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Heat Illnesses and Basic First Aid

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Presentation on theme: "Heat Illnesses and Basic First Aid"— Presentation transcript:

1 Heat Illnesses and Basic First Aid

2 Heat Illnesses Exercising in hot, humid environments can cause various forms of heat illnesses Heat Rash Heat Syncope Heat Cramps Heat Exhaustion Heatstroke

3 Heat Rash Occurs when skin is continually wet with unevaporated sweat
Shoulders under pads, behind knees, armpits, groins, behind knees Red, raised rash, tingling during sweating Localized to areas covered with wet clothing Change shirts often, towel off skin Use of baby powder or Gold Bond

4 Heat Syncope Rapid physical fatigue during prolonged exposure to heat
Dizziness, fainting, nausea Lay athlete down in a cool environment and replenish fluids Gradually acclimatize to exercise in a hot, humid environment

5 Heat Cramps Hard work in heat, sweating heavily, imbalance between water and electrolytes Muscle twitching and cramps Ingest large amounts of fluid, stretching, ice massage of affected muscle Acclimatize athlete properly, provide fluids, replenish electrolytes (Gatorade)

6 Heat Exhaustion Prolonged sweating leading to dehydration
Excessive thirst, dry tongue/mouth, fatigue, weakness, incoordination, low urine output, elevated body temperature Bed rest in cool room, replenish fluids, IV if needed, increase fluid intake (6-8 L/day) Supply adequate fluids, provide adequate rest and opportunity for cooling

7 Heatstroke Life-threatening emergency
Strenuous physical exercise and increased environmental heat stress Abrupt onset Headache, fatigue, flushed skin, lack of sweating, rapid pulse, increased respiration, low blood pressure, diarrhea, vomiting Call 911, immersion in ice water, air fan over body Adapt activities to environment, proper hydration, proper acclimatization

8 Prevent Heat Illnesses
Acclimatize athletes to heat Educate coaches/athletes on prevention, recognition, and treatment of heat illnesses Educate on proper hydration (9-11 cups of water/day) Sleep 6 to 8 hours/day in cool environment Monitor environmental conditions, make adaptations if necessary (no pads/helmets)

9 Preventing Heat Illnesses, cont.
Provide adequate supply of water to maintain hydration Give water breaks often (every minutes) Minimize amount of equipment and clothing worn in hot, humid conditions Allow athletes to practice in shaded areas

10 Lightning Safety If thunder and/or lightning can be heard or seen
Stop activity immediately Seek protective shelter Indoor facility is recommended Avoid standing under large trees and telephone poles Avoid metal bleachers Allow 30 minutes to pass after the last sound of thunder or lightning strike before resuming play

11 Cuts/Wounds Wear latex gloves Place barrier between you and athlete
Apply direct pressure Cover the wound with sterile gauze and press firmly against wound Elevate the injured area (if possible) to slow/stop blood flow Cleanse wound or apply triple antibiotic ointment Cover with clean bandage

12 Sprains/Strains Remove athlete from activity
Help athlete off of the field Apply ice; Follow RICE principles Rest Ice Compression Elevation Seek evaluation from a medical professional

13 Fractures and Dislocations
Pain/tenderness Difficulty moving injured part Obvious deformity Immediate swelling and discoloration Keep limb from moving Keep athlete calm Call for medical help

14 Based on: NFHS “Concussion in Sports: What you need to know”
Concussions Based on: NFHS “Concussion in Sports: What you need to know”

15 What is a Concussion? Injury to the brain
No such thing as a “minor brain injury” Must be taken seriously Bump, blow, or jolt to the head or body Causes head to bounce around or twist in the skull Less than 10% of all concussions involve loss of consciousness

16 More on Concussions… Problem with function, not structure
CT Scans and MRIs are normal with most concussions Studies show it usually takes 2 weeks or more for brain cells to recover from an injury, and may take even longer Occur in all sports A suspected concussion is serious no matter how/where it occurred

17 4 Areas Affected The way the person feels Headache or fatigue
The way the person thinks Memory and/or concentration Change in Emotions Irritable or sad Problems with Sleep Trouble falling asleep

18 Signs of a Concussion Signs (seen by parent/coach) Dazed or stunned
Confused Forgets plays Moves clumsily Answers questions slowly Loses consciousness Behavior changes Memory problems (events before or after injury)

19 Symptoms of a Concussion
Symptoms (felt by player) May exhibit one or more of the following: Headache Nausea Balance problems/Dizziness Fuzzy vision Feels sluggish Light/noise sensitive Concentration/memory problems Confusion

20 If a Potential Concussion Arises
Any signs/symptoms of a concussion = Immediate removal from play When in doubt, sit them out Notify parent/guardian Advised to contact primary care physician and/or seek nearest emergency department on the day of the injury

21 When to Call 911 Indicate a medical emergency and activation of EMS
Player with a witnessed lost of consciousness of any duration Player exhibits these symptoms: Decreased level of consciousness Unusual drowsiness or inability to be awakened Difficulty getting attention Breathing irregularities Severe or worsening headache Persistent vomiting Seizures

22 Never send a player to the bus or locker room alone
If a player with a suspected head injury is not sent for immediate medical attention: Must be continuously observed until evaluated by a health care professional Never send a player to the bus or locker room alone Any worsening symptoms or signs indicate a medical emergency

23 Head’s Up 4-Step Action Plan
Remove the participant from play Ensure that the participant is evaluated by a health care professional Inform the participant’s parents or guardians about the concussion and give them information on concussions Keep the participant out of play the day of the injury and until an appropriate health care professional says the player is symptom-free and it’s OK to return to play

24 Complications Most players recover in 1-2 weeks
Others may have prolonged symptoms for months Prolonged Symptoms: Headaches Difficulty concentrating Poor memory Sleep problems Can affect performance in school

25 Second Impact Syndrome
A player that returns to activity before healing fully from the concussion is at risk for a repeat concussion Slow recovery Increase chance for long-term problems Can result in severe swelling of the brain Can be fatal

26 Return to Play Work closely with health care provider or athletic trainer to return athlete to activity properly Rest Full return to school Symptom-free Receive clearance from medical professional Gradual return to activity

27 How to Rest? Rest at Home Rest at School Sleep Often
Limit brain “stimulation” from: Phone Computer Music TV Texting Gaming Rest at School Stay home or attend school half days Take naps or allow rest time Extend time to complete assignments Allow time to visit school nurse for treatment of headaches Written instructions for homework Repeat and present new information slowly Share progress and difficulties

28 Return to Play Protocol
Step 1: Light Exercise 5 to 10 minutes on an exercise bike or light jog No weight lifting Step 2: Running in the gym or on the field without a helmet or other equipment Step 3: Non-contact training drills in full uniform Begin light weight training Step 4: Full contact practice or training Step 5: Get back into the game!

29 Return to Play, cont. Athlete must be symptom free before starting progression Progression usually takes 1 week Player progresses one step each day Activity must be stopped immediately if signs/symptoms of a concussion returns If symptoms occur at any step, player must be re-evaluated by a medical professional

30 Role as a Coach Bring about a change in culture about the seriousness of this injury when talking with players, parents, and other coaches No proven protection from a concussion Can aim to reduce the risk Educate others on concussions Fact sheet for parents and players

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