Presentation on theme: "Www.hanghaikythuat.tk STCW 78 The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers."— Presentation transcript:
STCW 78 The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers
STCW 78 Sets qualification standards for masters, officers and watch personnel on seagoing merchant ships. Adopted in 1978;entered into force in Significantly amended in 1995 due various limitations discovered.
STCW 78 LIMITATIONS DISCOVERED Vague requirements that were left to the discretion of parties to the Convention. Growing problems with: a lack of clear standards of competence no IMO oversight of compliance limited port state control inadequacies that did not address modern shipboard functions
STCW 78 The time had come for the organization to concentrate on areas relating to people, training and operational practices rather than on issues dealing with improving ship construction and equipment standards the need for IMO to take urgent action was highlighted by the grounding of the M/V BRAER in the Shetland Islands on January 5, 1993.(a month after the December 3, 1992 M/V AEGEAN SEA incident.) Two years earlier, in 1990, 158 people had died as a result of a fire on board the S/S SCANDINAVIAN STAR.
STCW 78>>>> deadline for revision of the STCW Convention was too distant. In 1993,comprehensive revision of STCW to establish the highest practicable standards of competence to address the problem of human error as the major cause of maritime casualties. special consultants used to submit amendments and proposals.
STCW 78>>95 SPECIFICALLY... The most significant amendments concerned: Enhancement of port state control; Communication of information to IMO to allow for mutual oversight and consistency in application of standards, Quality standards systems (QSS), oversight of training, assessment, and certification procedures, Placement of responsibility on parties, including those issuing licenses, and flag states employing foreign nationals, to ensure seafarers meet objective standards of competence, and Rest period requirements for watchkeeping personnel.
STCW 95 HUMAN ELEMENT ISSUES ADDRESSED BY 1995 AMENDMENTS TO STCW. the increasing use of multinational crews. the responsibility for competency of crews, which once fell only on flag state administrations, is now spread over all parties that issue certificates. the party issuing the original certificate must comply with the requirements of the Convention, and the flag state may issue a separate "recognition" certificate only after confirming that the original certificate was issued in accordance with the Convention.
STCW 95 PORT STATE CONTROL strengthen the port state control provisions of the STCW Convention by expanding the grounds on which a foreign ship may be detained. allowing port state control officers to look beyond merchant mariners certificates and conduct direct assessments of the competence of merchant mariners.
STCW 95 REST PERIODS To address the problem of crew fatigue: every person assigned duty as an officer in charge of a watch or as a rating forming part of a watch shall receive a minimum of 10 hours of rest in any 24 hour period. These 10 hours of rest may be divided into two parts as long as one segment is at least 6 hours long, with strictly limited exceptions.
STCW 95 TRAINING REQUIREMENTS seafarers be provided with "familiarization training" and "basic safety training" which includes: basic fire fighting elementary first aid personal survival techniques personal safety and social responsibility Intended to ensure that seafarers are aware of the hazards of working on a vessel and can respond appropriately in an emergency.
STCW 95 EXAMINATIONS AND DEMONSTRATION OF SKILLS minimum standards of competence for the range of certificates to be issued under STCW are presented in tables with four columns: Competence or ability to be established Area of knowledge, understanding and proficiency within each competence. Methods of demonstrating competence Criteria for evaluating competence. Amendments also promote the use of simulators as one of the recognized means for demonstrating competence.
STCW 95 QUALITY STANDARDS SYSTEM STCW requires all training and assessment activities to be "continuously monitored through a quality standards system to ensure achievement of defined objectives, including those concerning the qualifications and experience of instructors and assessors." 1995 amendments require those responsible for instruction and assessment of the competence of seafarers to be qualified for the type and level of training or assessment involved. Persons performing these roles are expected to have received guidance in instructional techniques and assessment methods
Relation of ISM Code and STCW Both contains precise requirements concerning the education and qualification of masters, officers and crew. ISM Code- description of structure of a Safety Management System, demanding its development, implementation and maintenance. STCW – supplies a legal basis for the uniform fulfilment of requirements as found in ISM Elements: Element 6 – Resources & Personnel Element 7 – Shipboard Operations Element 8 – Emergency Preparedness.
Relation of ISM Code and STCW (cont…) Since the ISM Code clearly demands that with the implementation of STCW 95 safety system, all connected laws and regulations have to be observed, it is therefore mandatory that all STCW95 requirements are being complied with. Thus, verification of STCW95 compliance is conducted during ISM Audits.
Certificates Certificate of Competence –Issued to masters, officers, radio operators and ratings forming part of a watch, who meet the standards of competence relevant to their particular functions and level of responsibility on board. Endorsement of Recognition –This document is issued by an Administration as an official recognition of the validity of a certificate issued by another Administration. –This procedure is necessary as many merchant fleets are manned by seafarers certificated by other Administrations Certificates of proficiency and special certificates –issued to the seafarer to certify that he or she has met the required standard of competence in a specific duty.