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Published byEmiliano Wainer Modified over 2 years ago

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Peter Rademaker & Robert Stremler

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Preview 1.Introduction 2.The Basics 3.Simple Examples 4.Interpretation and Performance 5.MIDI 6.Algebraic Properties 7.Conclusions

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Introduction Developed by Paul Hudak, Yale University, 1997 Modules for expressing musical structures Music rather than sound Algebra of music Objects represent both abstract musical ideas and their concrete implementations

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Haskore Architecture

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The Basics module Basics where infixr 5 :+:, :=: type Pitch = (PitchClass, Octave) data PitchClass = Cf | C | Cs | Df | D | Ds | Ef | E | Es | Ff | F | Fs | Gf | G | Gs | Af | A | As | Bf | B | Bs deriving (Eq,Ord,Ix,Show) type Octave = Int

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The Basics module Basics where infixr 5 :+:, :=: type Pitch = (PitchClass, Octave) data PitchClass = Cf | C | Cs | Df | D | Ds | Ef | E | Es | Ff | F | Fs | Gf | G | Gs | Af | A | As | Bf | B | Bs deriving (Eq,Ord,Ix,Show) type Octave = Int data Music = Note Pitch Dur [NoteAttribute] | Rest Dur | Music :+: Music | Music :=: Music | Tempo Int Int Music | Trans Int Music | Instr IName Music | Player PName Music | Phrase [PhraseAttribute] Music deriving Show type Dur = Float type IName = String type PName = String

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Some helpers c,d... :: Octave Dur [NoteAttribute] Music c o = Note (Cf,o) d o = Note (C,o) … wn, hn, qn,... :: Dur wn = 1 hn = 1/2 qn = ¼ … wnr, hnr, qnr,... :: Music wnr = Rest wn hnr = Rest hn qnr = Rest qn …

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Some Simple Examples line, chord :: [Music] Music line = foldr (:+:) (Rest 0) chord = foldr (:=:) (Rest 0) cMaj = map (λf f 4 qn []) [c, e, g] cMajArp = line cMaj cMajChd = chord cMaj

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Some Simple Examples line, chord :: [Music] Music line = foldr (:+:) (Rest 0) chord = foldr (:=:) (Rest 0) cMaj = map (λf f 4 qn []) [c, e, g] cMajArp = line cMaj cMajChd = chord cMaj delay :: Dur Music Music delay d m = Rest d :+: m repeatM :: Music Music repeatM m = m :+: repeatM m withIdenticalVoice = m1 :=: Trans 7 m2

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Attributes Interpretation Overview MusicPlayer Perfomance MIDI

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Phrasing and Articulation data NoteAttribute = Volume Float | Fingering Int | Dynamics String data PhraseAttribute = Dyn Dynamic | Art Articulation | Orn Ornament data Dynamic = Accent Float | Crescendo Float | Diminuendo Float | PPP | PP | P | MP | SF | MF | NF | FF | FFF | Loudness Float | Ritardando Float | Accelerando Float data Articulation = Staccato Float | Legato Float | Slurred Float | Tenuto | Marcato | Pedal | Fermata | FermataDown | Breath | DownBow | UpBow | Harmonic | Pizzicato | LeftPizz | BartokPizz | Swell | Wedge | Thumb | Stopped data Ornament = Trill | Mordent | InvMordent | DoubleMordent | Turn | TrilledTurn | ShortTrill | Arpeggio | ArpeggioUp | ArpeggioDown | Instruction String | Head NoteHead data NoteHead = DiamondHead | SquareHead | XHead | TriangleHead | TremoloHead | SlashHead | ArtHarmonic | NoHead

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Interpretation and Performance type Performance = [Event] data Event = Event Time IName AbsPitch DurT Volume type Time = Float type DurT = Float type Volume = Float

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Interpretation and Performance perform :: PMap Context Music Performance type PMap = PName Player type Context = (Time,Player,IName,DurT,Key,Volume) type Key = AbsPitch

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Interpretation and Performance perform :: PMap Context Music Performance type PMap = PName Player type Context = (Time,Player,IName,DurT,Key,Volume) type Key = AbsPitch perform pmap m = case m of Note p d nas playNote pl c p d nas Rest d [] Tempo a b m perform pmap (setTempo c (dt * float b / float a))m Trans p m perform pmap (setTrans c (k+p)) m Instr nm m perform pmap (setInstr c nm ) m Player nm m perform pmap (setPlayer c (pmap nm)) m Phrase pas m interpPhrase pl pmap c pas m

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Interpretation and Performance perform :: PMap Context Music Performance type PMap = PName Player type Context = (Time,Player,IName,DurT,Key,Volume) type Key = AbsPitch perform pmap m = case m of Note p d nas playNote pl c p d nas Rest d [] Tempo a b m perform pmap (setTempo c (dt * float b / float a))m Trans p m perform pmap (setTrans c (k+p)) m Instr nm m perform pmap (setInstr c nm ) m Player nm m perform pmap (setPlayer c (pmap nm)) m Phrase pas m interpPhrase pl pmap c pas m m1 :+: m2 perform pmap c m1 ++ perform pmap (setTime c (t+(dur m1)*dt)) m2 m1 :=: m2 merge (perform pmap c m1) (perform pmap c m2)

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Interpretation and Performance merge :: Performance Performance Performance merge = if e1 < e2 then e1 : merge es1 b else e2 : merge a es2 merge [] es2 = es2 merge es1 [] = es1

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Players data Player = MkPlayer PName NoteFun PhraseFun NotateFun type NoteFun = Context Pitch Dur [NoteAttribute] Performance type PhraseFun = PMap Context [PhraseAttribute] Music (Performance,Dur) type NotateFun = ()

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Example Player defPlayNote :: (Context NoteAttribute Event Event) -NoteFun defPlayNote nasHandler p d nas = [ foldr (nasHandler c) (Event t i (absPitch p + k) (d*dt) v) nas ] defNasHandler :: Context NoteAttribute Event Event defNasHandler (_,_,_,_,_,v) (Volume v') ev = setEventVol ev (v*v'/100.0) defNasHandler _ _ ev = ev defInterpPhrase :: (PhraseAttribute Performance Performance) PhraseFun defInterpPhrase pasHandler pmap pas m = let (pf,dur) = perf pmap c m in (foldr pasHandler pf pas, dur) defPasHandler :: PhraseAttribute Performance Performance defPasHandler (Dyn (Accent x)) pf = map (\e setEventVol e (x * getEventVol e)) pf defPasHandler (Art (Staccato x))pf =map (\e setEventDur e (x * getEventDur e)) pf defPasHandler (Art (Legato x)) pf =map (\e setEventDur e (x * getEventDur e)) pf defPasHandler _ pf = pf deffancy

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Midi Musical Instrument Digital Interface Protocol for communicating musical events and meta- events

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Conversion to a Midi file type UserPatchMap = [(IName,GenMidiName,MidiChannel)] performToMidi :: Performance UserPatchMap MidiFile performToMidi pf pMap = MidiFile mfType (Ticks division) (map (performToMEvs pMap) (splitByInst pf))

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Algebraic Properties (m1 :+: m2) :+: (m3 :+: m4) m1 :+: m2 :+: m3 :+: m4 m1 m2 iff (forall imap,c) perform imap c m1 perform imap c m2 Definition

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Algebraic Properties For any r1, r2, r3, r4, and m: Tempo r1 r2 (Tempo r3 r4 m) Tempo (r1*r3) (r2*r4) m Proof: perform dt (Tempo r1 r2 (Tempo r3 r4 m)) perform (r2*dt/r1) (Tempo r3 r4 m) perform (r4*(r2*dt/r1)/r3) m perform ((r2*r4)*dt/(r1*r3)) m perform dt (Tempo (r1*r3) (r2*r4) m)

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Algebraic Properties For any r1, r2, m1, and m2: Tempo r1 r2 (m1 :+: m2) Tempo r1 r2 m1 :+: Tempo r1 r2 m2 Proof: perform (t,dt) (Tempo r1 r2 (m1 :+: m2)) perform (t,r2*dt/r1) (m1 :+: m2) perform (t,r2*dt/r1) m1 ++ perform (t',r2*dt/r1) m2 perform (t,dt) (Tempo r1 r2 m1) ++ perform (t',dt) (Tempo r1 r2 m2) perform (t,dt) (Tempo r1 r2 m1) ++ perform (t'',dt) (Tempo r1 r2 m2) perform (t,dt) (Tempo r1 r2 m1 :+: Tempo r1 r2 m2) where t' = t + (dur m1)*r2*dt/r1 t'' = t + (dur (Tempo r1 r2 m1))*dt

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Conclusions Clear distinction between music and performance Algebra of music GUI lacking Maintenance Haskell well suited as an executable specification language

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