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GLOSSARY: RESPIRATION 1.State the equation for aerobic and anaerobic respiration 2.State the composition of inspired air 3.State the composition of expired.

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Presentation on theme: "GLOSSARY: RESPIRATION 1.State the equation for aerobic and anaerobic respiration 2.State the composition of inspired air 3.State the composition of expired."— Presentation transcript:

1 GLOSSARY: RESPIRATION 1.State the equation for aerobic and anaerobic respiration 2.State the composition of inspired air 3.State the composition of expired air 4.Define frequency, tidal volume, vital capacity and minute ventilation 5.Now state their average values at rest 6.Define oxygen debt 7.How do you achieve more VE during sub max exercise? 8.What happens during maximal intensity? 9.Explain internal respiration 10.Explain external respiration

2 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM AEROBIC RESPIRATION: Involves the use of OXYGEN and GLUCOSE. It RELEASES ENERGY C02 and HEAT GLUCOSE + OXYGEN (O2)CARBON DIOXIDE (C02) + WATER (H2O) + ENERGY + HEAT ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION: Involves the use of GLUCOSE. It RELEASES ENERGY C02, HEAT & LACTIC ACID GLUCOSE ENERGY + HEAT + LACTIC ACID KEY TERMS: 1. INSPIRED AIR COMPOSITION is 79% NITROGEN / 20% O2 / and 0.4% CO2. 2. EXPIRED AIR COMPOSITION is 79% NITROGEN / 16% O2 / and 4% CO2. 3. FREQUENCY (Breathing Rate) is the NUMBER of times you INSPIRE & EXPIRE in 1 MINUTE 4. TIDAL VOLUME: The amount of AIR that can be INSPIRED or EXPIRED during NORMAL breathing 5. VITAL CAPACITY (Lung Volume): The MAXIMUM amount of AIR that can be EXPIRED after a DEEP INSPIRATION 6. GASEOUS EXCHANGE: is the process of EXCHANGING O2 and CO2 at the LUNGS and the WORKING MUSCLES 7. OXYGEN DEBT: Is the amount of OXYGEN required during RECOVERY ABOVE the amount of OXYGEN that you would normally require AT REST

3 LUNG VOLUMES 1. TIDAL VOLUME (TV) is the volume of air INSPIRED or EXPIRED per BREATH. At REST this is approximately 500 MILLILITRES. During EXERCISE this can INCREASE to 3 TO 4 LITRES. 2. FREQUENCY (f) is the number of breaths taken in ONE MINUTE. Sometimes referred to as RESPIRATORY RATE. At REST it is approximately 12 – 15 breaths. During EXERCISE this can increase to 40 to 60 breaths. 3. MINUTE VENTILATION (VE) is the VOLUME of air INSPIRED or EXPIRED in one minute. At REST this is approximately 6 to 7.5 LITRES PER MINUTE. During EXERCISE this can INCREASE to between 120 to 180 LITRES PER MINUTE if trained. FORMULAE; VE = TV x f During SUB MAXIMAL exercise TV and f INCREASE to allow for a GREATER VE but during MAXIMAL INTENSITY exercise only an INCREASE in f will allow for more VE because it takes TOO LONG in time to INCREASE TV GASEOUS EXCHANGE; INTERNAL & EXTERNAL Respiration Gaseous Exchange is the exchange of 02 and C02. It relies on DIFFUSION which is movement of gases from an area of HIGH PRESSURE to an area of LOW PRESSURE. Gases ALWAYS do this. The difference between these 2 pressures is called the DIFFUSION GRADIENT. The BIGGER the gradient, the more DIFFUSION and GASEOUS EXCHANGE can occur. The PARTIAL PRESSURE (PP) of gases is the amount of pressure a gas exerts on other gases in the same area. EG: When blood is OXYGENTATED it has a HIGH PARTIAL PRESSURE (PP) of 02 and a LOW PARTIAL PRESSURE (PP) of C02. The opposite is true in DEOXYGENATED blood. PARTIAL PRESURES can occur in 2 locations. EXTERNAL RESPIRATION: This is at the ALVEOLI. HIGH PP of 02 diffuse from the ALVEOLI. to the CAPILLARY where the PP of 02 is LOW. Similarly a HIGH PP of C02 in the capillary diffuses to the alveoli where the PP of C02 is LOW. INTERNAL RESPIRATION: This is at the point where the capillaries surround the MUSCLES. A HIGH PP of 02 in the CAPILLARIES diffuse into the muscle where there is a LOW PP of 02. Similarly a HIGH PP of C02 in the MUSCLES diffuse out to the capillaries where the PP of C02 is LOW

4 AS PE THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CHANGES IN GASEOUS EXCHANGE DUE TO EXERCISE

5 THE MECHANICS OF RESPIRATION What: To investigate how gaseous exchange changes during exercise How : Through written answer Why: As a fitness instructor you will be able to understand the benefit of a warm up Post Lesson Task : A) Glossary Revision B) C Grade : You can describe the changes B Grade : You can explain the changes A Grade : You can evaluate the changes A* Grade: You can compare the changes between different athletes State, List, Opinion, Name, or Describe ExampleEvaluate THE BRILLIANT Identify! Key Define Explain Analyse OUTCOME!! Terminology

6 GASEOUS EXCHANGE DURING EXERCISE Both INTERNAL and EXTERNAL Respiration INCREASE during EXERCISE to supply the 02 to the WORKING MUSCLES. The OXYGEN – HAEMOGLOBIN DISSOCIATION CURVE is a graph which informs us about how much HAEMOGLOBIN is SATURATED with 02 in BOTH the LUNGS and in the MUSCLE TISSUE. DISSOCIATION is when 02 UNLOADS from HAEMOGLOBIN At REST: In EXTERNAL respiration there is a PP of 02 of 100mmHg in the ALVEOLI. The blood then travels to the muscles. In INTERNAL respiration at the MUSCLES the PP of 02 is 40 mmHg Draw the Graph. The X Axis has Units of mmHg ranging from 0 to 100mmHg. The Y Axis has Units of % O2 SATURATION of HAEMOGLOBIN ranging from 0 to 100%. Now plot the Curve using the following data: Now label the X Axis to identify PP of 02 in Muscle Tissue = 40mmHg Now label the X Axis to identify PP of 02 in the Lungs = 100 mmHg Now calculate the Percentage Saturation of Haemoglobin in Muscle Tissue and in the Lungs. What is the percentage difference? What has happened? mmHg % Saturation

7 Therefore at REST approximately 25% of the 02 that is carried by the HAEMOGLOBIN is UNLOADED into the MUSCLES. If we can INCREASE this percentage we can have a more EFFICIENT athlete who will perform HIGHER The DIFFUSION GRADIENT is the difference between 2 PARTIAL PRESSUREs of the SAME gas. The BIGGER the GRADIENT the MORE DIFFUCION takes place During EXERCISE the muscles are using MORE 02, and are producing MORE C02. Therefore DEOXYGENATED blood coming back to the lungs via the heart has a HIGH PP of C02 and a LOW PP of 02. At EXTERNAL RESPIRATION the blood reaches the CAPILLARIES that surround the ALVEOLI, this means that C02 DIFFUSES QUICKER into the LUNGS and out of the body and that 02 diffuses QUICKER into the capillaries because the DIFFUSION GRADIENT is HIGHER. This means that HAEMOGLOBIN is almost FULLY SATURATED At INTERNAL RESPIRATION there are 4 factors have the effect of moving the graph line to the right; 1) Increase in TEMPERATURE 2) Decrease in PP of 02 in the Muscles 3) Increase in PP of C02 in Muscles 4) BOHR EFFECT; This is which is an increase in ACIDITY because of LACTIC ACID. Plot the graph with the data below and calculate the percentage uptake now. What has happened? mmHg % Saturation


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