues Temperature and Humidity –Do you feel the area humidity (air dryness) is kept at a comfortable level (especially in the winter)? –If not, inquire about the use of personal humidifiers.

65 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Organization/Task Issues Do you do a variety of tasks during a work day? If not, –Discuss the possibility of increasing task variety with your employer.

66 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Organization/Task Issues Are you able to vary your posture when doing different tasks during the work day? If not, –Optimize the workstation and equipment to allow for postural variation.

67 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Organization/Task Issues Do you take regularly scheduled breaks? If not, –You should be taking your regular, scheduled breaks.

68 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Organization/Task Issues Are you able to take a 5 minute break away from keyboarding at least once an hour (e.g. to stand up / move about)? If not, –Recline in your chair and put your feet up instead.

69 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Organization/Task Issues If you are required to talk on the phone while also making notes, or accessing information from the computer for 2 hours or more/day cumulatively, is a phone headset provided? If not, –Use telephones speaker function if appropriate and available.

70 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Organization/Task Issues Is an in-line document holder provided for data entry tasks? If not, –If using an adjustable keyboard platform try to position documents between back edge of platform and edge of work surface. –Use an in-line document holder that does not block the monitor.

71 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Organization/Task Issues If non-standard documents (large books/folders, small invoices, etc.) are used for data entry, is the document holder able to support these documents? If not, –Use an appropriate in-line document holder that is the right size for the documents.

72 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Organization Tips Stand Up –5 minutes each hour. –When youre talking on the phone. –When retrieving print jobs. –Instead of reaching for reference materials. Move About –When possible stand up and walk around. –Network printers are a good thing because they make you walk to them. –Take breaks / meals away from desk.

73 Office Ergonomics Awareness Work Organization Tips Interject keying tasks with other work tasks to add variety and a break. Use natural pauses in work to relax muscles (e.g. stand occasionally when on telephone, remove hands from keyboard when waiting for computer). Vary your posture by rearranging adjustments of furniture (e.g. recline and work for 10 minutes every hour).


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