Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Decoction Mashing for the Homebrewer Kevin A. Kutskill June, 2005.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Decoction Mashing for the Homebrewer Kevin A. Kutskill June, 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 Decoction Mashing for the Homebrewer Kevin A. Kutskill June, 2005

2 2 For a copy of this talk:

3 June, Decoction Mashing for the Homebrewer Overview of talk Decoction Background Contemporary DecoctionSpecialty Malts Decoction Mashing Getting the Flavors an Easier Way: Pseudo-Decoction Techniques Pressure Cooker Decoction Mash No-Sparge Technique

4 June, Basic premise of the beer samples or What am I drinking and why? Style: Oktoberfest Four batches: -all brewed within 24 hours of each other -same base grains, same water, same hopping schedule, same yeast -same fermentation conditions

5 June, Only difference between the four Oktoberfest batches: How the mash was performed Specialty Malts Decoction Pressure Cooker No-Sparge

6 June, BJCP Oktoberfest Style Guidlines: Aroma: Rich German malt aroma (of Vienna and/or Munich malt). A light to moderate toasted malt aroma is often present. Clean lager aroma with no fruity esters or diacetyl. No hop aroma. Caramel aroma is inappropriate. Appearance: Dark gold to deep orange-red color. Bright clarity, with solid foam stand. Flavor: Initial malty sweetness, but finish is moderately dry. Distinctive and complex maltiness often includes a toasted aspect. Hop bitterness is moderate, and noble hop flavor is low to none. Balance is toward malt, though the finish is not sweet. Noticeable caramel or roasted flavors are inappropriate. Clean lager character with no diacetyl or fruity esters. Mouthfeel: Medium body, with a creamy texture and medium carbonation. Smooth. Fully fermented, without a cloying finish. Overall Impression: Smooth, clean, and rather rich, with a depth of malt character. This is one of the classic malty styles, with a maltiness that is often described as soft, complex, and elegant but never cloying. Vital Statistics: OG: – FG: – ABV: 4.8 – 5.7% IBUs: 20 – 28 SRM: 7 – 14 IBUs: 20 – 28 SRM: 7 – 14

7 June, Specialty Malt Recipe Conference OktoberfestSpecialty Malts Brewing Date: March 13, 2005 Batch Size (Gal): 5.50 Est. IBU: 23.5 OG: FG: Grains Hops % Amount Name Amount Name Form Alpha IBU Time % Amount Name Amount Name Form Alpha IBU Time lbs. Vienna Malt 1.30 oz. Hallertauer Mittelfruh Whole min lbs. Munich Malt 0.30 oz. Hallertauer Mittelfruh Whole min lbs. Aromatic Malt lbs. Aromatic Malt lbs. Melanoidin Malt lbs. Melanoidin Malt lbs. Caravienne Malt lbs. Caravienne Malt Efficiency: 74% WYeast 2206 Bavarian Lager

8 June, Specialty Malt: the technique Grain Bill: 11.25# Grain Bill: 11.25# Mash Ratio: 1.8 qts/# Mash Ratio: 1.8 qts/# Mash temp: 148 degrees Mash temp: 148 degrees Strike water volume: 20 qts. Strike water volume: 20 qts. Strike water temp: 162 degrees Strike water temp: 162 degrees Doughed in mash, and held at 148 degrees for 90 min. Doughed in mash, and held at 148 degrees for 90 min. Sparge (fly sparge) Sparge (fly sparge)

9 June, Specialty Grains Specialty Grains: after mash and sparge

10 June, Decoction Mashing for the Homebrewer Overview of talk Decoction Background Contemporary DecoctionSpecialty Malts Decoction Mashing Getting the Flavors an Easier Way: Pseudo-Decoction Techniques Pressure Cooker Decoction Mash No-Sparge Technique

11 June, What is decoction? Decoction is a special type of step mashing procedure Decoction is a special type of step mashing procedure The difference is in the way the heat is applied to raise the mash temperaturea portion of the mash is removed, brought to boil, and returned to the main mash The difference is in the way the heat is applied to raise the mash temperaturea portion of the mash is removed, brought to boil, and returned to the main mash No additional infusions or direct heat is needed No additional infusions or direct heat is needed

12 June, The History Behind Decoction Originally developed in central Europe, especially Germany & Czech Republic, in the late 18 th /early 19 th century Originally developed in central Europe, especially Germany & Czech Republic, in the late 18 th /early 19 th century Used primarily in lager brewing Used primarily in lager brewing Actual reason behind the development of the decoction technique is widely debated Actual reason behind the development of the decoction technique is widely debated Development of decoction technique before well-documented history Development of decoction technique before well-documented history

13 June, Likely evolved due to a combination of several factors: Likely evolved due to a combination of several factors: Lack of accurate temperature measurements (no thermometer) Lack of accurate temperature measurements (no thermometer) Inconsistent and poor modification of continental malts Inconsistent and poor modification of continental malts The History Behind Decoction Inconsistent product Inconsistent product Poor efficiency Poor efficiency

14 June, Why Decoct? Decoction allows the brewer to create a complex collection of chemical compounds known as melanoidins, which will not only add color and darken the beer, but give it an improved aroma and flavor (malty, bread-crust, and caramel-like) Decoction allows the brewer to create a complex collection of chemical compounds known as melanoidins, which will not only add color and darken the beer, but give it an improved aroma and flavor (malty, bread-crust, and caramel-like) Decoction improves mash efficiency Decoction improves mash efficiency Decoction allows additional protein coagulation, resulting in a more crystal clear beer Decoction allows additional protein coagulation, resulting in a more crystal clear beer Decoction allows step mashing without a direct heat source Decoction allows step mashing without a direct heat source

15 June, Is decoction still practiced in brewing? Germany & Czech Republic: ? ? USA: Samuel Adams Boston Lager CraftbrewingHomebrewing **With todays well-modified malts, decoction is not necessary for good efficiency and quality of final product

16 June, What happens during decoction? Main players: sugars, amino acids and heat Caramelization simple sugars + water + heat simple sugars + water + heat results in caramel notes in resulting beer results in caramel notes in resulting beer Maillard Reaction simple sugars + amino acid +water + heat simple sugars + amino acid +water + heat results in formation of melanoidins results in formation of melanoidins ***No enzymes involved!

17 June, The Maillard Reaction The Maillard reaction, discovered in 1912 by the French chemist Louis Camille Maillard takes place between amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and sugars. The Maillard reaction, discovered in 1912 by the French chemist Louis Camille Maillard takes place between amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and sugars. He discovered that when he heated sugars and amino acids together, the mixture slowly turned brown. When heated together, sugars and amino acids rapidly produce a whole range of highly flavored molecules that that are responsible for the brown color, flavor, and aroma of foods cooked over a flame or in the oven. He discovered that when he heated sugars and amino acids together, the mixture slowly turned brown. When heated together, sugars and amino acids rapidly produce a whole range of highly flavored molecules that that are responsible for the brown color, flavor, and aroma of foods cooked over a flame or in the oven.

18 June, Maillard Pathway

19 June, Maillard Pathway Made Easy Aldose (sugar) + Amino acid H2OH2O Aldosylamine Amadori compounds Melanoidins

20 June, What affects the Maillard Reaction? Temperature Water Activity TimepH

21 June, What affects the Maillard Reaction?

22 June, Where Maillard Reactions Occur MaltingStorage Mashing (decoction) Boil

23 June, Decoction Mashing for the Homebrewer Overview of talk Decoction Background Contemporary DecoctionSpecialty Malts Decoction Mashing Getting the Flavors an Easier Way: Pseudo-Decoction Techniques Pressure Cooker Decoction Mash No-Sparge Technique

24 June, Malts That Contain Increased Maillard Products Melanoidin Malt Melanoidin Malt Aromatic Malt Aromatic Malt Munich Malt Munich Malt Vienna Malt Vienna Malt Caramel Malts Caramel Malts

25 June, Malting overview SteepingGerminationDryingKilningCuring

26 June, Kilning Variables for Specialty Malts Vienna Malt Munich Malt Melanoidin Malt Aromatic Malt Caramel Malts Malt Moisture Dry Temp. Cure temp °F 160°F 180°F 220°F 240°F 250°F

27 June, Decoction vs. Infusion with specialty malts Decoction ?Infusion--++? Mash Efficiency Step mashing without direct heat source Length of brew day Simplicity of mash Resulting flavor/aroma

28 June, Decoction Mashing for the Homebrewer Overview of talk Decoction Background Contemporary DecoctionSpecialty Malts Decoction Mashing Getting the Flavors an Easier Way: Pseudo-Decoction Techniques Pressure Cooker Decoction Mash No-Sparge Technique

29 June, Decoction Recipe Conference OktoberfestDouble Decoction Brewing Date: March 12, 2005 Batch Size (Gal): 5.50 Est. IBU: 23.7 OG: FG: GrainHops % Amount Name Amount Name Form Alpha IBU Time lbs. Vienna Malt 1.30 oz. Hallertauer Mittelfruh Whole min lbs. Vienna Malt 1.30 oz. Hallertauer Mittelfruh Whole min lbs. Munich Malt 0.3 oz. Hallertauer Mittelfruh Whole min. Double Decoction--each decoction boiled for 30 minutes Efficiency: 84% WYeast 2206 Bavarian Lager

30 June, Decoction: an overview Decoction is a special method to accomplish step mashing Decoction is a special method to accomplish step mashing The mash is taken through the temperature ranges of the different enzymes found in the malt The mash is taken through the temperature ranges of the different enzymes found in the malt Accomplished by removing a portion of the grains and heating them to boiling, then returning them to the mashtun Accomplished by removing a portion of the grains and heating them to boiling, then returning them to the mashtun No infusion or direct heat applied to main mash No infusion or direct heat applied to main mash

31 June, BUT WAIT! BOIL THE GRAINS? Wont boiling the grains during decoction cause tannin extraction?

32 June, BUT WAIT! BOIL THE GRAINS? Boiling the grains during a decoction is ok-- tannin extraction is limited due to the relative low-water environment, and the extra tannins extracted during decoction are bound up in extra hot-break of the decoction and subsequent boil. Additionally, the typical prolonged lagering period of these beer styles helps smooth the resulting beer

33 June, BUT WAIT! BOIL THE ENZYMES? Wont boiling the mash during decoction cause the mash enzymes to denature and deactivate?

34 June, BUT WAIT! BOIL THE ENZYMES? Not a problem here, either. Most of the enzymes are left back in the liquid of the main mash, and most of what you are boiling is the grain, starch, sugar, and amino acids.

35 June, Decoction: an overview EnzymeFunctionTemp.Rest Phytase Lowers Mash pH86-126°Facid Beta Glucanase Breaks down gum95-113°Fprotein Peptidase Produces FAN °Fprotein Protease Breaks down haze °Fprotein producing proteins Beta Amlyase Produces maltose °Fbeta onlysacch. Alpha Amlyase Produces maltose °Falpha and other sugarssacch. **adapted from How to Brew by John Palmer

36 June, Decoction: an overview Basic steps in a decoction mash: 1. Remove grains from main mash 2. Bring grains to boil, and boil for at least minutes 3. Return boiled grains to main mash, thereby increasing the mash temperature to the next level 4. Repeat

37 June, Decoction: an overview Types of traditional decoction mashes: 1. Single decoction step from protein rest to a single saccharification rest 2. Double decoction step from protein rest to single saccharification rest, then from saccharification rest to mashout temp. 3. Triple decoction step from acid rest to protein rest, then from protein rest to saccharification rest, then from saccharification rest to mashout temp.

38 June, Decoction: an overview Single Decoction protein rest sacch. rest

39 June, Decoction: an overview Double Decoction protein rest sacch. rest

40 June, Decoction: an overview Triple Decoction acid rest sacch. rest protein rest

41 June, Some basic rules about decoction: 1. Remove only the thickest part of the mash for a decoction 2. STIR! Dont let the decoction stick/scorch/burn 3. If taking a decoction to reach mashout temperature, take liquid only 4. Dont return entire decoction to the mash immediatelycheck mash temp. after returning 80-90% of the decoction 5. Keep hot and cold water nearby to correct any temperature overshoots

42 June, Decoction: an overview Modified Double Decoction beta sacch. rest protein rest alpha sacch. rest

43 June, Decoction: the technique How much grains to pull for the decoction? Decoction volume (quarts)= T x Vm (184 - Tm) (184 - Tm) T=change in temperature desired (°F) Vm=volume of the entire mash (quarts) Tm=temperature of main mash (°F)

44 June, Decoction: the technique Vm=volume of the entire mash Vm= Wg( Rm) Wg=Weight of grain bill (pounds) Rm=mash ratio (quarts/pound)

45 June, Decoction: the technique Decoction Calculator: Decoction Volume Calculator.xls Decoction Volume Calculator.xls

46 June, Decoction: the technique % Mash Decocted vs. Temperature Rise Main Mash Temp (°F)

47 June, Decoction: the technique How much grains to pull for the decoction? Or, keeping it simple (KISS), decoction volume can be estimated at 1/3-1/2 of entire mash volume.

48 June, beta sacch. rest protein rest alpha sacch. rest Decoction: the technique Modified Double Decoction

49 June, Decoction: the technique Dough-in: Grain Bill: 10.5# Grain Bill: 10.5# Mash Ratio: 1.8 qts/# Mash Ratio: 1.8 qts/# Initial mash temp: 122 degrees Initial mash temp: 122 degrees Strike water volume: 19 qts. Strike water volume: 19 qts. Strike water temp: 135 degrees Strike water temp: 135 degrees Doughed in mash, and held at 122 degrees for 20 min. Doughed in mash, and held at 122 degrees for 20 min.

50 June, beta sacch. rest protein rest alpha sacch. rest Decoction: the technique Modified Double Decoction

51 June, Decoction: the technique First Decoction: Grain Bill: 10.5# Mash Ratio: 1.8 qts/# Initial mash temp: 122 degrees Next mash temp: 142 degrees Change in temp: 20 degrees

52 June, Decoction: the technique First Decoction: Vm= Wg( Rm) Vm=(10.5) x ( )=22.2 quarts Decoction Volume=T x Vm = 20 x 22.2 = (184 - Tm) ( ) (184 - Tm) ( ) Decoction Volume= 7.2 quarts or, KISS: 1/3-1/2 of 22.2= quarts

53 June, Decoction: the technique First Decoction Pulled 7 quarts of thick mash Pulled 7 quarts of thick mash Heated to 155 degrees and held for 20 min. Heated to 155 degrees and held for 20 min. Then heated to boiling, and boiled for 30 min. Then heated to boiling, and boiled for 30 min. Returned decoction to main mash Returned decoction to main mash

54 June, Decoction: the technique

55 June, Decoction: the technique

56 June, Decoction: the technique

57 June, Decoction: the technique

58 June, Decoction: the technique

59 June, Decoction: the technique

60 June, beta sacch. rest protein rest alpha sacch. rest Decoction: the technique Modified Double Decoction

61 June, Decoction: the technique Second Decoction: Grain Bill: 10.5# Mash Ratio: 1.8 qts/# Initial mash temp: 142 degrees Next mash temp: 158 degrees Change in temp: 16 degrees

62 June, Decoction: the technique Second Decoction: Vm= Wg( Rm) Vm=(10.5) x ( )=22.2 quarts Decoction Volume=T x Vm = 16 x 22.2 = (184 - Tm) ( ) (184 - Tm) ( ) Decoction Volume= 8.4 quarts or, KISS: 1/3-1/2 of 22.2= quarts

63 June, Decoction: the technique Second Decoction Beta sacch. rest for 45 minutes Beta sacch. rest for 45 minutes Pulled 8 quarts of thick mash Pulled 8 quarts of thick mash Heated to boiling, and boiled for 30 min. Heated to boiling, and boiled for 30 min. Returned decoction to main mash Returned decoction to main mash

64 June, beta sacch. rest protein rest alpha sacch. rest Decoction: the technique Modified Double Decoction

65 June, Decoction: the technique Mashout Alpha sacch. rest for 30 minutes Alpha sacch. rest for 30 minutes Added 2 gallons of boiling water to mash Added 2 gallons of boiling water to mash Recirculated at 170 degrees for min. Recirculated at 170 degrees for min. Sparge (fly sparge) Sparge (fly sparge)

66 June, Decoction Grains Decoction Grains: Before Decoction: After Decoction:

67 June, Comparing Grains Decoction: Specialty Malt:

68 June, Decoction Mashing for the Homebrewer Overview of talk Decoction Background Contemporary DecoctionSpecialty Malts Decoction Mashing Getting the Flavors an Easier Way: Pseudo-Decoction Techniques Pressure Cooker Decoction Mash No-Sparge Technique

69 June, Pressure Cooker Recipe Conference OktoberfestPressure Cooker Brewing Date: March 13, 2005 Batch Size (Gal): 5.50 Est. IBU: 23.7 OG: FG: Grain Hops % Amount Name Amount Name Form Alpha IBU Time % Amount Name Amount Name Form Alpha IBU Time lbs. Vienna Malt 1.30 oz. Hallertauer Mittelfruh Whole min lbs. Vienna Malt 1.30 oz. Hallertauer Mittelfruh Whole min lbs. Munich Malt 0.30 oz. Hallertauer Mittelfruh Whole min lbs. Munich Malt 0.30 oz. Hallertauer Mittelfruh Whole min. Removed 7 quarts of grains (thick decoction), placed in pressure cooker and cooked at 15 PSI (250 degrees) for 30 minutes, then returned to main mash. Efficiency: 80% WYeast 2206 Bavarian Lager

70 June, Pressure Cooker: the technique Pressure Cooker Decoction alpha sacch. rest beta sacch. rest

71 June, Pressure Cooker: the technique Pressure Cooker Decoction alpha sacch. rest beta sacch. rest

72 June, Pressure Cooker: the technique Grain Bill: 10.5# Grain Bill: 10.5# Mash Ratio: 1.8 qts/# Mash Ratio: 1.8 qts/# Initial mash temp: 142 degrees Initial mash temp: 142 degrees Strike water volume: 19 qts. Strike water volume: 19 qts. Strike water temp: 158 degrees Strike water temp: 158 degrees Doughed in mash, and held at 142 degrees for 60 min. Doughed in mash, and held at 142 degrees for 60 min.

73 June, Pressure Cooker: the technique Pressure Cooker Decoction alpha sacch. rest beta sacch. rest

74 June, Pressure Cooker: the technique Decoction Pulled 7 quarts of thick mash, placed in pot Pulled 7 quarts of thick mash, placed in pot Placed pot in pressure cooker, sealed, and brought pressure cooker up to 15 PSI Placed pot in pressure cooker, sealed, and brought pressure cooker up to 15 PSI (250 °F) (250 °F) Cooked decoction in pressure cooker for Cooked decoction in pressure cooker for 30 min., then removed from heat and let pressure drop 30 min., then removed from heat and let pressure drop Returned decoction to main mash Returned decoction to main mash

75 June, Pressure Cooker: the technique

76 June, Pressure Cooker: the technique

77 June, Pressure Cooker: the technique

78 June, Pressure Cooker: the technique

79 June, Pressure Cooker: the technique

80 June, Pressure Cooker: the technique

81 June, Pressure Cooker: the technique Pressure Cooker Decoction alpha sacch. rest beta sacch. rest

82 June, Pressure Cooker: the technique Mashout Alpha sacch. rest for 30 minutes Alpha sacch. rest for 30 minutes Added 2 gallons of boiling water to mash Added 2 gallons of boiling water to mash Recirculated at 170 degrees for min. Recirculated at 170 degrees for min. Sparge (fly sparge) Sparge (fly sparge)

83 June, Pressure Cooker Grains Before cooker: After cooker:

84 June, Comparing Grains Decoction: Specialty Malt: Pressure Cooker:

85 June, Decoction Mashing for the Homebrewer Overview of talk Decoction Background Contemporary DecoctionSpecialty Malts Decoction Mashing Getting the Flavors an Easier Way: Pseudo-Decoction Techniques Pressure Cooker Decoction Mash No-Sparge Technique

86 June, No Sparge Recipe Conference OktoberfestSpecialty Malts Brewing Date: March 12, 2005 Batch Size (Gal): 5.50 Est. IBU: 23.6 OG: FG: Grains Hops % Amount Name Amount Name Form Alpha IBU Time % Amount Name Amount Name Form Alpha IBU Time lbs. Vienna Malt 1.30 oz. Hallertauer Mittelfruh Whole min lbs. Munich Malt 0.30 oz. Hallertauer Mittelfruh Whole min. Efficiency: 59% WYeast 2206 Bavarian Lager

87 June, What is No Sparge? A mash technique where an infusion mash is performed, then just enough additional water is added to the mash so that when the wort is completely drained from the mashtun, enough wort is collected for the boil without additional water additions or sparging.

88 June, Why No Sparge? 1.Same amounts of sugars, melanoidins, dextrins, etc. using No Sparge vs. traditional fly sparging 2.Less extraction of tannins and other polyphenols with No Sparge technique 3.#1 & #2 result in a richer, maltier tasting beer 4.Shorter brewday!

89 June, No Sparge disadvantages 1.Reduced mash efficiency 2.Requires more grain (more cost) 3.Requires larger mashtun

90 June, No Sparge: the technique Several things need to be determined: How much extra grain is needed (typically quoted as being 1/4 - 1/3 more grains)? How much extra grain is needed (typically quoted as being 1/4 - 1/3 more grains)? How much water needs to be added at mashout to obtain entire pre-boil wort volume? How much water needs to be added at mashout to obtain entire pre-boil wort volume? How big of a mashtun is required? How big of a mashtun is required?

91 June, No Sparge: the technique Inputs: OG: Standard recipe original gravity (just the points part i.e ) Gr: Standard recipe grainbill (total pounds) Vr: Standard recipe batch size (e.g. 5 gallons) Vb: Standard recipe boil volume (e.g. 6 gallons) Calculation Coefficients: k: Grain water-retention coefficient (0.5 quart/lb.) Rr: Standard recipe conversion rest mash ratio (e.g., 1.5 qts/lb.) **adapted from How to Brew by John Palmer

92 June, No Sparge: the technique Outputs: S: Scale-up factor for grainbill Gn: No-sparge grainbill (total pounds) BG: No-sparge boil gravity (points) Rn: No-sparge final mash ratio (qts/lb.) Wn: No-sparge total water volume (qts) Wmo: Mashout water volume (qts) Vt: No-sparge total mash volume. (qts) **adapted from How to Brew by John Palmer

93 June, No Sparge: the technique Calculate the scale-up factor: S = 4Vb/(4Vb – kGr) Calculate the no-sparge grainbill: Gn = SGr Calculate the no-sparge boil gravity: BG = OGVr/Vb Calculate the no-sparge mash ratio: Rn = (4Vb + kGn)/Gn Calculate the total no-sparge water volume (qts): Wn = GnRn = 4Vb + kGn Calculate the volume of water for mashout (qts): Wmo = Gn(Rn-Rr) or Wn – infusions Calculate the total no-sparge mash volume (qts): Vt = Gn( (Rn – 1)) **adapted from How to Brew by John Palmer

94 June, No Sparge: the technique Much easier method: No Sparge Calculator

95 June, No Sparge: the technique Grain Bill: 14.25# Grain Bill: 14.25# Mash Ratio: 1.8 qts/# Mash Ratio: 1.8 qts/# Initial mash temp: 148 degrees Initial mash temp: 148 degrees Strike water volume: 26 qts. (6.5 gallons) Strike water volume: 26 qts. (6.5 gallons) Strike water temp: 164 degrees Strike water temp: 164 degrees Doughed in mash, and held at 148 degrees for 90 min. Doughed in mash, and held at 148 degrees for 90 min.

96 June, No Sparge: the technique Mashout Added 2 gallons of boiling water to mash at end of sacch rest Added 2 gallons of boiling water to mash at end of sacch rest Recirculated at 170 degrees for min. Recirculated at 170 degrees for min. Drained all wort into boil kettle (6.5 gallons) Drained all wort into boil kettle (6.5 gallons)

97 June, No Sparge Grains No Sparge Grains: after mash and sparge

98 June, Comparing Grains Decoction: Specialty Malt: Pressure Cooker: No Sparge:

99 June, Final Results Specialty Malt Decoction Pressure Cooker No Sparge

100 June, Summary Decoction can add small amount of additional flavor and aroma character to finished beer Decoction can add small amount of additional flavor and aroma character to finished beer Pseudo-decoction techniques are viable alternatives to traditional decoction Pseudo-decoction techniques are viable alternatives to traditional decoction Try these techniques in your brewery and decide for yourself! Try these techniques in your brewery and decide for yourself!


Download ppt "Decoction Mashing for the Homebrewer Kevin A. Kutskill June, 2005."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google