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"Effective Crew Scheduling Strategies on Ultra-long Range Flights." John R Fare.

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Presentation on theme: ""Effective Crew Scheduling Strategies on Ultra-long Range Flights." John R Fare."— Presentation transcript:

1 "Effective Crew Scheduling Strategies on Ultra-long Range Flights." John R Fare

2 Introduction Current and Future Demands of our Customers – Longer range Aircraft – Faster Speeds – Shorter Layovers

3 Alertness in the Aircraft Three Distinct Factors that Determine Cockpit Alertness – Circadian Rhythm – Sleep Propensity/Pressure – Sleep Inertia

4 Circadian Rhythm Reason – Regulate bodily functions Synchronization – Length 25.3 hours – Zeitgebers time keepers 24 hours – Low and

5 Circadian Rhythm (cont.)

6 Circadian Adjustment Phase Advance Phase Delay Resynchronization

7 Phase Advance Occurs when traveling Eastbound – Day is shortened Forced to advance to new rhythm First sleep is short followed by subsequent longer rest period

8 Phase Delay Occurs when travelling Westbound Day is lengthened Initial sleep is longer followed by shorter sleep episode

9 Resynchronization Asymmetrical Effect – Difference between Eastbound and Westbound Westbound (8 time zones or more) – 5.1 days for 95% adjustment Eastbound (8 time zones or more) – 6.5 days Circadian Synchronization – Westbound (92 minutes per day) – Eastbound (57 minutes per day)

10 Sleep Propensity/Pressure Definition Adjusting Performance Decrements

11 Sleep Propensity/Pressure Definition – The physiological need to sleep based off of the last full nights rest – 16 hours awake/ 8 hours asleep – Naps improve wakefulness but do not reset Sleep Propensitys cumulative effect!

12 Sleep Propensity/Pressure (cont.)

13 Adjusting Sleep Propensity Lengthening the Sleep/Wake Cycle – 28 hour day (Westbound travel) Greatest need for sleep at 20 hours Shortening the Sleep/Wake Cycle – 20 hour day (Eastbound travel with less than 24 hours of crew rest) Greatest need for sleep at 13 hours

14 Performance Decrements after 16 hours and 24 hours

15 Sleep Inertia Definition In-flight Considerations

16 Sleep Inertia Definition – The grogginess that one feels after waking up from a deep sleep

17 Sleep Inertia In-flight Considerations – Short Naps (NASA Naps) Less than 40 minutes to stay out of Deep Sleep Effective when crew rest time is shorter – Long Naps More beneficial in reducing fatigue levels More realistic during circadian low times Afford at least 40 minutes of recovery prior to resuming flight deck duties

18 Crew Types and Logistics Two-Pilot Crew Augmented or Three-Pilot Crew Crew Change

19 Two-Pilot Crew Duty/Flight Time Limitation Considerations – Normal 14 hours duty/ 12 hours of flight (FSF, 1997) – Circadian Low *Is flight flying through or landing between the hours of body adjusted time or duty day starts at 0400 or earlier 12 hours duty/ 10 hours of flight and consider max amount of landings (FSF, 1997)

20 Augmented Crews Definition Crew Bunk Categories and Considerations Circadian and Sleep Propensity Considerations

21 Augmented Crews Three Pilots – From original point of departure? – From intermediate and or tech stop? – Supine rest available in a separated area? 20 hours of duty (FSF, 1997) – No supine 18 hours of duty (FSF, 1997)

22 Crew Bunk Categories Class I – 75% sleep opportunity credit (George, 2011) Class II* – 56% sleep opportunity credit (George, 2011) Class III – 25% sleep opportunity credit (George, 2011) * Business Jet with separated crew rest facilities

23 Crew Change Logistics Circadian Considerations

24 Crew Change Logistics Location! – Available Resources i.e. pilots? – Great Circle? – Airline Service for preposition? – Cost? – Time to get there? – Weather? – Handling?

25 Fatigue Study Overview Assumptions Limitations Methodology Treatment of Data Results Conclusion

26 Overview Background – Fatigue Management Program for our SMS – Justify or refute our current policies Geographic Representation – Europe, Asia, South America Participants – Pilots and Flight Engineers

27 Hypothesis Three-Pilot Crews are less tired than Two- Pilot Crews during the last two hours of a flight to include top-of-descent, approach, landing, and post-flight

28 Assumptions All participants were operating during or through their circadian low All pilots afforded supine rest Two-Pilot Crews – Two pilots and one Flight Engineer – Flight Engineer data from augmented flights considered two-pilot crew Three-Pilot Crews – Three pilots from original point of departure

29 Limitations Human Factors – Health, emotional stability, family life, quality of sleep, alcohol/substance abuse Meteorological – Day, Night In-flight Conditions – Turbulence, Convective Weather

30 Methodology

31 Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS)

32 Treatment of Data All Duty Start Times Adjusted to Body Adjusted Time – Eastbound 57 minutes per day – Westbound 90 minutes per day

33 Results SSS Mean for the Last Two Hours of Duty Crewing Technique vs. SSS SSS Mean for Entire Flight vs. Start Time of Duty Day Crew Rest Sleep Percentages vs. Duty Hour

34 SSS Mean for the Last Two Hours of Duty

35 Conclusion Three-Pilot Flight Crews are Less Tired than Two-Pilot Crews

36 Crewing Technique vs. SSS

37 Conclusion SSS Levels Separate at Duty Hour 11/ Flight Hour 9 Johnson & Johnson Aviation Lowered its Circadian Low Duty Limits to 9 Hours of Flight with a Max of 2 Landings

38 SSS Mean for Entire Flight vs. Start Time of Duty Day

39 Conclusion Start time does correlate to SSS levels of augmented crews There is a significant increase in SSS with start times between 1800 and 0700

40 Crew Rest Sleep Percentages vs. Duty Hour

41 Conclusions Physiological need determines success Most sleep attained between duty hour 9 and 18 Strategic rostering – PF gets the most consideration

42 Practical Approaches Two Pilots – KTEB – LFPB – KTEB – Minimum Layover – Off Duty Prior to Circadian Low Three Pilots – KTEB – RJTT – Fuel Stop in PANC

43 Europe Quickturn Two Pilots – Depart 1800 Local – Arrive 0630 Local 10 hour rest period + 2 hours for travel and unwinding – Depart 1830 Local – Arrive 2030 Local



46 Three Pilots to Tokyo Three Pilots – Depart 0800 Local – Arrive 1300 Local the next day


48 Summary Three-pilot crews are less tired than two- pilot crews on extended circadian low flights! Sleep propensity needs to be considered when augmenting Have a plan! – Rostering – In-flight fatigue countermeasures Learn from your Experiences

49 References Billiard, M, & Kent, A. (2003). Sleep: physiology, investigations, and medicine. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Caldwell, John A., & Caldwell, J. Lynn (2003). Fatigue in Aviation: A Guide to Staying Awake at the Stick. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Limited CEriksen, C.A., Torbjorn, E., & Nilsson, J.P. (2006). Fatigue in trans-atlantic airlineoperations: Diaries and actigraphy for two- vs. three-pilot crews. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 77(6), Gander, P.H., Gregory, B.S., Miller, D.L., Graebner, R.C., Connell, L.J., & Rosekind, R. (1998). Flight crew fatigue V: Long-haul air transport operations. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 69(9), B37-B48 Gander, P.H., Rosekind, M.R., & Gregory, K.B. (1998). Flight crew fatigue VI: A synthesis. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 69(9), B49-B60. George, F. (2011, February). Fatigue risk management. Business & Commercial Aviation, Miller, J. C. (2005, May). Operational Risk Management of Fatigue Effects (AFRL-HE-BR-TR ). : United State Air Force Research Lab. Neri, D., Oyung, R., Colletti, L., Mallis, M., Tam, D., & Dinges, D. (2002), Controlled Breaks as a Fatigue Countermeasure on the Flight Deck. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 73(7) United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), Safety Regulation Group. (2007). Aircrew fatigue: A review of research undertaken on behalf of the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA PAPER 2005/04). Retrieved from

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