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Newtons First Law of Motion unit 6.3 year 10

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Context Forces act on us every day, causing many different effects. In 1687, Isaac Newton asked how these forces act and what interactions occur between them. He then formulated three laws to explain how objects move when a force acts on them. They are often referred to as Newtons Laws of Motion.

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Force A force is a push, pull or twist that can cause an object to: – increase its speed (accelerate) – decrease its speed (decelerate) – change its direction – change its shape. If any of these things happen, then a force caused it. It is possible, however, for a force to be acting without any of these things happening.

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Newtons First Law An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. sometimes referred to as the law of inertia.

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Newtons First Law There are two parts to this statement - one that predicts the behavior of stationary objects and the other that predicts the behavior of moving objects. The two parts are summarized in the following diagram.

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Newtons First Law Forces are balanced Object at rest (v = 0 m/s/s) Stay at rest Object in motion (v 0 m/s/s) Stay in motion Same speed & direction

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Newtons First Law The head of a hammer can be tightened onto the wooden handle by banging the bottom of the handle against a hard surface. A brick is painlessly broken over the hand of a physics teacher by smashing it with a hammer. (do not attempt this at home!) To dislodge sauce from the bottom of a bottle, it is turned upside down and thrust downward at high speeds and then stopped.

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Newtons First Law "keep on doing what they're doing Ladder Bad driver

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Inertia and Mass Objects tend to "keep on doing what they're doing." In fact, it is the natural tendency of objects to resist changes in their state of motion. This tendency to resist changes in their state of motion is described as inertia.

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Inertia and Mass (Galileo)

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Inertia and Mass Isaac Newton built on Galileo's thoughts about motion. Newton's first law of motion declares that a force is not needed to keep an object in motion. Slide a book across a table and watch it slide to a rest position.

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Inertia and Mass Demonstrations

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Check your understanding 1. Imagine a place in the cosmos far from all gravitational and frictional influences. Suppose that you visit that place (just suppose) and throw a rock. The rock will… a. gradually stop. b. continue in motion in the same direction at constant speed.

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Check your understanding 1. Imagine a place in the cosmos far from all gravitational and frictional influences. Suppose that you visit that place (just suppose) and throw a rock. The rock will… a. gradually stop. b. continue in motion in the same direction at constant speed.

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Check your understanding 2. A 2-kg object is moving horizontally with a speed of 4 m/s. How much net force is required to keep the object moving at this speed and in this direction? Answer: 0 N. An object in motion will maintain its state of motion. The presence of an unbalanced force changes the velocity of the object.

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Check your understanding 3. Supposing you were in space in a weightless environment, would it require a force to set an object in motion?

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Check your understanding 3. weightless environment Absolutely yes! Even in space objects have mass. And if they have mass, they have inertia. That is, an object in space resists changes in its state of motion. A force must be applied to set a stationary object in motion. Newton's laws rule – everywhere!

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State of Motion Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist changes in its state of motion. The state of motion of an object is defined by its velocity - the speed with a direction. Thus, inertia could be redefined as follows: Inertia: tendency of an object to resist changes in its velocity.

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Check your understanding 1. A group of physics teachers is taking some time off for a little putt-putt golf. The 15th hole at the Hole-In-One Putt-Putt Golf Course has a large metal rim that putters must use to guide their ball towards the hole. Mr. B guides a golf ball around the metal rim When the ball leaves the rim, which path (1, 2, or 3) will the golf ball follow?

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Check your understanding

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The answer is 2. Once leaving the rim, the ball will follow an "inertial path" (i.e., a straight line). At the instant shown in the diagram, the ball is moving to the right; once leaving the rim, there is no more unbalanced forces to change its state of motion. Paths 1 and 3 both show the ball continually changing its direction once leaving the rim.

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Balanced and Unbalanced Forces An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. what exactly is meant by the phrase unbalanced force? What is an unbalanced force?

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Balanced and Unbalanced Forces Consider a book on the desk. There are two forces acting upon the book. One force - the Earth's gravitational pull - exerts a downward force. The other force - the push of the table on the book (sometimes referred to as a normal force) - pushes upward on the book.

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Balanced and Unbalanced Forces Since these two forces are of equal magnitude and in opposite directions, they balance each other. The book is said to be at equilibrium. It maintains its state of motion, it will not accelerate while all forces are balanced

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Balanced and Unbalanced Forces If enough force is applied to the side of the book it slides along the desk until the force of resistance stops the book. While accelerating (+ or -) the forces being applied to the book are unbalanced.

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Check your understanding 4. If the forces acting upon an object are balanced, then the object a. must not be moving. b. must be moving with a constant velocity. c. must not be accelerating. d. none of the above

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Check your understanding 4. If the forces acting upon an object are balanced, then the object The answer could be A (but does not have to be A) and it co uld be B (but does not have to be B). An object having balanced forces definitely cannot be accelerating. This means that it could be at rest and staying at rest (one option) or could be in motion at constant velocity (a second option). Either way, it definitely is not accelerating - choice C of your four choices.

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