2Government Investment and a Deflationary Gap Remember: Government spending and business investment are injections into the circular flow of income.Any injections are MULTIPLIED through the economy.How does this take place?
3Multiplier ExampleA government spends 100m dollars on a school building project.This 100m goes to a vast number of people for the factors of production they provide. (ex?)Labour in the form of Architects, engineers, builders etc.So the 100m goes into the pockets of these people.What do people do with this income?
4Spending Some of it goes back to the government as taxes. Some is saved.Some is spent on foreign goods.The rest is spent on domestic goods and services.The first 3 are withdrawals from the circular flow of income, why?
5What happens to the money spent domestically? These new recipients of the income behave in a similar fashion.They pay taxes, they save, the buy imports and the rest is spent on domestic produce.During each “round” some income is withdrawn from the circular flow and the rest stays to be re-spent.
6Simple exampleGovt. spends 100m on an economy in an attempt to stimulate spending and increase GDP.Of that 100m,20% goes on taxes10% is saved10% is spent on importsRemaining 60% spent on domestic goods
7Marginal Propensity to Comsume or MPC So the MPC when expressed as a decimal is 0.6The final result of the multiplier, when all the money has been spent and re-spent amounts to 250m or 2.5 times the original government spending of 100m.With example of an economy, any injection would contribute 2.5 times its amount to national income.
8Formulas MPC=Marginal Propensity to Consume MPW=Marginal Propensity to WithdrawMPW=Marginal Propensity to Save (MPS) + Marginal Rate of Taxation MRT + Marginal Propensity to Import MPM… orMPW=MPS+MRT+MPM1-MPC or MPS+MPM+MRT = MPW
9Elasticity How large an effect will the multiplier have? Depends on the elasticity of supply.If there is plenty of “spare capacity” in an economy then the supply will be far more elastic and that will mean a larger effect.If we are close to full capacity with an inelastic PES then the multiplier’s effect lessens.
10Example QuestionsWork out the National Income increase of these 3 different economies if 50 million dollars is invested in each.Country A has an MPC of .75Country B has an MPC of .80Country C has an MPC of .50In which country would the greatest degree of GDP increase take place?
11WithdrawalsWork out the National Income increase of the economy below if 100 million dollars is invested and it’s MPW is as follows:MPS=0.2MPT=0.3MPM=0.3