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Physical fitness can always be improved, HOW? Following a training programme, what makes a training programme effective? There are 4 principles which.

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Presentation on theme: "Physical fitness can always be improved, HOW? Following a training programme, what makes a training programme effective? There are 4 principles which."— Presentation transcript:

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4 Physical fitness can always be improved, HOW? Following a training programme, what makes a training programme effective? There are 4 principles which can help sports people to decide on an effective programme.

5 When planning any training, you have to apply the Principles of Training Individual Needs/Differences Specificity Progressive Overload Rest & Recovery ISPRISPR In pairs, create your own meaning for the 4 principles of training

6 Split 2 pages into 4 sections (In each section create a spider diagram) Individual needs Specificity Progressive overload Rest & Recovery

7 When planning a Personal Exercise Programme you must consider the individual needs of the performer. What is their initial level of fitness? What is their sport (and position played)? What is their body build? What is their aim or motivation? Using someone elses PEP will not work because every athlete has different needs, and training should focus on these. The following answered should be considered... The answers will help you to tailor the training programme to the individual needs and abilities of the performer. If you gave this young man to the right the same training plan as Paula Radcliff what might the problem be?

8 You need to concentrate on strength training for your arms and legs. Different events can require very different forms of training. For example.... There is no use someone training for a weight lifting competition going swimming every day. SPECIFICITY means matching training to the requirements of an activity. Every sport has its own specialist needs.

9 It should be made clear in your PEP which principle of training(s) you are applying. You should be able to identify the principle of training and which aspect of fitness it will be improving and why you have chosen this aspect. Task: In some sports there are different rolls that call for different fitness requirements. In diving, which HRE & SRF aspects need to be trained.

10 Progressive Overload means gradually increasing the amount of overload so as to gain fitness without the risk of injury. Overload describes when an athlete trains more than they normally do. The only way athletes can improve their fitness – Working at a higher range of intensity than the minimum required to improve fitness (working within the target zones). It can be use in all areas of health related exercise. How??

11 If a physical fitness programme is to be effective, it must place increased and specific demands on the body. If training levels remain the same, then the programme will only be maintaining the participants level of fitness, not improving it. At least every 2 weeks you should be reviewing and evaluating your personal exercise programme to include (ensure) progressive overload. Remember You can train too much! Overload does not mean training to hard or too much. This is a common mistake in the exam.

12 Rest: The period of time allotted to recovery Recovery: The time required to repair damage to the body caused by training or competition. The human body reacts to a training session by increasing its ability to cope with future punishing training sessions. This is called adaption. However, the body recovers and adaptation takes place whilst at rest. Create an athletes (related to your sport) weekly training plan – taking into account rest and recovery. - It may also relate to resting different parts of the body on different days – eg. Gym programme may have someone working on arms, legs, abdominals & cardiovascular fitness on 3 different days.

13 SPLAT Match the word to the definition 1 PERSON FROM EACH TEAM TO SIT ON THE CHAIR

14 PROGRESSIVE OVERLOAD

15 The time required for the repair of damage to the body caused by training or competition. Matching training to the requirements of an individual. Matching training to the requirements of an activity To gradually increase the amount of overload so that fitness gains occur, but without potential for injury. The period of time allocated to recovery

16 REST

17 The time required for the repair of damage to the body caused by training or competition. Matching training to the requirements of an individual. Matching training to the requirements of an activity To gradually increase the amount of overload so that fitness gains occur, but without potential for injury. The period of time allocated to recovery

18 INDIVIDUAL NEEDS

19 The time required for the repair of damage to the body caused by training or competition. Matching training to the requirements of an individual. Matching training to the requirements of an activity To gradually increase the amount of overload so that fitness gains occur, but without potential for injury. The period of time allocated to recovery

20 SPECIFICITY

21 The time required for the repair of damage to the body caused by training or competition. Matching training to the requirements of an individual. Matching training to the requirements of an activity To gradually increase the amount of overload so that fitness gains occur, but without potential for injury. The period of time allocated to recovery

22 RECOVERY

23 The time required for the repair of damage to the body caused by training or competition. Matching training to the requirements of an individual. Matching training to the requirements of an activity To gradually increase the amount of overload so that fitness gains occur, but without potential for injury. The period of time allocated to recovery

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25 STARTER Do in PENCIL A phrase that best describes the word Description Example (how it can be increased)

26 PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING FITT principle 1.4 continued

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29 Main Session Using pages 54 & 55 you are going to takes notes (bullet points) about each aspect of the FITT principle.

30 FITT principle There are four ways to achieve Progressive Overload in an exercise programme. They can easily be remembered using the mnemonic, FITT. Frequency – how often you train. Intensity – how hard you train. Time (or duration) – how long you train for. Type – how you train (the kind of training you do).

31 * However, if you wish to become an intermediate or elite competitor in any sport, you will need to train much more frequently. * Frequency overlaps with the principles of rest and recovery, and can be used to make good use of these. * How often you should train depends on what you wish to achieve. * The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence suggests that to maintain health, you should do 30 minutes of moderate exercise 5 times a week. Elite rowers often train twice a day! Training is best done regularly, rather than at random intervals.

32 * Intensity may very depending on the aims and type of training. However, whatever the type of training it must be carried out at a worthwhile level of intensity. * Planning the intensity of training correctly is very important.

33 FITT: intensity – maximum heart rate (MHR) In order to train the correct energy system, you need to calculate your maximum heart rate (MHR). Your maximum heart rate is the fastest that your heart can beat. It depends on your age and can be estimated using the following formula: maximum heart rate = 220 – age Use this formula to calculate the maximum heart rate of: a)a 16 year old b)a 24 year old c)a 53 year old d)a 67 year old Heart rate is measured in beats per minute.

34 * If a performer wishes to train their aerobic system, they should train at between 60% and 80% of their maximum. * If a performer wishes to train their anaerobic system, they should train at between 80% and 90% of their maximum. * The precise percentage level you train at will be based upon your current level of fitness. An unfit performer looking to improve their aerobic fitness would train at 60% of their maximum heart rate. A fit performer looking to improve their aerobic fitness would train at more like 80% of their maximum heart rate.

35 80% to 90% of MHR – Training in the anaerobic zone increases strength and power. As you approach 90% of the performers maximum heart rate, training time will have to get shorter and it will take more time for the performer to recover. This is because anaerobic exercise produces lactic acid, which builds up in the muscles. When there is too much lactic acid, the performer must stop. 60% to 80% of MHR – Training between these levels will improve a performers stamina (or aerobic fitness) levels. Lactic acid is not produced during aerobic exercise. Performers can train aerobically for much longer periods.

36 Max Heart Rate / 10 X 6 and 8 to get your upper and lower target zone Work yours out

37 Time means how long each training session must last in order to be of any benefit and to achieve improvement. At least 20 minutes per session should be spent in the target zone. This does not mean 5 minutes to warm up, 5 to train, 5 to cool-down, another 5 to shower and change back again. In terms of cardiovascular fitness, at least 20 minutes should be spent training with the pulse in the target zone after a good warm up and before a proper cool down. - Depends on the activity the performer is training for. - Marathon runner may need to spend several hours at a time in the aerobic zone. - A sprinter will need to spend relatively little time actually exercising – their sessions are likely to consist of many short, high intensity bursts with lengthy rests in-between.

38 Type means the method(s) of training chosen to achieve a persons particular goals. Type overlaps with the principles of specificity; training should be chosen according to what needs need to be improved and what the end goal is. If your aim is simply health related fitness, then the type of exercise you do does not matter very much – it just needs to raises your pulse into the aerobic zone for about 20 minutes. You could even include activities like gardening, walking the dog or just dancing round your kitchen! The type of training is more important for sportspeople who specialise in one particular event and need to improve a specific aspect of fitness. ie, sprinters need to improve speed!

39 If these people dont train, what will happen?

40 * Fitness will be lost if the training load is reduced (meaning overload is not achieved) or if a performer stops training, maybe if they are injured. * Unless you keep training, any fitness gained, will be lost!!! Endurance can be lost in a third of the time it took to achieve! Strength declines more slowly, but lack of exercise will still cause muscles to wither (atrophy). It only takes 3 to 4 weeks for our bodies to become out of condition. We will Lose our fitness when we are inactive

41 ONE WAY TO MEASURE PROGRESSION AND REVERSIBILITY IS TO TAKE YOUR PULSE RATE AFTER COMPLETING YOUR TRAINING PROGRAMME THEN MEASURE HOW LONG IT TAKES FOR YOUR PULSE TO GET BACK TO NORMAL.

42 Plenary In pairs, complete the worksheet you had for your starter, including what you now know about the FITT Principle

43 Apply to your PEP Write up how at least 3 of the principles of training can be applied to your PEP... and how? Homework if not completed now!


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