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Robert Altman November 17th 2010

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1 Robert Altman November 17th 2010
Approach to Tremors Robert Altman November 17th 2010

2 Questions you should be able to answer after this session
What is the most common movement disorder? Name 2 drugs that can enhance a physiologic tremor and 2 that can turn someone akinetic and rigid? What is a first line therapy for early tremor in PD for a 45 yr old? What are the 2 P’s for essential tremor treatment? Which tremor is so stirkingly unilateral and disabling that the patient’s limb is deemed non-functional? Tensor or levator in essential palatal tremor?

3 References AAN Movement Disorders Syllabus, 2010 Toronto
AAN Continuum 2007, 2010 Movement Disorders Videos courtesy of YouTube and AAN Continuum CD As usual; good review articles Tremor : Clinical Features, Pathophysiology, and Treatment: Neurol Clin 27 (2009) 679–695 Grimes DA. Tremor--easily seen but difficult to describe and treat. Can J Neurol Sci Mar;30 Suppl 1:S59-63. Gupta A, Lang AE. Psychogenic movement disorders. Curr Opin Neurol Aug;22(4):430-6.

4 Contemplate... Definition of tremor
Rational and logical categorization Examples of each Therapies for each Focus in essential tremor Definition Genetics Clinical Pharmacological and non-pharma treatments Surgical therapies (refractory cases) What / where to lesion or stimulate? Psychogenic Movement Disorders*

5 Definition: Tremor Movement of a body part Involuntary (even PMD)
Rhythmical Regularly recurrent Oscillatory Around central plane

6 Categorization Previously described in terms of activation condition (rest vs. movement), brain region affected (rubral), presence or absence of medical condition(hypothyroid), existence of neurological conditions (dystonia), topography (limb, head, voice), frequency..... Complicated and contradictory Generally not necessary to diagnose and properly treat Phenomenology and a syndromic classification of tremor consensus statement Movement Disorder Society (MDS) [1998]

7 Does this help your understanding...?

8 Treat the correct cause
Central generator Peripheral generator

9 Action Rest TREMOR Kinetic Postural Parkinsonian Drug induced
Arise during voluntary contraction of skeletal muscle Action Kinetic -intention Postural Rest Parkinsonian Drug induced Limb fully relaxed

10 Continuum 2010 Movement Disorders

11 3 golden rules in tremor assessment
Action vs. Rest History & Physical Pattern recognition

12 Action Most Common: Less Common: Essential tremor
Enhanced physiological tremor Drug-Induced action tremor Dystonic Less Common: Orthostatic Cerebellar Psychogenic Wilsonian FXTAS Peripheral neuropathy-related Midbrain or rubral

13 On history Tremor causing Rx? Caffeine, nicotene?
Diarrhea, weight loss, heat intolerenace? Sudden onset? Temporal course? Static or progressive? What body regions?

14 On exam Postural / sustension: Kinetic part: What joints?
Thumb posturing? Other abnormal postures? Distractibility, entrainment, suggestibility? Kinetic part: Pouring, drinking, using a spoon, FNF, Archimedes spiral test Intentional component (worsen as draw near target) Re-emergent? Dystonic postures accompanying? (thumb)

15 Essential Tremor Most common adult-onset movement disorder
5% general population Genetics: AD, variable penetrance, no gene found (polygenic) Central generator: thought to represent cerebellar-thalamo-cortical outflow pathology Kinetic and postural, mainly arms; 4-12Hz Progressive Armshead (“yes-yes” vs. “no-no”) Voice / vocal cord, chin, tongue Unilateral  bilateral Rare in LE’s No parkinsonian or dystonic features.

16 Disability Interferes with ADL’s
Feeding Spoon, drinking from a cup Writing Typing Personal hygiene Interferes w/ occupational motor tasks

17 Diagnostic Criteria Core Secondary / Supportive
Bilateral action tremor of the hand and forearms Absence of other neurologic signs Caveat: cogwheeling* May have isolated head tremor with no signs of dystonia Secondary / Supportive Long duration (3 yrs) + family Hx Beneficial response to ETOH 50-90% of cases, but careful for rebound phenomenon * See next slide

18 Non-motor ET symptoms Non-motor (tremor) symptoms being recognized
Cognitive decline Anxiety Gait disturbances Hearing loss Implications for screening, treatment plans Tandem gait difficulties Anxiety  Tan et al 2005 cognition,Benito-Leon et al 2006, neurology 2009 GaitSinger et al 1994 Hearing lossbenito-leon 2007

19 Archimedes Spiral Test
Diagnostic and for follow-up Exam pearl: wing-beating position elicits it best; out of phase (destructive interference)

20 Treatment of ET DBS (not lesional) General principals
Treat only if bothersome The longer the tremor has been there the more difficult Tx will be Limb tremor responds much better than head/neck to oral Rx Non-pharmacologic Biofeedback Weighted objects (e.g., utensils) Only dampens it temporarily, not viable long term treatment option Pharmacologic 2 P’s ; alone or in combo. Is there concurrent HTN? Primidone, propranolol (Inderal) Others: benzodiazepenes, gapapentin anecdotal use but not class A evidence (see table in appendix) Botox Voice, head DBS (not lesional) ViM of VL of thalamus in refractory cases 90% improvement with ventralis intermedius stimulation a/e to surgery <1% in expert centers

21 2 P’s * Caution for hypotension, bradycardia in elderly  falls
A/E  impotence, drowsiness, confusion, h/a. Exercise intolerence = be careful in COPD / ASTHMA and DB on oral hypoglycemics  BB can mask hypoglycemic episodes! patients don’t develop tolerence to BB Primidone patient’s eventually habituate to the s/e


23 Enhanced Physiologic Tremor (EPT)
Appears to be peripherally generated (not central like ET) Based on inertial loading electrophysiological analysis Faster postural and kinetic tremor than ET (7-12Hz); very low amplitude. Very easily visible 15-35 yo Anxious phenotype Mainly voice and limb No head May have some cogwheeling, no frank rigidity Endogenous & exogenous (see next slide) causes Tx Reversible Reassurance Low dose beta-blockers, bzdp Endogenous = hyperT4, hypoglycemia

24 Drug Induced Action Tremor (EPT)
Based on history Temporal onset Sympathomimetics++ (ß-adrenergic bronchodilators) caffeine, nicotene SSRI, Li, valproate, roids! Withdrawal relieves symptoms Limb, never head Treatment Remove causative agent Bb or bzdp can dampen tremor if causative Rx absolutely necessary  neuroleptics, lithium, corticosteroids, calcium channel blockers, ethanol, beta adrenergic agonists, valproic acid, theophylline, thyroid hormones, cardiac antiarrhythmics, nicotine, and tricyclic antidepressants

25 Dystonic Tremor Commonly misdiagnosed as ET
Tremulous muscle activity in patients with dystonia Pulling or pain sensation in region affected (e.g., neck) Limbs (UE>LE), head (neck) or both (limb precedes neck) Voice: strangled speech, voice break Postural or kinetic Not rythmic, nor oscillatory, not around 1 axis Exam may reveal tonic muscle activity in tremoulous or conta-tremulous limb Tremulousness is directional Spooning of hands, fatiguing, thumb flexion or other dystonic postures May have scarf hiding hypertrophied muscle (eg neck with toriticollis) Dystonic tremor may be reduced by antagonistic gestures geste antagonistique Commonly misdiagnosed as ET Pharma treatment: anti-dystonic agents (baclofen, artane), bzdp, bb, botox (torticollis, voice) Surgical (refractory): selective denervation, DBS Dystonic tremor may be reduced by antagonistic gestures geste antagonistique),

26 Orthostatic Tremor Rare ‘Unsteadiness’ when standing o/e
Avoid situations when have to stand still (at movies) o/e Rapid 13-18hz, low amplitude tremor/rippling in calves only on standing Visible and palpable pseudodystonic Confirmed with EMG Rx: Nothing evidence based Most common =Clonazepam, sinemet Tried inderal, primidone, gabapentin, phenytoin, cbz, ethosux, baclofen, diamox Subtype of ET actually by some catagorization schemes

27 Cerebellar Tremor Central cerebellar disorders (e.g.,SCA)
Kinetic with terminal worsening = intentional May have postural component, but rest absent In multiple planes Slow, 3-5 hz Presence of overshooting Other cerebellar signs (hypermetric saccades, dysarthria, scanning speech, ataxic gait, head titubation, dyssynergia) Treatment DBS thalamic

28 Wilson’s Disease associated Tremor
Can be action (rest, combination) Postural (possibly wing-beating) Kinetic (like ET) Young (<40 yo) Exam reveals multifocal and multisystemic disorder (long-tract, cognitive, neuro-psychiatric) Trivia: what are the genetics? Mode of transmission? On what layer of the cornea would you look to find KF rings? Tx Chelation Penicillamine controversial Trientene Tetrathiomolybate Zinc once levels normalize Bb for action tremor AR Gene = ATP7B gene on chromosome 13q Layer of cornea = Descemet.. Striatal and generalized neuronal loss. Diffuse gliosis with Alzheimer’s types I and II astrocytes and Opalski’s cells (of microglial origin) Tx: Penicillamine-D; can cause drug induced lupus, myasthenic-like picture, subacute worsening prompting cessation... Zinc Less toxic = Trientin, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate Liver translplant

29 FXTAS (fragile X tremor ataxia syndrome)
Multiple complaints in addition to tremor Cerebellar or parkinsonian Cognition, dysexectuive function Male family members (grandchildren) have MR MR brain Classic picture Tx: bb for action tremor  intention tremor and/or ataxia, with peripheral neuropathy, autonomic dysfunction, and gradual cognitive decline beginning with memory and executive function deficits. Psychiatric features are often present, and may include anxiety, dysinhibition, depression, and apathy. MRI features of FXTAS include global brain atrophy, white matter disease in the subcortical, middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP) and periventricular regions

30 Peripheral neuropathy-related tremor
PN by history of same limb with tremor Intertial loading leads to suppression of tremor proving peripheral generator More common with demyelinating PN’s, also seen in HMSN1 (Levy-Roussy) and IgM dysgammaglobulinemic neuropathies Temporal linkage o/e Peripheral neuropathy readily apparent on tremulous limb Sensory impairment, weakness 4/5 MRC, altered DTR Tremor present when muscle strength allows limb to maintain certain postures Vanishes if weakness too severe or if limb power returns to normal Tx: Underlying neuropathy BB for AT What do you think about DBS?  By and large, they are relatively uncommon and generally consist of irregular postural or kinetic tremors of variable frequency from 4 to 11 Hz. Not all peripheral neuropathies have been identified with tremor, and most of them have been demyelinating and specifically dysgammaglobulinemic neuropathies (especially IgM disorders). Tremors have also been reported in type 1 hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (Roussy-Levy syndrome). Tremors have also been reported with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in the recovering phase of Guillain-Barré syndrome (Said et al 1982; Elbe 1983; Smith et al 1984; 1995).

31 Midbrain / Rubral / Holmes
Lesion based, central generator Sudden onset focal neurological insult Progressive forms can occur (tumor or expanding vascular lesion)..some say this is typical even for stroke. Strikingly unilat, HB or monomelic Non-rythmic, <4.5 Hz, high amplitude Rest, action (postural and kinetic) Severity: kinetic > postural > rest Severe and disabling, limb entirely handicapped Imaging confirms pontine-midbrain lesion affecting cerebellar outflow tracts and dopaminergic nigrostriatal fibers Rx: AT primidone, bb Rest Levodopa, DA, Anti-chol DBS (refratory) YouTube: rubral tremor.wmv Aka thalamic tremor, myorhythmia A delay of up to 2 years between the lesion and tremor onset is typical

32 Palatal “myoclonus” – actually tremor
Essential vs. symptomatic See Chenjie’s presentation, great comparative table  Although it resembles a tremor, the movement is repetitive rather than oscillatory and involves contraction of agonist muscles only. The cause of the auditory ear click is unknown, but it occurs more commonly in essential palatal myoclonus, which is idiopathic, than in symptomatic palatal myoclonus that is secondary to a structural lesion in the brain stem.

33 Rest Tremor(s) Most Common: Less Common: Parkinsonian
Drug-induced rest tremor ET (with rest component; rare…15-20%) Less Common: Wilsonian Midbrain

34 Critical Elements from Hx & Exam
History Rx? Change in arm swing, gait, facial expression? Previous CVA, dementia? Exam Arms at rest (whole interview and dynamic exam) ‘pill-rolling’ quality Symmetry Limb or hemi-body Arm extension test Not true postural, rather emergent (with crescendo after several seconds)

35 Parkinsonian Tremor Classically @ rest; 3-5 Hz Often HB If arm
Pron-sup rather than flx-ext Check for limb “posturing” flexion/fist formation hand, thumb flexion Re-emergent tremor during arm extension or during tasks (pouring water) causes considerable misdiagnosis with ET May be more disabling than rest tremor Other hallmark-cardinal features Motor: asymmetric rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability, fatiguing Non-motor: RBD, hyposmia, constipation, mood, sebborhea, ANS dysfunction (orthostasis, ED, etc.), excessive daytime sleepiness, RLS, body pain Aversion to caffeine...?

36 PD tremor DA 1st line Levodopa Anticholinergics (rare) Consider bzdp
Cogentin, artane, amantadine Consider bzdp Refractory DBS

37 Drug Induced Temporal link with Rx
Antipsychotics (typical>atypical), Li Can look practically identical to Parkinsonian tremor Removal of medication should result in complete resolution Tx: Remove or diminish offending agent Levodopa (even if on Da blocking agents) or anticholinergics can be tried

38 Psychogenic Tremor (PMD)
History Exam Sudden, abrupt onset Link with psychological stressor Maximal tremor at onset, rather than slowly progressive Static course Spontaneous remissions/cures Psychiatric comorbidities Somatisation Entrainment, co-activation, distractibility and suggestibility (I will trigger your tremor..., or use magic tuning fork) Give-way weakness Non-physiological or unusual features Variable frequency or direction Unusual combined rest, postural, kinetic Changes speeds throughout exam Fatigues with prolonged exam Little response to pharmacotherapy Intertial loading leads to tremor worsening “la belle indifference” Perceived disability out of proportion to exam findings Coactivation sign. This is observed when testing a trembling limb for rigidity and there is resistance to the passive movement. Two additional features should be present: 1) the tremor is dependent on there being an increase in tone (i.e. the examiner feels the patient “fighting” against him or her); and 2) the tremor disappears when the voluntary increase in tone disappears.

39 Psychogenic Movement Disorders (PMD)
Gupta A, Lang AE. Psychogenic movement disorders. Curr Opin Neurol Aug;22(4):430-6.

40 PMD Not a diagnosis of exclusion
Enough qualifiers to be included on Ddx early on Should be recognized and treated rapidly to avoid stigmatization, ‘crazy’ label CBT, neurologist (a movement disorder induced by internal stress), psychiatrist (somatization)

41 Frequency of PMD in clinical practice

42 Questions you should be able to answer after this session
What is the most common movement disorder? Name 2 drugs that can enhance a physiologic tremor and 2 that can turn someone akinetic and rigid? What is a first line therapy for early tremor in PD for a 45 yr old? What are the 2 P’s for essential tremor treatment? Which tremor is so strikingly unilateral and disabling that the patient’s limb is deemed non-functional? Tensor or levator in essential palatal tremor?

43 Thanks!


45 Palatal Myoclonus saga...
Essential Palatal Myoclonus Symptomatic Palatal Myoclonus 25% of cases Most cases No lesions Lesion in Mollaret triangle Presence of ocular abnormalities, facial asymmetry, hemiparesis, etc Abnormality on neuroimaging (e.g. olivary nucleus hypertrophy) Audible click: tensor veli palatini inserts in Eustachian tube (entire soft palate) No audible click: levator veli palatini (edges only) Myoclonus and click disappears in sleep Myoclonus persist during sleep Can be transiently aborted by patient, certain neck postures, mouth opening Cannot be aborted From Chenxie!

46 Palatal Myoclonus: involvement of central tegmental tracts
Olivary Hypertrophy instead of degeneration depending on location of lesion Parvocellular (palatal) portion of the red nucleus Multiple causes: neurodegenerative, infectious, inflammatory, demyelination, traumatic, ischemic,

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