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1 www.isciences.comJuly 27, 2012 The 9 th installment in an ongoing series on multilateral agreements related to climate change

2 Introduction Kyoto and Beyond is a series of presentations on the evolving international climate treaty process that began with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 1992. Report on Rio+20 is a summary of the negotiations that transpired at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) called Rio+20 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil June 20-22, 2012. 2008 Kyoto and Beyond 2009 Kyoto and Beyond, Update 2009 Report on Copenhagen COP15 2010 Road to Cancun COP16 * Available at Other presentations in the Kyoto and Beyond series include*: Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)2 2011 Report on Cancun COP16 2011 Road to Durban 2012 Report on Durban 2012 Road to Rio+20

3 Contents NOTE: This presentation includes hyperlinks to additional information indicated by underlined text. Overview Outcome Document Action at the UN High-Level Session Action Outside of the UN Process Action Outside of the UN Process Looking Ahead Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)3

4 Overview: Objectives Rio+20, the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD), was held June 20-22, 2012 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. UNCSD was promoted as The Future We Want and its stated purpose was to set a global sustainability agenda for the coming decade. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)4 See also: Objectives renew political commitment assess progress discuss emerging challenges Priority Areas jobs, energy, cities, food, water, oceans, disasters Themes Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development Green Economy Chinas Sha Zukang was Secretary-General of the Conference and the Conference President was host country Brazils President Dilma Rouseff.

5 Overview: Global Conditions Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)5 The world has changed since Rio 1992. THE ENVIRONMENT – a fate worse than debt? Average annual global temperature has increased 0.58 F (0.32 C) since 1992 based on 10-year running averages.* Global levels of CO2 climbed 10%, from nearly 358 ppm in April 1992 to 394 ppm April 2012.* Since 1992, natural disasters have killed 1.3 million people, affected 4.4 billion people worldwide, and cost $2 trillion in damages.** Since 1990, the world's primary forest areas have decreased about 740 million acres (300 million hectares).** THE ECONOMY – tight purse strings for Mother Earth? The dismal global economy in 2012, evidenced by the Eurozone crisis, may have upstaged Rio+20s agenda and diverted some world leaders, including US President Barack Obama, to the G-20 summit in Mexico on June 18 instead. G-20 is primarily an economic summit, but issues like climate change and a green economy (economic challenge/economic opportunity) have some traction. G-20 2012 recommitted to its 2009 declaration to phase out fossil fuel subsidies, but it did not establish targets or deadlines. See also: G20 Leaders Declaration and Policy Commitments by G20 MembersG20 Leaders Declaration Policy Commitments by G20 Members * US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ** United Nations (Credit: NOAA via Wikimedia Commons)

6 Overview: Tracking UN Progress Historically, how effective has the official UN multilateral process been in addressing environmental and sustainability issues? eliminating chlorofluorocarbons that punched a hole in the Earth's protective ozone layer, the removal of lead from gasoline that caused human health problems, improved access to clean water, and boosting research to reduce ocean pollution. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)6 UNEP Global Environmental Outlook Report 5, 2012 In its 2012 Global Environmental Outlook Report 5, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) examined more than 500 internationally agreed-upon goals and objectives adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit and other conferences and found significant progress in just four areas:

7 Outcome Document: Evolution Text for Rio+20s proposed action plan, "The Future We Want, underwent a slow and contentious pre-Conference negotiating process. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)7 A preliminary draft was introduced Jan. 10, 2012 based on input from relevant stakeholders. Negotiations proceeded as scheduled at pre-Conference meetings where numerous and lengthy amendments were proposed.preliminary draft Though the document is legally nonbinding, expectations were that any declaration by the Conference should succeed in clarifying goals for concrete policy steps. Editorial responsibility was handed over to Brazil, which holds the Presidency of Rio+20. Finally, on June 19 Brazil set forth a 50-page document for the Conference.50-page document for the Conference Antonio de Aguiar Patriota, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Brazil (Credit: UN Photo/Maria Elisa Franco) After an additional meeting to consider a Co-Chairs Suggested Text, negotiators still failed to produce a consensus document for world leaders to approve June 20-22.Co-Chairs Suggested Text

8 Outcome Document: Unambitious The final text sidestepped targets, timelines, and roadmaps. In the final version of The Future We Want Brazil chose to strike text where no agreement could be reached. That, and the push for Common But Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR) resulted in unambitious language which leaves specific goals, targets, and paths to individual countries. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)8 …the longest suicide note in history – Kumi Naidoo, executive director, Greenpeace International …the longest suicide note in history – Kumi Naidoo, executive director, Greenpeace International Some critics claim that CBDR guided the tepid language and does not support concrete, measureable outcomes and universal responsibilities. Brazil, India, and China – the most powerful of the Group of 77, a UN bloc of 77 developing nations – were prominent in shaping the proposal.

9 Outcome Document: Backwards? The Future We Want inspired little enthusiasm and some severe criticism, especially from womens rights activists who felt that it reversed progress. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)9 Though the document committed to reproductive health it ignored the last twenty years of global progress in womens reproductive rights since the Cairo Programme of Action 1994 and the Beijing Platform for Action 1995.Cairo Programme of Action 1994Beijing Platform for Action 1995 The words "reproductive rights" were deleted from the document after the Vatican persuaded some predominately Catholic and conservative Muslim countries to protest. It also ignored the basic correlation between reproductive rights, population growth, and sustainability. US Secretary of State Hilary Rodham Clinton addresses UNCSD Plenary June 22, 2012 (Credit: UN Photo: Maria Elisa Franco) See also: Transcript of Clintons address at Rio+20; and, Whats Good for Women is Good for the EnvironmentTranscript of Clintons address at Rio+20Whats Good for Women is Good for the Environment US Secretary of State Clinton elicited applause when she assured that the US would work to ensure that womens reproductive rights are respected in international agreements. …a step backward from previous agreements. – Gro Harlem Brundtland, UN Special Envoy …a step backward from previous agreements. – Gro Harlem Brundtland, UN Special Envoy

10 Action at the UN: Overall Tenor With modest outcomes preordained by the document text, the daily narrative of UNCSDs High-Level Conference sessions never reached an inspired crescendo. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)10 See also: Earth Negotiations Bulletin Vol. 27 No. 51 and UN Web TV archived videos at Negotiations Bulletin Vol. 27 No. 51 On Friday June 22 at 8:41pm, Rio+20 – billed as the most important meeting in the history of our planet – quietly closed its doors. (Credit: UN Photo/Guilherme Costa) The three days of official sessions proceeded without drama, in contrast to late night huddles and last minute negotiations characteristic of other UN environmental conferences. Ban Ki-moon opened the Conference, 191 national representatives addressed the meeting, representatives from 9 Major Groups made statements, rapporteurs from the Sustainable Development Dialogue Days offered recommendations, and four round table discussions took place on implementation of Conference outcomes.

11 Action at the UN: Objectives Did Rio+20 meet its stated purpose and objectives? Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)11 The stated purpose was to set a global sustainability agenda for the coming decade. The Future We Want includes few deadlines for time-bound targets associated with agenda items. Few actionable items are articulated – instead, words like encourage, reaffirm, acknowledge, urge, and recognize are used. The stated objectives were to renew political commitment, assess progress, and discuss emerging challenges. Commitments were established as voluntary, not binding; Progress was assessed as insufficient; No agreements were reached on comprehensive mitigation to address emerging challenges. An outcome that makes nobody happy. – Sha Zukang, Rio+20 Secretary General

12 Action at the UN: Green Economy Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)12 Did Rio+20 succeed in its stated theme of charting a path to a green economy in the context of poverty eradication and sustainable development? The definition of a green economy has come to be known as economic engines that support sustainable consumption and production and that lower environmental impacts. We affirm that there are different approaches, visions, models and tools available to each country, in accordance with its national circumstances and priorities … green economy …should not be a rigid set of rules. – Paragraph 56 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012 Operationally the path to a green economy could be paved with: national policy options, sector-based roadmaps, international instruments of finance, an international knowledge-sharing platform, and global measures of progress. India and China, along with some African nations, successfully pushed back a proposal to set targets and timetables for a green economy, arguing that targets would lead to trade restrictions or other sanctions if developing countries did not move quickly enough.

13 Action at the UN: IFSD & UNEP During the Rio+20 discussions on the theme of Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development (IFSD) the role of UNEP was strengthened, but UNEP was not upgraded to a specialized UN agency as some had advocated. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)13 We are committed to strengthening the role of the United Nations Environment Programme as the leading global environmental authority that sets the global environmental agenda … – Paragraph 88 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012 We are committed to strengthening the role of the United Nations Environment Programme as the leading global environmental authority that sets the global environmental agenda … – Paragraph 88 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012 establish universal membership in the Governing Council of UNEP; ensure stable and increased financial resources from the regular budget of the UN and from voluntary contributions; enhance UNEPs voice by strengthening its engagement in key UN coordination bodies and empowering it to lead efforts in UN system wide environmental strategies. The Rio+ 20 agreement will:

14 Action at the UN: IFSD & CSD Discussions on the theme of IFSD also established a universal intergovernmental high level political forum to replace the Commission on Sustainable Development. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)14 have a format defined by an inclusive negotiation process under the UN General Assembly; We decide to establish a universal intergovernmental high level political forum, building on the strengths, experiences, resources and inclusive participation modalities of the Commission on Sustainable Development, and subsequently replacing the Commission. – Paragraph 84 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012 The new forum will: harmonize global SD efforts and eventually replace the Commission on Sustainable Development; encourage high-level system-wide participation of UN agencies; enhance the consultative role of Major Groups and other relevant stakeholders; strengthen the science-policy interface; convene in Fall 2014 at the 68 th session of UN General Assembly.

15 Action at the UN: SDGs An open working group will begin creating Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) – a set of sustainability indicators – at the 67 th UN General Assembly session Sept. 18-Dec.31, 2012. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)15 We resolve to establish an inclusive and transparent intergovernmental process on SDGs that is open to all stakeholders with a view to developing global sustainable development goals to be agreed by the United Nations General Assembly. – Paragraph 248 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012 The SDGs: will be integrated in the UN Development Agenda beyond 2015; should not divert focus or effort from achievement of the MDGs by 2015. will be developed by a group of 30 representatives nominated by Member States through the five UN regional groups; the SDG working group will assemble by Fall 2012 and will submit its proposal in Fall 2014 at the 68 th UNGA session. But many questions remain. Can nations agree on ambitious yet workable SDGs? Can the global development community handle two sets of goals? What if MDGs are not met by 2015?

16 Action at the UN: Climate Change The Future We Want reinforced common but differentiated responsibilities in its reference to climate change. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)16 While text in the Rio+20 declaration urged Parties to build upon UNFCCC progress at Durban, it also reinforced CBDR, contrasting with Durbans movement toward shared climate responsibilities. We recall that UNFCCC provides that Parties should protect the climate system for the benefit of present and future generations of humankind on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. – Paragraph 191 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012 We urge Parties to the UNFCCC and Parties to the Kyoto Protocol to fully implement their commitments, as well as decisions adopted under those agreements. In this regard, we will build upon the progress achieved including at the most recent COP-17/CMP7 in Durban. – Paragraph 192 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012 We recall that UNFCCC provides that Parties should protect the climate system for the benefit of present and future generations of humankind on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. – Paragraph 191 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012 We urge Parties to the UNFCCC and Parties to the Kyoto Protocol to fully implement their commitments, as well as decisions adopted under those agreements. In this regard, we will build upon the progress achieved including at the most recent COP-17/CMP7 in Durban. – Paragraph 192 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012 The Durban Platform noted that both developed and developing nations will have to negotiate a treaty, a legal instrument or legal outcome by 2015 that will reduce carbon emissions.Durban Platform Also decides to launch a process to develop a protocol, another legal instrument or a legal outcome under the Convention applicable to all Parties… – Item 2, The Durban Platform for Enhanced Action, Dec. 10, 2011

17 Action at the UN: Climate Change Though The Future We Want supported the phase-out of HFCs, that pledge may already have been compromised or delayed at a recent meeting on the Montreal Protocol. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)17 HFC (hydrofluorocarbons) have broadly replaced CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), which were banned under the highly successful Montreal Protocol to protect the ozone layer. We recognize that the phase-out of ozone depleting substance (ODS) is resulting in a rapid increase in the use and release of high global warming potential hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) to the environment. We support a gradual phase-down in the consumption and production of HFCs. – Paragraph 222 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012 At a recent meeting in Bangkok on the Montreal Protocol (July 27-30, 2012) a proposal to add HFCs to the Protocol was supported by the US, Micronesia, Mexico, Canada, and the EU, but contested by Brazil, China, and India who advocate addressing it through the UNFCCC. Although better for the ozone layer, HFCs have a greater global warming effect than CO2 by a factor of 460-9100. Called super greenhouse gases HFCs are used in refrigeration or air-conditioning units.

18 Action at the UN: Other Issues Progress on other issues was desultory and without transformational movement. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)18 Corporate Sustainability Reporting Companies are encouraged to consider integrating sustainability information in their reporting cycle, but there is no report-or-explain clause requiring them to do so or to explain if they do not. (The Future We Want Paragraph 47) GDP+ The UN Statistical Commission is charged with launching a program to develop GDP+, a broader measure of progress to complement GDP. (The Future We Want Paragraph 38) Financing An intergovernmental process under the UN General Assembly will assess financing needs and propose options on a Sustainable Development Financing Strategy, to be implemented by 2014. (The Future We Want Paragraphs 255-256.) Technology Transfer Relevant UN agencies are requested to identify options for a facilitation mechanism for tech transfer, after which the UN Secretary General will make recommendations to the 67 th Session of the UN General Assembly, Sept. 2012. (The Future We Want Paragraph 273)

19 Action Outside of the UN Process Voluntary actions outside of the formal UNCSD process demonstrated more vigor and resolve than the official meetings. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)19 The convergence at Rio offered an opportunity for sustainable development interests to galvanize, exchange ideas, and merge actions in the hope of effecting change beyond borders. (Credit: Aliencow via Wikimedia Commons) Though lacking the scale of high-level governments, diverse coalitions of businesses, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), civil society groups, universities and others used Rio to push sustainability efforts forward. Among the emerging trends was the rise of multi- stakeholder coalitions pushing to affect change.

20 Action Outside: SE4ALL Ban Ki-moons Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative received strong support from influential global sectors, in contrast to its weak endorsement in the Rio declaration. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)20 (Credit: UN) 2030 SE4ALL Objectives: Ensure universal access to modern energy services, Double the global rate of improvement of energy efficiency, Double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix. We recognize that countries activities in broader energy-related issues are of great importance and are prioritized according to their specific challenges, capacities and circumstances, including energy mix. – Paragraph 129 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012 We recognize that countries activities in broader energy-related issues are of great importance and are prioritized according to their specific challenges, capacities and circumstances, including energy mix. – Paragraph 129 The Future We Want, June 19, 2012 The UN declaration afforded SE4ALL just a single paragraph which omitted objectives and the 2030 target date, and included opt-out language: prioritized according to their specific challenges… In contrast, the six largest multilateral development banks pledged $30 billion, investors and corporations pledged $50 billion, and the US announced its US-Africa Clean Energy Finance Initiative, among other governmental and private commitments.

21 Action Outside: Natural Capital Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)21 Natural capital accounting – valuation of the stock of ecosystems that provides a renewable flow of goods and services – received support from corporate and banking sectors. (Credit: Wikimedia Commons) Major multi-national corporations agreed to develop a methodology to assign value to natural systems (forests, freshwater and marine) in the Valuing Natural Capital Initiative.Valuing Natural Capital Initiative The financial sector committed to work towards integrating natural capital criteria into financial products and services in the Natural Capital Declaration.Natural Capital Declaration Several countries have agreed to create "natural capital accounting" rules including the United States, Britain, France and Germany, though China and Brazil declined.

22 Action Outside: Other Initiatives Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)22 Sustainabililty Friends of Rio+20, a coalition of international business, scientific and civil society leaders, asked government leaders to engage them in sustainable development issues by: designing economies for sustainable development and SD goals for post-2015 and creating national and regional policies and frameworks to accelerate delivery of SD goals; and, enabling multi-country and multi-stakeholder coalitions of actors, including national and sub-national governments, to undertake explicit sets of actions now and in the near term to help achieve these goals.Friends of Rio+20 SD Education The Higher Education Sustainability Initiative for Rio+20 was signed by 257 educational institutions in 52 countries who have agreed to support teaching sustainable development concepts and "ensuring that they form a part of the core curriculum across all disciplines.Higher Education Sustainability Initiative for Rio+20 Water Forty-five major companies representing hundreds of billions of dollars in annual revenue called for greater action by Governments "to achieve global water security. These major companies endorse the U.N.'s Global Compact CEO Water Mandate, an initiative designed to assist companies in the development, implementation, and disclosure of water sustainability policies and practices. Transportation The Asian Development Bank and seven other multilateral lenders will provide more than $175 billion to improve transportation in developing countries over the next 10 years. The pledge to fund loans and grants is intended for all transport but will increasingly go to sustainable transport.

23 Action In & Out: Commitments Several online registries have evolved to record sustainability commitments made by governments, civil society and the private sector. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)23 The Cloud of Commitments, Natural Resources Defense Council ( Voluntary Commitments, UNCSD (, UN In the absence of a binding multilateral agreement, these commitments are evidence of some actionable targets, and represent a bottom-up direction in movement instead of top-down state-centric. The digital platforms for commitments may also help increase accountability and transparency. (Credit: NRDC)

24 Action In & Out: Opinions Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)24 …although I think all the individual initiatives by companies and partnerships are interesting, they dont deliver the scale that is necessary to address the global challenges we face on sustainability. Yvo DeBoer, former UNFCCC chair If current trends continue, if current patterns of production and consumption of natural resources prevail and cannot be reversed and decoupled, then governments will preside over unprecedented levels of damage and degradation. Achim Steiner, UNEP Executive Director We should be thinking about harnessing the power of the market. Hilary Rodham Clinton, US Secretary of State The green economy promoted by the United Nations Rio+20 summit is a form of new colonialism. Evo Morales, President of Bolivia Those who have failed you, Mr. Sha, are the governments, not the CEOs, not the NGOs. José María Figueres, former president of Costa Rica …our collective capacity to destroy the planet's life-support systems is unprecedented. Yet the consequences of our individual actions are typically so far removed from our daily awareness that we can go right over the cliff without even knowing it. Jeffrey Sachs, Director, Columbia Universitys Earth Institute I would like to applaud developing countries in particular, as they signed the document in the absence of any promise of financial support from developed countries. Dilma Rouseff, President of Brazil

25 Looking Ahead Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)25 Still, in a bottom-up approach actors outside of the UN multilateral process found ways to generate commitments through initiatives built by public/private partnerships. Watch for future installments of ISciences Kyoto and Beyond series at Whats Next? Nov. 26-Dec.7, 2012: COP18 Doha, Qatar 18 th Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the 8 th Session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto ProtocolCOP18 Doha Nature does not wait. Nature does not negotiate with human beings. – Ban Ki-Moon, UN Secretary-General But without multilateral agreements can any initiative reach necessary scale and pace? And, what will happen between now and 2013 when final review of MDGs occurs and transition to SDGs begins? Clearly, Rio+20 did not deliver a roadmap to sustainable development.

26 Sources Asahi Shibun, The. June 18, 2012. Rio+20 REPORT (3): Summaries of statements by delegation leaders. Asia and Japan Watch by The Asahi Shibun. Barnette, Jennifer. July 25, 2012, 2:45pm. Disproving the Tragedy of the Commons: Rio+20 Sustainable Development Commitments. 3blmedia, blog. Commons-Rio20-Sustainable-Development-Commitments Commons-Rio20-Sustainable-Development-Commitments Malaysian National News Agency. June 22, 2012 13:23pm. Protests Overshadow Rio+20 UN Summit. Borenstein, Seth. June 20, 2012. Rio 20 years later: Pollution up, forests down. Yahoo! News. Commitments. Chen, Sharon. June 20, 2012 8:00am ET. Development Banks Pledge $175 Billion for Transport at Rio+20. transport-at-rio-20.html transport-at-rio-20.html Circle of Blue. June 22, 2012. Countdown to Rio/Friends of Rio+20 Step Forward and Speak Out. rio/?utm_source=Circle+of+Blue+WaterNews+%26+Alerts&utm_campaign=4fc45d276f- Weekly_Water_News_July_6_20127_6_2012&utm_medium=email rio/?utm_source=Circle+of+Blue+WaterNews+%26+Alerts&utm_campaign=4fc45d276f- Weekly_Water_News_July_6_20127_6_2012&utm_medium=email Clinton, Hilary Rodham. June 22, 2012. Remarks at the UN Conference on Sustainable Development Plenary, Rio de Janeiro. US Department of State. Cloud of Action and Accountability at the Rio+20 Summit. Confino, Jo. June 22, 2012, 07:18 EDT. Rio+20: the Earth Summit diaries, Friday 22 June. The Guardian UK. Eilperin, Julie. June 22, 2012. Rio Plus 20 Earth Summit ends in nonbinding declaration with moderate goals. Washington Post online. results-in-nonbinding-declaration-with-moderate-goals/2012/06/22/gJQA7kpMvV_story_1.html results-in-nonbinding-declaration-with-moderate-goals/2012/06/22/gJQA7kpMvV_story_1.html Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)26

27 Sources Environmental Leader. June 18, 2012. Rio+20: Coke, Unilever, Other Giants Lead Natural Capital Initiative; Plus a Summit Business News Roundup. other-giants-lead-natural-capital-initiative-plus-a-summit-business-news-roundup/ other-giants-lead-natural-capital-initiative-plus-a-summit-business-news-roundup/ Ford, Liz and Jonathan Watts. June 21, 2012. UNDP reveals template for human sustainability index at Rio+20. The Guardian. rio20?intcmp=239 rio20?intcmp=239 Fortin, Jacey. June 21, 2012. Who Ruined Rio+20? Sustainable Growth Summit Disappoints the World. International Business Times. summit-future-draft-weak.htm summit-future-draft-weak.htm Global Reporting Initiative. June 19, 2012. Corporate sustainability reporting one of the main outcomes of Rio+20? firm-outcome-issue-of-Rio+20.aspx firm-outcome-issue-of-Rio+20.aspx Greener Ideal. July 17, 2012. Rio+20: The Bad and the Good. Greener Ideal. Harris, Richard. June 23, 2012. Rio+20 Summit Sustains Little More Than Sentiment. NPR. Hawley, Charles. June 21, 2012. Rio+20 Has Become the Summit of Futility. Spiegel Online International. Hirschfeld, Daniela. June 22, 2012. Universities agree to take action on sustainability. SciDev Net. action-on-sustainability.html action-on-sustainability.html Ighobor, Kingsley. July 23, 2012, 1pm. Rio summit keeps African hope alive. (via Africa Renewal). Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)27

28 Sources International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Reporting Services. June 20, 2012. Sustainable Human Development Index to Measure Future We Want. development-index-to-measure-future-we-want/ development-index-to-measure-future-we-want/ International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Reporting Services. June 22, 2012. Earth Negotiations Bulletin Vol. 27 No. 50. International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Reporting Services. July 30, 2012. Earth Negotiations Bulletin Vol. 19 No. 87, pps 8, 13. IRIN News. June 20, 2012. Rio+20: Battles won and lost. won-and-lost won-and-lost Irwin, Aisling. June 25, 2012. Africa: Scientists Criticise Lack of Urgency in Rio+20 Accord., James, Adam, Andrew Light, and Gwynne Taraska. June 22, 2012, 5:48 pm. How The Rio+20 Text Could Have Been Stronger. ThinkProgress, Climate Progress. rio20-text-could-have-been-stronger/ rio20-text-could-have-been-stronger/ Kaye, Leon. June 21, 2012. Rio+20 Update: Brazil, Denmark, France And South Africa Lead Call For Sustainability Reporting. TriplePundit. integrated-reporting-brazil-denmark-france-south-africa/?dhiti=1 integrated-reporting-brazil-denmark-france-south-africa/?dhiti=1 Lacey, Stephen. June 22, 2012, 12:24pm. Amidst Disappoinment At Rio+20, Hillary Clinton Tries To Weave A Positive Message. ThinkProgress, ClimateProgress. weave-a-positive-message/ weave-a-positive-message/ Lacey, Stephen. June 25, 2012 10:33am. Perspectives from Rio: We Cannot Conflate The Negotiations With What Is Actually Happening On The Ground. Think Progress. negotiations-with-what-is-actually-happening-on-the-ground/ negotiations-with-what-is-actually-happening-on-the-ground/ Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)28

29 Sources Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)29 LaFranchi, Howard. June 22, 2012. Rio+20 earth summit: Why Hillary Clinton won applause for statement on women. Christian Science Monitor. summit-Why-Hillary-Clinton-won-applause-for-statement-on-women summit-Why-Hillary-Clinton-won-applause-for-statement-on-women Leape, Jim. June 24, 2012. It's Happening, but Not in Rio. New York Times online, The Opinion Pages. Light, Andrew and Rebecca Lefton. June 14, 2012 4:39pm. The Road to Rio Goes Through Mexico: Connecting the G-20 Summit to the Rio+20 Conference. Think Progress. g-20-summit-to-the-rio20-conference/ g-20-summit-to-the-rio20-conference/ MacEachern, Diane. July 2, 2012 2:30pm. Women Leave Rio+20 Motivated to Galvanize Sustainability Around Family Planning and Reproductive Rights. Huffington Post. maceachern/women-leave-rio-plus-20_b_1637885.html maceachern/women-leave-rio-plus-20_b_1637885.html Mackness, Jo. June 26, 2012. How accountants can save the world - - maybe. McDonald, Mark. June 24, 2012, 12:09am. U.N. Report from Rio on Environment a Suicide Note. International Herald Tribune. suicide-note/ suicide-note/ Meyer, Alden. June 19, 2012, 1:41pm. Climate Conversations – Rio+20: Too Little, Too Late? AlertNet. Monbiot, George. June 22, 2012. Rio+20 draft text is 283 paragraphs of fluff. The Guardian. Morales, Alex, and Reed Landberg. June 18, 2012. UN Envoys Close to Deal on Energy, Sustainability Goals. BloombergBusinessWeek.

30 Sources Otto, Betsy. June 28, 2012. Rio+20 in the Rear View: Companies Call for Better Water Governance. WRI Insights, World Resources Institute. water-governance water-governance Parnell, John. July 30, 2012. Brazil, China and India become first countries to break Rio+20 pledges with HFC ban block. Responding to Climate Change (RTCC). first-countries-to-break-rio20-pledges-with-hfc-ban-block/ first-countries-to-break-rio20-pledges-with-hfc-ban-block/ Pope, Carl. June 22, 2012 8:33am. Rio Minus: The End of Post Cold-War Treaty Making? Huffington Post. Ramdas, Kavita N. October 2010. Whats Good for Women is Good for the Planet. Global Leaders Council for Reproductive Health Aspen Institute. KavitaArticle.pdf KavitaArticle.pdf Reuters. June 19, 2012 9:02pm, updated June 20, 2012 4:57pm. Rio+20 Draft Agreement Agreed Upon, Labeled Weak. Huffington Post. agreement_n_1610811.html agreement_n_1610811.html Rimmer, Matthew. June 26, 2012, 12:00pm. Rio+20: Who owns the Green Economy? Fraser Coast Chronicle. Russell, George. June 20, 2012. Godfather of Global Green Thinking Steps Out of Shadows at Rio+20. shadows-at-rio-20/ shadows-at-rio-20/ Sullivan, Colin. June 22, 2012. Rio+20: Side agreements pitched as the real meat behind Earth Summit. E&E News, E&E Publishing, LLC. Sustainable Energy for All. June 21, 2012. FACT SHEET: SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FOR ALL COMMITMENTS - HIGHLIGHTS FOR RIO +20. commitments commitments Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)30

31 Sources Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)31 Taraskya Gwynne. June 22, 2012, 3:52pm. UNs Sustainable Energy for All Initiative Gets a Boost At Troubled Rio Summit. Think Progress, Climate Progress. sustainable-energy-for-all-initiative-gets-a-boost-at-troubled-rio-summit sustainable-energy-for-all-initiative-gets-a-boost-at-troubled-rio-summit Tatalović, Mićo. June 25, 2012. UNESCO to set up UN science advisory board. SciDev Net. science-advisory-board.html science-advisory-board.html UN Webcast, United Nations Web TV. [Search: Rio+20]. United Nations Environment Programme. June 6, 2012. Global Environmental Outlook 5 Final Outlook Tables (Progress Towards Goals.) United Nations Environment Programme News Centre. June 6, 2012. World Remains on Unsustainable Track Despite Hundreds of Internationally Agreed Goals and Objectives. United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Accessed July 13, 2012. Beyond 2012, Overview. US Dept. of State. June 19, 2012. Special Envoy for Climate Change Todd Stern at the Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development. Vaughan, Adam. June 20, 2012, 12:54 EDT. Rio+20 Summit: Opening day live blog. The Guardian UK. Vidal, John. June 7, 2012, 11:05 EDT. Many treaties to save the earth but wheres the will to implement them? The Guardian. agreements agreements Webber, Rebecca. June 18, 2012. What Rio+20 means for foreign aid. devex. 20/78459?mkt_tok=3RkMMJWWfF9wsRoiuqrJZKXonjHpfsX54ussXqSxlMI%2F0ER3fOvrPUfGjI4DTcJrI%2FqLAz ICFpZo2FFcH%2FaQZA%3D%3D 20/78459?mkt_tok=3RkMMJWWfF9wsRoiuqrJZKXonjHpfsX54ussXqSxlMI%2F0ER3fOvrPUfGjI4DTcJrI%2FqLAz ICFpZo2FFcH%2FaQZA%3D%3D

32 Sources Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)32 Weiss, Kenneth R. June 22, 2012, 10:41pm. U.N. sustainability summit ends with $513 billion in pledges. Los Angeles Times. 20120623,0,4962459.story 20120623,0,4962459.story Weiss, Kenneth R. June 19, 2012, 10:41pm. Rio+20 environment conference gearing up in Brazil. Los Angeles Times. 20120619,0,7734439.story 20120619,0,7734439.story

33 Citation When referencing this slide show please use the following citation. ISCIENCES, L.L.C. Report on Rio+20. A slideshow; 9th installment in the series Kyoto and Beyond – the Evolution of Multilateral Agreements on Climate Change. July 27, 2012. Ann Arbor, Michigan. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.)33

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