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Progression of the Holocaust

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Presentation on theme: "Progression of the Holocaust"— Presentation transcript:

1 Progression of the Holocaust

2 FACTS 63% of Jewish population in Europe was killed
91% of Jewish population in Poland was killed Auschwitz-Birkenau was liberated by Soviet troops on Jan. 27, 1945 Found 836, 255 women’s dresses 348,000 men’s suits 38,000 pairs of men’s shoes 14,000 pounds of human hair But only 7,650 live prisoners

3 European Jewish Population in 1933: 9,508,340
Estimated Jewish survivors of Holocaust: 3,546,211 =5,962,129

4 First Stage: Definition (early 1930s)
Purpose of this stage was to establish the Jewish population as “different” from the rest of society Nazis defined Jews based on so-called “scientific” evidence Jews were required to register Jews for identity cards

5 Definition Jewish people were separated from the rest of society by visible symbols-placing the label “Jew” on their clothing, passports and businesses Towards the end of this stage, Jews were required to sew a yellow star on all of their clothing

6 Stage 2: Expropriation (late 1930s)
Purpose of this stage was to demoralize the Jewish population Jewish properties and livelihoods were expropriated (taken away) Law forbade Jews from holding certain jobs, living in certain places, owning businesses or having bank accounts

7 Stage 2 Because Jews had already been identified in the first stage, it was easy to enforce the new laws against them Furthermore, Jews had already been established as different than and inferior to the rest of society, so few people objected

8 Stage 3: Concentration (early 1930s, but intensified in 1939)
Purpose of this stage was not only to further remove the Jewish population from the rest of society (both physically and psychologically), but also to bring the Jews into a concentrated area to make it easier to transport them to the death camps

9 Stage 3 German Jews were not allowed to attend school, to travel, to own phones, radios, cameras or pets In Poland in 1939, Jews were forced to move from the countryside into sectioned-off sections of cities called ghettos

10 Stage 3 In the ghettos, Jews worked as slave labourers, surviving on minimal supplies of food, water and shelter Huge numbers of the Jews died in the ghettos of disease and malnutrition

11 Stage 4: Annihilation (from 1941, intensified after 1942)
The sole purpose of this stage was eliminate the entire Jewish population-as well as: anyone who disagreed with the Nazis; members of banned political parties (Communists and Social Democrats); Jehovah’s witnesses and members of many other religious groups; Gypsies; homosexuals; blacks; people with mental and physical disabilities

12 Stage 4 It began with the liquidation of the ghettos-transporting anyone who survived the liquidation to labour camps and death camps In parts of Russia, Latvia and Lithuania, Jews ere shot or gassed by mobile killing units and dumped in mass graves In the rest of Europe, Jews were transported to killing centers disguised as labour camps

13 Stage 4 Most of the Jews who died in the death camps were gassed in changers disguised as showers—their bodies were burned in crematoriums Before people were killed in the death camps, one last expropriated took place—all personal property was taken from them, including clothing, shoes, eyeglasses, gold fillings in teeth and women’s hair

14 NOTE It’s very important to understand that NONE of these stages were inevitable. People could decide whether or not to enforce the laws or comply with them People who resisted, however, were usually imprisoned or executed.

15 Chronology-specific 1933 Jews who worked for the government ad to give up their jobs Citizenship was taken away 1934 Jewish newspapers could not be sold in the streets Marriage between Jews and Germans was illegal All books written by Jews are burned in the streets

16 1935 Jews cannot be in the army 1936 Jews could not vote Jewish doctors could not work in German hospitals

17 1938 All Jewish passports were marked with a red letter “J” Jews could not run businesses that were owned by Germans Jews could not go to plays, movies or concerts Jews could not go to German public schools All Jewish businesses were shut down Jews could not have driver’s licenses or own cars Jews had to hand over all jewellery and art Jews could not go to university

18 1939 Jews must turn in their radios Jews must wear a yellow star on their coat 1940 Jews could not have phones Jews were sent to concentration camps

19 1941 Jews were not allowed to leave their homes without permission from the police Jews were not allowed to use public phones Jewish schools were closed

20 1942 Jews were not allowed to have newspapers Jews were not allowed to have pets Jews were not allowed to have typewriters Jews were not allowed to buy meat, eggs or milk Jews were not allowed to use busses Jews were not allowed to attend school

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