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**Derivation of Kinematic Equations**

Where do the equations come from?

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Constant velocity Average velocity- velocity over time On a graph, Average velocity = the slope of a position vs time graph when an object travels at constant velocity.

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**Displacement when object moves with constant velocity**

Displacement = distance with direction The displacement is the area under a velocity vs time graph (base x height)

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Uniform acceleration This is the equation of the line of the velocity vs time graph when an object is undergoing uniform acceleration. The slope is the acceleration The intercept is the initial velocity

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**Displacement when object accelerates from rest**

Displacement is still represented by the area under the velocity vs time graph. However, velocity is constantly changing.

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**Displacement when object accelerates from rest**

Displacement is still the area under the velocity vs time graph. Use the formula for the area of a triangle. On a graph….. displacement = ½ bh

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**Displacement when object accelerates from rest**

From slope of v-t graph Rearrange to get Now, substitute for ∆v

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**Displacement when object accelerates from rest**

Simplify: Assuming uniform acceleration and a starting time = 0, the equation can be written:

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**Displacement when object accelerates with initial velocity**

Break the area up into two parts: the rectangle representing displacement due to initial velocity

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**Displacement when object accelerates with initial velocity**

Break the area up into two parts: and the triangle representing displacement due to acceleration

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**Displacement when object accelerates with initial velocity**

Sum the two areas: Or, if starting time = 0, the equation can be written:

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**Time-independent relationship between ∆x, v and a**

Sometimes you are asked to find the final velocity or displacement when the length of time is not given. To derive this equation, we must start with the definition of average velocity:

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**Time-independent relationship between ∆x, v and a**

Another way to express average velocity is:

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**Time-independent relationship between ∆x, v and a**

We have defined acceleration as: This can be rearranged to: and then expanded to yield :

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**Time-independent relationship between ∆x, v and a**

Now, take the equation for displacement and make substitutions for average velocity and ∆t

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**Time-independent relationship between ∆x, v and a**

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**Time-independent relationship between ∆x, v and a**

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**Time-independent relationship between ∆x, v and a**

Simplify

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**Time-independent relationship between ∆x, v and a**

Rearrange

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**Time-independent relationship between ∆x, v and a**

Rearrange again to obtain the more common form:

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**Which equation do I use? First, decide what model is appropriate**

Is the object moving at constant velocity? Or, is it accelerating uniformly? Next, decide whether it’s easier to use an algebraic or a graphical representation.

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**Constant velocity If you are looking for the velocity,**

use the algebraic form or find the slope of the graph (actually the same thing)

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**Constant velocity If you are looking for the displacement,**

use the algebraic form or find the area under the curve

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**Uniform acceleration If you want to find the final velocity,**

use the algebraic form If you are looking for the acceleration rearrange the equation above which is the same as finding the slope of a velocity-time graph

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**Uniform acceleration If you want to find the displacement,**

use the algebraic form eliminate initial velocity if the object starts from rest Or, find the area under the curve

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**If you don’t know the time…**

You can solve for ∆t using one of the earlier equations, and then solve for the desired quantity, or You can use the equation rearranging it to suit your needs

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**All the equations in one place**

constant velocity uniform acceleration

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