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SOAP, REST, POX, RSS – The What's What of Services Aaron Skonnard Co-Founder, Pluralsight

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Presentation on theme: "SOAP, REST, POX, RSS – The What's What of Services Aaron Skonnard Co-Founder, Pluralsight"— Presentation transcript:


2 SOAP, REST, POX, RSS – The What's What of Services Aaron Skonnard Co-Founder, Pluralsight

3 Outline Story of My First Service The Origins of XML The Origins of Services SOAP vs. REST Trade-offs & Guidance

4 Story of My First Service Our Application ASCEND 97 Partner Systems

5 1997 Implementation Our Application ASCEND 97 Partner Systems HTTP [Distributor] Name=Dave Jones ID= [Distributor] Name=Sara Jones ID= Sponsor= Text-based data format, easier than binary Specs Specifications defined message types Specs Message parsing became the most difficult aspect

6 Architecture Fundamentals Message-based architecture Communication transport Data format Standard message types Defined in a specification Extensibility

7 1998: A Big Turning Point XML, an innocuous new technology, hit the scenes in 1998 Offered a "standard" data format Based on a simplification of SGML Quickly noticed and embraced Promised to simplify scenarios like mine

8 The Origins of XML Today Tunnicliffe and Rice introduce the concept of generic markup Goldfarb, Mosher, and Rice invented GML (IBM) First ANSI Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) draft released SGML approved as ISO standard (ISO 8879) Tim Berners-Lee invented HTML at CERN, calls it the World Wide Web CERN declares WWW free-to-all, NCSA releases Mosaic browser TBL forms the W3C with MIT and CERN XML proposed to W3C as a simplification of SGML, led by Jon Bosak (Sun) XML approved as W3C Recommendation XML ubiquitous throughout the industry

9 What Made XML Successful? The format wasn't better, so what gives? The success of HTML made it familiar Not very many people involved They produced a simple specification Didn't require huge investments Simplicity allowed anyone to get involved

10 Simple XML Foundation XML XPath XSLT APIs Namespaces Key XML technologies quickly developed Laid solid foundation for apps to build on Simplified numerous business scenarios Infoset

11 Angle Bracket Factions Once XML was commonplace, the factions became apparent XML Document-Centric Data-Centric Focused on document-based systems, electronic publishing, etc. Focused on data structures, services, distributed application scenarios, etc.

12 On Defining Standards The Web has shown ubiquity is king Defining standards is tricky business Requires collaboration and consensus Forces everyone to compromise The more people, the harder it becomes Usually takes a long time "Only a committee can make a decision that's dumber than any of its members."

13 The Origins of Services Today 4/2000SOAP 1.1 released on vendor Web sites SOAP 1.1 / 1.2 ubiquitous throughout the industry 1998Work on SOAP commenced, first spec never published 2/1999SOAP 1.0 released as an IETF Internet Draft 5/2000SOAP submitted to the W3C as Note, work on SOAP 1.2 begins 2/2001ebXML integrates SOAP into Messaging Services Specification 10/2003Tenets of Service Orientation introduced at PDC 3/2001WSDL 1.1 released as W3C Note 4/1998Userland releases XML-RPC (subset of original SOAP work) 2000 REST architecture published by Roy Fielding 2/2005POX enters the lexicon 6/2003SOAP 1.2 released as W3C recommendation

14 SOAP Architecture SOAP is an extensible XML framework SOAP defines: A standard XML framing mechanism that can be used with any transport A standard representation for errors A standard processing model SOAP itself doesn't define: A standard metadata (type) system

15 SOAP Framing SOAP framing allows future extensibility Headers pushed into XML to decouple functionality from transport Headers define additional layers (WS-*)

16 XSD and WSDL SOAP was completed by XSD and WSDL XML Schema (XSD) introduced type system for XML applications WSDL introduced an interface definition language for services WS-I sanctioned them in the basic profile Basic Profile 1.1 released 8/2004

17 SOAP/WSDL Frameworks Tool support simplifies the dev experience Code generation built on XSD and WSDL Move between XML and native type systems Hides virtually all XML/HTTP coding details adwords = makeProxy( nelson, ossifrage) adwords.setKeywordMaxCpc(53834, flowers, $0.05) This tool support is one of SOAP's key advantages

18 Messaging XML Transports Security Reliable Delivery Transactions Metadata WS-* protocol stack Message Security Secure Conversation Trust Security Policy Coordination Atomic Transactions Business Activities Reliable Messaging Coordination Atomic Transactions Business Activities Reliable Messaging XML Schema WSDL Policy Discovery HTTP TCP Cross-AppDomain SOAP Addressing Eventing Transfer XML Infoset XML MTOM Binary

19 WCF (WinFX) Microsoft's WCF provides full WS-* support SOAP-based security, RM, and transactions Supports numerous transports (HTTP, TCP, named pipes, MSMQ, P2P, etc) Hides complexity through simplified OM

20 SO Design Principles Service Orientation (SO) emerged to help us think about service design SO is a set of design principles: Boundaries are explicit Services are autonomous Share schema and contract only Policy-based compatibility

21 Orchestration (Workflow) A future trend is orchestration / workflow Automating business processes that consist of XML message exchanges BPEL is the standard laying the foundation Based on XML, XSD, and WSDL foundation Supported by MS, IBM, BEA, etc See BizTalk and WF (WinFX) for support

22 Is SOAP Too Much? Some believe SOAP is overkill at times When the Basic Profile is enough No need for SOAP-based SRT Plain Old SOAP approach often used Leverage SOAP but without WS-* Increases interoperability potential Frameworks/tools hide XML/HTTP code

23 Plain Old XML (POX) Some go further: Plain Old XML (POX) Ditch SOAP altogether Just exchange XML messages over HTTP Interoperability is virtually guaranteed Requires more XML/HTTP coding

24 REST Architectures In 2000, Roy Fielding introduced REST "REpresentational State Transfer" An architecture for services on the Web An observation of how the Web works Fundamentally different from SOAP/WS-*, but similar goals in mind

25 REST Design Principles REST design principles: Stateless client/server protocol (HTTP) Well-defined operations (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE) Universal resource identifier syntax (URI) Use of hypermedia (HTML, XML)

26 Understanding REST SOAP emphasizes verbs while REST emphasizes nouns getUser() addUser() removeUser() updateUser() listUsers() findUser() getLocation() addLocation()... User { } Location { } SOAP REST Jane User female New York City, NY, US POX representation Generic HTTP verbs can be used with each noun (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE) Tunnels through HTTP POST

27 Weblogs and RSS Most of blogosphere is REST-based Each item is addressable by URI You can retrieve lists of items, etc RSS versions define representations RSS 0.9x, 1.0 and 2.0 are common today Very different, influenced by vendors

28 Atom 1.0 Atom 1.0 is emerging as the syndication standard today Submitted to IETF, published as RFC 4287RFC 4287 Completely vendor-neutral Atom Publishing API is REST-based

29 REST Pros & Cons Pros Simplifies traditional CRUD-style scenarios Addressability, consistency Optimized for reads (GET) Cons Tied to HTTP for all practical purposes Hence, limited to HTTP feature set Lacks metadata standards & tool support

30 SOAP/REST Sightings Both have carved out their own turf Many popular sites offer services via SOAP or REST or both Google, Yahoo!, Amazon, eBay, etc The jury is still out in certain areas Enterprises are embracing SOAP/WS-* Complexity exposes REST limitations

31 Guidance Embrace POX/HTTP for reach integration Use Plain Old SOAP for better tool support Consider REST principles for CRUD-driven scenarios (may extend reach further) Leverage SOAP + WS-* for deep enterprise integration WSE, WCF, BizTalk, WF, etc.

32 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.

33 Special training offer from PluralsightPluralsight Mention you attended this talk, and receive a $200 discount on your next course Upcoming courses.NET Campsight, Building Connected Systems September in Redmond, WA Double Feature: WCF & Workflow August 28-September 1 in Mountain View, CA

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