2Training Methods Other Methods Speed Training Training Methods Pilates Swiss BallSkill TrainingTraining MethodsInterval TrainingContinuous TrainingFartlek TrainingCircuit TrainingPlyometric TrainingFlexibility TrainingResistance Training
3Interval TrainingInterval training involves periods of hard work followed by a timed period of rest, repeated several times in one training session.The periods of hard work are called high intensity activity.Rest can be active (walking, jogging etc)An example of interval training is 10 fast runs over 40 metres, with a two minute rest between each run.Distance, speed and the length of recovery time can be varied to suit your level of fitness and your sportVaried recovery time determines energy system used.Interval training develops both your aerobic and anaerobic fitness.
4Interval Training Variables to consider during interval training; Distance/duration of activity,Intensity of activity,duration of rest,activity during rest,number of sets,frequency of training.By varying any of the variables we can progressively overload the athleteThis allows the athlete to train at higher intensities than they are used toThis will steadily increase their fitnessTherefore allow athletes to run faster and increase their recovery rate during competitionThis form of training also increases fitness levels for people involved in exercise
5Interval TrainingIntensity of interval training is higher than that of continuous trainingTherefore requires a greater energy production to sustain the activity.This means interval training burns more caloriesThis leads to a faster loss of body fat
6Energy System Interval Training The following recommended guidelines for training with each ofthe 3 energy systems are:Aerobic intervals: 1 or ½ a unit rest for every unit of work:i.e. 4minutes high intensity work; rest for 2-4minutesLactic Acid Intervals: 2 to 3 units of rest for 1 unit of worki.e. Sprinting for 1minute, rest for 2-3minutesAPT/PC intervals: 6 units of rest for 1 unit of work
7Sample Aerobic Interval Session First estimate Max HR this will help you work out percentage of Max HR you will work at:Basic interval:Work = 4 minutesRest = 2 minutes4 sets of 4 minutes at 70%Max HR effort with 2 minutesrestPyramid Interval:Work = 3 minutesRest = 1.5 minutesTreadmill hill pyramid:Find the speed that produces 70% of your Max HRStay at that speed throughout your interval then vary the gradient on the treadmillWork 2 minutesRest 1 minuteWarm up: 2% gradientRest2 4% gradient2 6% gradient2 2% gradient
8Sample Anaerobic Interval Session ATP/PC:- 10 sets of 50m at 100% effort with 1minute restLactic Acid System:6 sets of 45 seconds (or 300m) at 90-95% effect with 90 second’s rest4 sets of 75 seconds (or 500m) at 80-85% effort with 150 seconds rest
9Interval Training Advantages: Highly structured , specific to game, can measure progress, all energy systems can be trained, minimal equipment required.Improves: speed, strength, aerobic endurance, fat burning potential, burning of calories and performanceLactate tolerance exercises occur at high intensities and usually involve intermediate interval training. At these high intensities, athletes/muscles produce large concentrations of lactate and the body adapts to this by improving it's clearance and alkalai buffering capacity.
11Continuous Training Long, slow distance (LSD) training. Often refereed to as steady stateNo rest or break period for at least 20 minutes.Works aerobic energy system.Time should meet demands of game length.Examples; Jogging, cycling, rowing, walkingMax Intensity – 80-85% max H.RMin Intensity % max H.RTime – at least 20 minutesF = Frequency (At least 3 to 4 sessions per week)I = Intensity (In aerobic zone)T = Time (Minimum of 20 minutes)T = Type (Whole body activitiesthat use large majormuscle groups)
12Continuous training can also be extremely boring! Benefits;Less demanding than anaerobic training.Provides health benefits.Low risk of injuryLowered resting H.RIncreased stroke volumeThicker heart muscleIncrease muscle enzymesReach steady state quickerSlower lactate accumulationFaster recoveryDisadvantages:The main drawback of continuous training is that it does not improve speed or agility. This means it is not ideal for games players who need to be able to change pace.Continuous training can also be extremely boring!
13Training and LT/LIPVO2 max is just one's ability to take up, transport and utilise maximal amounts of oxygen at maximal aerobic exercise.To increase one's VO2 max, exercise has to be performed at intensities at or above lactate threshold (LT/LIP).Intensities somewhat higher than LT are usually used and believed by most (70% of literature) to be the best for raising VO2 max, LT intensity has been shown to be just as effective at raising VO2 max in some athletes (30% of literature).
14Fartlek Training Variation of continuous training. It involves short bursts of intense work during a continuous activity.Fartlek is Swedish for ‘Speed Play’.Works both aerobic and anaerobic systems.Session can be either structured or unstructured.Can be done in small areas and is suitable for all fitness levels.Intensity – sub-maximal which changes.Overload – Increase frequency, duration, distance of intense bursts.Covering same distance in less time.Benefits;Energy systems can be trained.Adds variety to a continuous training program.
15Advantages Disadvantages Fartlek training can be used to improve both the aerobic and anaerobic systems by mixing moderate activity with bursts of speed.It can be varied to suit the fitness level of each individual performer and the available time they have to train.This type of training can be used to avoid boredom in sports like running and cycling which can be monotonous.DisadvantagesAs the performer decides on the intensity of work, it can be hard for coaches to tellif performers are working as hard as they should be.
16Fartlek training – an example An example of a Fartlek training session:10 minute jog to warm up.Sprint hard for 30 seconds.Jog for 2 minutes.Run (about 75% of max) for 50 seconds.Repeat 6 times, reducing the periods of jogging by 10 seconds each time.10 minute warm down jog.
17Circuit TrainingUses stations (6-15) that focus on specific components of fitness.A complete circuit should take between 5 and 20 minutes with seconds rest between each station.Coaches can design a circuit manipulating the following variables;Fitness components usedType and number of exercisesNumber of repsNumber of circuits to be completedThe length of recoverySpecificity – Exercises can be made specific to the game. Time- A lap should take 20 minutes with break. Overload – Number of reps, time, laps, recovery time, resistance.
18Circuit Training Benefits; Develops a range of fitness components. Maintains interest – can be varied. Can be used to work on weaknesses. Progress can be measured.You can target specific muscle groups.You can include weight training activities to increase strength.You can increase the length of each activity to train the aerobic system.You can include skill-based activities.Disadvantages:Circuit training can take time to arrange and often requires a lot of equipmentExamples; Step-ups, sit-ups, press-ups, squat jumps, shuttle runs, pull ups.
19Circuit Training Methods Three main types of circuits;1. Fixed load- 50 seconds per exercise- 3 circuits in 20 minutes- Loading is increased each set2. Fixed time- Max reps in time given3. Individual load- Max reps in 1 minute.- Athlete works at 60,70 or 75% rep max.- Or Score is halved and attempted in 2/3 of thetime taken to do three complete circuits.
20Circuit Training 2 MINUTE STATIONS dribbling press-ups sit-ups Here is an example of a circuit designed for footballers.dribblingpress-ups2 MINUTE STATIONSsit-upskeepy-uppysprintspassingsideways jumps
21Plyometric TrainingNew name for skipping, bounding and jumping – developed in Eastern Europe and Russia.It develops muscular power from a stretch reflex.Trains eccentric aspect of muscular contraction. Speed is vital.Example; Leaping, bounding, hopping, rebounding.Note – Height should not exceed 25cm (Low impact), 35cm high impact.Overload – Altering sets or reps.Benefits;Trains neuromuscular system. Develops power Replicates game movements Minimal equipment required.Considerations;Athlete needs sound strength and enduranceUse less stressful drills for beginnersNot recommended for children under 15 years old.Train on shock absorbing surfacesFrequency – 2 (off-season) and 1 (in-season).Recovery time – 48 hoursLow ImpactReps – x10 Sets- x 1-5 Recovery – 3 minHigh ImpactReps – x Sets – Recovery- 10min
23Flexibility TrainingAbility of specific joints to move through the range of motion required.Methods;1. Passive (Static) – Holding stretch for sec2. Slow Active Stretching (SAS) – Stretch, relax thenrestretch. Used in aerobics.3. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) – Usuallypartner assisted stretch. Full lengthening of muscle which contracts isometrically.4. Ballistic* – Moving through range of motion usingmomentum.*Not recommended unless well warmed up.Frequency – 3-4 sessions per weekShould be included in addition to any training program. Flexibility is required in all sports.
24Weights (Resistance) Training Improves muscular strength, power and endurance.Terminology-Rep – Single effortRep Max (RM) – max number of reps in a rowSet – Number reps in a sequenceResistance – Amount of weightBenefits;Non specific groups can be targeted Variety of exercises used Strength, power and endurance can be targeted Record progress on performance chart.
25Resistance Types - Traditional form 1. Free weights (isotonic): - Uses dumbbells and barbells- Dynamic movement- Works concentric and eccentric phases.2. Fixed resistance (isometric):- Holding a fixed position while the muscle contracts against resistance- Tension increases but the muscle stays the same length.- Increases strength in the static position – minimal use in dynamicsports.Examples; Pushing against a wall, handstands, crucifix position on the roman rings.3. Isokinetic:- This is known as ‘accommodating’ resistance.- Machines can adjust the load as the body part moves through therange of motion.- Limited benefits to the speed in which the machine will operate.Examples; Cybex, Kincom, Biodex and Hydragym.
26Speed Training Speed training draws on other training methods It requires rehearsal of the neural pathways responsible for speed.Speed is dependent on stride frequency and stride length:1. Stride FrequencySpeed strength exercisePlyometricsDownhill runningWindy day runningResistance techniques (Parachute)2. Stride LengthDeveloping strength, power, endurance and technique analysis.
27Pilates and Swiss Ball Pilates: Gentle method of developing core body strength.Strengthens the deep postural muscles.Classes improve breathing and posture.Integrates physical & mental conditioning, relaxation and breathing techniques.Relieves stress, fatigue, physical discomforts and increases self-confidence.Swiss BallLike pilates, the swiss ball develops the deep postural muscles.The exerciser uses the ball for;Static movementsDynamic movementsPostural movementsCan be used in gyms, home (Eg. Fitball) or the workplace.
28Motor Skill Development Motor skills can be learnt and developed through training.We obtain some skills genetically, however training will enhance these abilities further.Stages of LearningCognitive – BeginnerAssociative – LearningAutonomous – Expert.Skill level will depend on;Age, gender, feedback given, recognition of faults, being able to correct faults, perceived ability, level of practice, motivation, physical maturation, fitness capacity, memory.