7 From L(Ha) + M★-dependent dust correction SF main sequence is independent of environment out to z~2 (as far as we rely on Ha-based SFR).From L(Ha) + M★-dependent dust correctionFrom rest-frameR-band photometry+ M/L correction(Koyama et al. 2013b, MNRAS, 434, 423)
8 Beyond the SF Main Sequence (two important caveats)
9 Dust extinction depends on environment Cluster SF galaxies tend to be dustier – different SF mode?A(Ha) fromSFR(IR)/SFR(Ha)z=0.4 HAE sampleA(Ha) fromA(Ha)-M* relation(calibrated at z=0)(Koyama et al. 2013b, MNRAS, 434, 423)
10 “Mass segregation” in z>2 proto-cluster SF galaxies in z>2 proto-cluster show redder colours and higher M* (>1011M) compared to general field galaxies.: 24um-source■： red HAE (dusty SF) (J-KAB>1.4, DRG)■： green HAE (0.8<J-KAB<1.4)■： blue HAE(J-KAB<0.8)(Koyama et al. 2013a, MNRAS, 428, 1551)10
11 ALOHA-TMT Towards the TMT era Anatomy with Lines of Oxygen and Hydrogen with AO on TMT
12 HST morphologies of Ha emitters at z=2 z~2 proto-cluster galaxies (rest-UV)cluster phenomena !z=2.2 HAEsin PKS1138M: 24um sourceX: X-ray sourceHST/i-band snapshots(4”x4”=30 kpc for each)(Koyama et al. 2013a)12
13 ALOHA : (Dust-corrected) Ha mapping rest-UVHaHa-strong(but UV-faint) dusty red clumps. Responsible for major SF activity in these galaxies?(seeing)red clumpHST image(ACS+WFC3)rest-UVDeep TMT+IFU observation will allow us to map Ha/Hb ratio (i.e. extinction map) over the galaxies.HaHST image(ACS+WFC3)(seeing)Ha emitters at z=2.5 in SXDF/CANDELS from Tadaki et al. (2013)
14 ALOHA : Spatially-resolved line ratios Mapping multiple emission-lines over the galaxies allow us to unveil central AGN, metallicity gradient, excitation state… etc.AGN in the central regionPurely star-formingRedder symbols show galaxy central pixelsPixel-by-pixel BPT diagram from SINFONI+AO observation (Newman et al. 2013)
15 ALOHA  : Galaxy dynamics with IFU Recent discovery: high-z clumpy (field) galaxies are disk-rotating.Disk/merger classification with“kinemetry”mergerdiskGenzel et al. (2006)Shapiro et al. (2008)Forster-Schreiber et al. (2011)
16 ALOHA-TMT will give us a direct answer !! ALOHA  : Galaxy dynamics with IFUIs it really true for high-z “cluster” galaxies as well?(and for more normal, low-mass galaxies?)rest-UV (ACS)rest-UV (ACS)Proto-cluster (z=2)General Field (z=2)Koyama et al. (2013)Tadaki et al. (2013)ALOHA-TMT will give us a direct answer !!
17 Summary(1) MAHALO-Subaru unveiled large-scale structures at z>>1 with wide-field emission-line galaxy survey with Subaru.(2) Using MAHALO sample, we find that SF main sequence is independent of environment at any time in the history of the universe since z~2 (as far as we rely on the Ha-based SFRs).(3) SF galaxies in cluster environments may be more highly obscured by dust – implying a different mode of SF activity from general field galaxies.(4) SF galaxies in z~2 proto-cluster environments tend to be more massive (and have higher SFR) than the field counterparts.(5) High-z galaxies are clumpy (both in clusters and fields). ALOHA-TMT will reveal the environmental impacts on the internal physics of high-z galaxies with deep IFU observation.