Presentation on theme: "1998 Cessna 172 S Study Guide For Training Use Only"— Presentation transcript:
1 1998 Cessna 172 S Study Guide For Training Use Only Obtain actual weights, c.g, fluid capacities and dimensions from the Pilot Operating Handbook for your actual Training airplane.
2 This presentation is based on the POH for the 1998 Cessna 172 S, and covers the following sections of that manual.Section GeneralSection LimitationsSection EmergencyProceduresSection NormalProcedures
3 Remember to verify all information with your actual POH
8 Manufactured by Textron Lycoming EngineManufactured by Textron LycomingModel O-360-L2AThis is a Normally Aspirated, Direct Drive, Air-Cooled, Horizontally-Opposed , Fuel Injected, Four Cylinder Engine with 360 cubic inches displacement.RPM
12 Fuel Approved Fuel Grades: 100LL Grade Aviation Fuel (BLUE) (GREEN)This is a 152, you will have 13 drains to check
13 Fuel 2 integral tanks [one in each wing] hold the fuel The Un-usable fuel includes fuel in the feed lines within the wing struts, Fuel Reservoir, and associated plumbingThe System is Gravity Feed, and uses an Electric Auxiliary Fuel Pump for priming the Fuel Injection systemThere are 13 Fuel Drains5 below each wing tank3 below the noseThese drains should be tested for water and contamination prior to flight
14 FuelThis aircraft is equipped with a Fuel Selector Valve that allows Fuel to flow from Left, Right, or Both Fuel tanks. BOTH is the Normal selection.A FUEL SHUT-OFF is also installed in this aircraft for use in Emergency Procedures, or for prolonged Storage.
15 Fuel Total Capacity 56 gallons Total Useable 53 gallons Total Each Tank 28 gallonsTotal Useable gallonsNon-Useable gallons
16 OIL Grade appropriate to temperature ranges Often this is 15w50 or 20w50Check Maintenance Records for actual type used in your aircraft.
17 Electrical System System is 28 Volt DC Powered by a belt driven 60 amp alternatorSupplying a 24 Volt BatteryBattery is located forward of Firewall, Left SideCurrent is supplied Through Split Primary Bus Bars 1 and 2Essential Bus is wired between the 2 primaries to energize Master,…..Annunciator, and Interior LightingEach Primary is connected to an Avionics Bus by the Avionics MasterContinued…………….
18 Electrical System Continued Master Switch is a Split Rocker type switch labeled MASTEROn is in the up Position, Off is in the Down PositionThe Right Half is labeled BAT and connects Battery Power to BusesThe Left Half is labeled ALT, connects the AlternatorNormally, BAT and ALT are used simultaneouslyBAT can be turned on to check electrical equipment on the groundWhen the ALT switch is OFF the entire system runs on battery
19 Electrical System Continued LOW VOLTAGE Annunciator, Will Illuminate when Voltage falls below 24.5 VoltsOVERVOLTAGE :Alternator Control Unit automatically opens the ALT FLD circuit breaker, Shutting Off the AlternatorUnder these conditions, with normal power use, a low voltage condition will occur eventually, and the Low Volt annunciator will illuminateThe Alternator Control unit may be then reset by resetting the ALT FLD circuit breakerIf this occurs a second time, terminate the flight
20 Maximum Certificated Weights Ramp Weight Normal Category 2558Ramp Weight Utility Category 2208Takeoff Weight Normal Category 2250Takeoff Weight Utility Category 2200Landing Weight Normal Category 2550Landing Weight Utility Category 2200
21 Baggage Compartment Weights Normal CategoryArea lbsArea lbsMaximum Combined Area 1 and lbs
22 Baggage Compartment Weights Utility CategoryIn this Category the Rear Seat must be un-occupied, and the baggage compartment must be empty.
23 Standard Airplane Weights Standard Empty Weight 1663Normal Category Useful load 895Utility Category Useful Load 545
24 Specific Loadings Wing Loading: 14.7 lbs./sq. ft. Power Loading: lbs./sq. ft.
25 Baggage Compartment Weights Relate to Category Utility CategoryAll Baggage areas must be emptyNormal CategoryArea lbsArea lbsMaximum Combined Area 1 and lbs
39 Power Plant Limitations Engine Operating Limits for Takeoff and Continuous OperationsMaximum Engine Speed2700 RPMRed Line
40 Power Plant Limitations Static RPM Range at Full ThrottleStatic RPM range
41 Power Plant Limitations Maximum Oil Temperature245 degrees (f) or 118 (c)
42 Power Plant Limitations Oil Pressure20 PSI Minimum115 PSI Maximum
43 Power Plant Limitations Oil GradeAviation Grade Straight Mineral Oil or,Ashless Dispersant Oil
44 Power Plant Limitations Engine Oil :15w50 or 20w50Check Maintenance Records for actual type used in your aircraft.
45 Power Plant Instrument Markings TachometerRed Line2700 RPM
46 Power Plant Instrument Markings Oil TemperatureGreen ArcRed line
47 Power Plant Instrument Markings Oil PressureRed Line Minimum 20 PSIGreen Arc 50 – 90 PSIRed Line Maximum 115 PSI
48 Power Plant Instrument Markings Fuel QuantityRed Line 01.5 Gallons Unusable Each Tank
49 Power Plant Instrument Markings Fuel Flow0 to 12 GPH
50 Power Plant Instrument Markings Vacuum Gage4.5 to 5.5 PSI
51 Normal and Utility Categories Review of Category of Aircraft
52 Normal and Utility Categories FAR Part 23 Normal Category(a)The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of nine or less, a maximum certificated takeoff weight of 12,500 pounds or less, and intended for non-acrobatic operation. Non-acrobatic operation includes:
53 Normal and Utility Categories FAR Part 23 Normal Category(1) Any maneuver incident to normal flying;(2) Stalls (except whip stalls); and(3) Lazy eights, chandelles, and steep turns, in which the angle of bank is not more than 60 degrees.
54 Normal and Utility Categories FAR Part 23 Utility CategoryAirplanes certificated in the utility category may be used in any of the operations covered under paragraph (a) of this section and in limited acrobatic operations. Limited acrobatic operation includes:
55 CG Limits and Categories FAR Part 23 Utility Category(1) Spins (if approved for the particular type of airplane)(2) Lazy eights, chandelles, and steep turns, or similar maneuvers, in which the angle of bank is more than 60 degrees but not more than 90 degrees.(3) Lazy eights, chandelles, and steep turns, in which the angle of bank is not more than 60 degrees.
57 Normal Category CG Limits Forward Limit:35 inches aft of datum at 1950 lbs or lessTo 41 inches aft of datum at 2550 lbs.Aft Limit:47.3 inches aft of datumat all weights.
58 Utility Category Weight Limits Ramp WeightTakeoffLandingBaggage Area 1 and 2 EmptyRear Seat Empty
59 Utility Category CG Limits Forward Limit:35 inches aft of datum at 1950 lbs or lessTo 37.5 inches aft of datum at 2200 lbs.Aft Limit:40.5 inches aft of datum at all weights.
60 Maneuver Limits Normal Category Any maneuver incidental to normal flyingStalls Slow DecelerationSteep Turns 95 knotsChandelles 105 knotsLazy Eights 105 knotsSpins are not mentioned in the POH under Normal Category limits, and are considered prohibited in this category.
61 Maneuver Limits Utility Category Any maneuver incidental to normal flyingStalls Slow DecelerationSteep Turns 95 knotsChandelles 105 knotsLazy Eights 105 knotsSpins Slow Deceleration
62 Flight Load Factor Limits Normal Category Max takeoff weight of 2550 lbs.Flaps Up g, -1.52gFlaps Down gThe design load factors are 150% of the above, and in all cases the structure meets or exceeds the design loads.
63 Flight Load Factor Limits Utility Category Max takeoff weight of 2200 lbs.Flaps Up , -1.76gFlaps Down gThe design load factors are 150% of the above, and in all cases the structure meets or exceeds the design loads.
64 Kinds of Operation Limits This airplane is equipped for Day VFR and may be equipped for night VFR and IFR Operations.Flight into known icing conditions is prohibited.
65 Fuel Limitations 2 Standard Tanks 28 gallons each Total Fuel gallonsUn-Useable Fuel gallons
66 Check the POH for your aircraft to learn what tanks are installed. Fuel LimitationsLimitations are show ONLY for Standard TanksCheck the POH for your aircraft to learn what tanks are installed.
67 Fuel limitationsTo maximize fuel loading, place the fuel selector to Left or Right.This prevents Cross-Feed during fuelingThere are safety consideration with operating on just one tank.
68 Always Takeoff and Land with the Fuel Selector in the BOTH Position. Fuel LimitationsAlways Takeoff and Land with the Fuel Selector in the BOTH Position.
69 Fuel LimitationsIf operating only on one tank, Slips and Skid maneuvers are limited to 30 Seconds
70 Fuel LimitationsWith ¼ Tank or Less, prolonged un-coordinated flight is prohibited when operating on either the Left or Right tank
71 Fuel LimitationsFuel remaining when the quantity indicator shows “empty” is not useable!
72 Other Limitations Flap Limitations Takeoff Range 0 to 10 degrees Landing Range 0 to 30 degrees
79 Engine Failure During Takeoff Throttle IdleBrakes ApplyFlaps RetractMixture Idle Cut-offIgnition OffMaster Off
80 Engine Failure Immediately After Takeoff Airspeed 70 flaps up 65 flaps downMixture Idle Cut-offFuel Shutoff Off PULL OUTIgnition OffFlaps As RequiredMaster OffDoors OpenLand Straight Ahead Best Site
81 Engine Failure During Flight [Restart Procedure] Airspeed 68Fuel Shutoff ON PUSH ONFuel Selector BothAuxiliary Fuel Pump OnMixture Rich [if Restart has not occurred]If Prop is windmilling, the engine will restart within a few seconds.If Prop has stopped turning, Turn Ignition to STARTAdvance Throttle Slowly from Idle, the adjust mixture for smoothnessIf The FUEL FLOW drops to Zero, Turn on Auxiliary Fuel Pump
82 Precautionary Landing Without Engine Power Passenger Seat Backs Upright PositionSeats and Seat Belts SecureAirspeed Flaps Up 65 Flaps DownMixture Idle Cut OffFuel Shutoff Valve OFF PULL OUTIgnition OffFlaps As Required [30 deg. advised]Master OffDoors OpenTouchdown Slightly Tail LowBrakes Apply Heavily
83 Precautionary Landing With Engine Power Passenger Seat Backs Upright PositionSeats and Seat Belts SecureAirspeed 65Flaps degreesSelected Field : Fly over to evaluate, Climb to appropriate patter altitude and retract Flaps at safe airspeedAvionics Master OffFlaps degrees on FinalMaster OffDoors OpenTouchdown Slightly Tail LowIgnition OffBrakes Apply Heavily
84 Ditching Review POH for this Procedure Minimize Descent to 300 FPM at 55 ktsPrepare to protect Face with available itemsOpen DoorsActivate ELTTouchdown parallel to swells, Level AttitudeEvacuate AirplaneUse Floatation Devices OUT OF AIRPLANE
85 FIRE During Engine Start [Engine has started] Ignition Start, continue cranking for a startSet Power to 1800 RPMFollow Shutdown ProceduresEvacuate and Inspect for Damage
86 Engine Fire During Start [Engine has not started] Throttle Full OpenMixture Idle Cut-offCranking ContinueFuel Shut-Off OFF PULL OUTAuxiliary Fuel Pump OffFire Extinguisher ActivateEngine SecureMaster OffIgnition OffBrake SetPassengers and Crew EvacuateFire Extinguish as RequiredInspect for Damage
87 Engine Failure In Flight Mixture Idle Cut OffFuel Shutoff Valve Off Pull OUTAuxiliary Fuel Pump OffMaster OffCabin heat and air Off except overhead ventsAirspeed 100 Knots or more to create a non combustible fuel air mixtureForced Landing Refer to Forced Landing Checklist
88 Electrical Fire in Flight Master OFFAvionics OFFAll Electric OFF [except magnetos]Vents/Cabin Air/Heat ClosedFire Extinguisher Activate [if available]If Extinguisher is activated, open all vents after fire is out to clear cabinIf fire appears to be out, and electrical power is necessary,Master ONCircuit Breakers Check for faulty circuitAvionics ON, 1 system at a time with a delay in order to evaluate and detect the bad circuit
90 Landing with a Flat Main Tire APPROACH NORMALTOUCHDOWNGOOD TIRE FIRST, HOLD AIRPLANE OFF FLAT TIRE AS LONG AS POSSIBLE.
91 Electrical Power Malfunctions Ammeter shows excessive rate of chargeAlternator OFFAlternator Breaker PULLNon-essential equipment OFFFlight Terminate ASAP
92 Vacuum System FailureLeft Vacuum [L VAC] or Right Vacuum [L VAC] Annunciator IlluminatesIf Vacuum is not within normal limits, a failure has occurred.Partial Panel Procedures will be necessary for continued flight
93 Landing without Elevator Control Trim for level flightSet speed for approximately 65Once trimmed, do not move elevator trim.Control glide with power only.At flare-out, Power reduction will cause nose to drop… Adjust Trim Full UP during power reduction.
94 SPIN RECOVERY THROTTLE IDLE AILERONS NEUTRAL RUDDER FULL OPPOSITE OF ROTATIONCONTROL YOKE FORWARD TO BREAK STALLHOLD THESE CONTROL POSITIONS UNTIL ROTATION STOPSAS ROTATION STOPS, NEUTRALIZE RUDDERRECOVER FROM DIVE SMOOTHLY.
96 Before Start Preflight Inspection Complete Passenger Briefing Complete Seats and Belts AdjustBrakes Test and SetElectrical Equipment OffAvionics OffFuel Selector BothFuel Shutoff Valve On PUSH INCircuit Breakers Check In
97 Starting Engine [with battery] Throttle Open ¼ inchMixture Idle Cut-OttPropeller Area ClearMaster OnFlashing beacon OnAuxiliary Fuel Pump OnMixture Full Rich until a positive fuel flow, then Idle Cut-OffAuxiliary Fuel Pump OffIgnition StartMixture Advance as Engine StartsOil Pressure CheckNavigation Lights As RequiredAvionics OnFlaps Retract
98 Starting Engine [Flooded Sart] If Engine floods [over primed] perform the following and then complete the normal start checklistAuxiliary Fuel Pump OFFMixture Idle Cut-OffThrottle Open ½ to Full ThrottleIgnition StartWhen Engine starts Mixture to Full Rich, Throttle to Idle Promptly.
99 Before TaxiThis is not a Cessna Checklist, but will be useful in developing good habits at towered airports.ATIS Information Obtain and copy with I.D.Clearance Obtain and copy, READBACKTRANSPONDER SET Code and Select STBYTaxi Instructions Comply as Instructed
100 Before Takeoff Parking Brake Set Seats Upright Seat Belts Secure Doors Closed and LatchedFlight Controls Free and CorrectFlight Instruments Check and SetFuel Quantity CheckMixture Full RichFuel Selector Valve Recheck Set to BOTHThrottleMagnetos Check drop <150, Diff. Max of 50Vacuum Gage CheckAnnunciator Panel CheckThrottle Check IDLEThrottle Set to 1000 RPM …..Continued….
101 Before Takeoff…continued Throttle Friction Lock AdjustRadios and Avionics SETNAV/GPS Switch SETAutopilot OFFManual Trim Set for TakeoffFlaps Set for TakeoffTRANSPONDER ONBrakes ReleaseTAKEOFF CLEARANCE ObtainTRANSPONDER ON Select ALTDirectional Gyro Set when aligned with RunwayStrobes and Landing Light On when taking Active Runway
102 Normal Takeoff Flaps 0 – 10 Degrees Throttle Full Open Mixture Rich (above 3000 ft, Lean for max rpm)Elevator Lift Nose Wheel at 55Climb Speed [80 Provides better Forward Visibility]Flaps Retract
103 Short Field Takeoff Flaps 10 Degrees Brakes Apply Throttle Full Open Mixture Rich (above 3000 ft, Lean for max rpm)Brakes ReleaseElevator Slightly Tail LowClimb Speed 56 Until Obstacles ClearedFlaps Retract Slowly after reaching 60 knots
104 Enroute Climb Airspeed 70-85 Throttle Full Open Mixture Rich (lean above 3000 ft)
105 Cruise Power Set 2100-2700 no more than 75% Elevator Trim Adjust Mixture Lean For Performance DesiredArrival Checklist Prepare
106 Arrival (not a Cessna List) Arrival ATIS In Range Obtain and CopyApproach Control Contact Prior to 20 Miles outClearance Copy and READBACKDescent Checklist Prepare
107 Descent Power As required Mixture Adjust, Full Rich at Idle Altimeter SetNAV/GPS SetFuel Selector Valve BOTHFlaps As Required within LimitsLanding Checklist Prepare
108 Normal Landing Airspeed 65-75 Flaps Up Flaps As required within Limits Airspeed Flaps DownTouchdown Main Wheels FirstLanding Roll Lower Nose GentlyBraking Minimum Required
109 Short Field Landing Airspeed 65-75 Flaps Up Flaps As required within LimitsAirspeed 61 Flaps DownTouchdown Main Wheels FirstBrakes Apply HeavilyFlaps Retract
110 Balked Landing [Go Around] Throttle FULL OPENFlaps Retract to 20Climb Speed 60Flaps Retract to 10 till safe Alt.
111 After Landing Runway Clear and onto Taxiway Strobes Off Landing Light OffTransponder STBYFlaps RetractRadios SetClearance Taxi instruction Parking as required
112 Secure [Shut Down] Brake Set Avionics OFF Mixture Idle Cut-Off Ignition OffMaster OffControl Lock InstallFuel Selector Left or RightCheck with OPERATOR of the Aircraft regarding this last item.
114 You have seen the correct technique… Main wheels touchdown 1st
115 This is what can happen with “improper” technique.. The nose wheel touches 1st, followed by Mains,and a bounce results
116 This is what can happen with “improper” technique.. A bounce occurs, and the airplane balloons up some distanceThe Pilot over-reacts, and forces the nose to the runwayThe resultant increase in velocity produces another bounce on touchdown, and the cycle starts again.
117 The third cycle of this phenomena is where accidents typically occur. The nose will contact first (again),But the contact will likely be at such an angle to causeSubstantial damage the structure, and result a collapsedNose wheel assemblyThis typically also causes the Propeller to strike the ground causing damage to the Propeller and the Engine
118 This is frequently the outcome of the second or third bounce….. Nose wheel touches, and you bounce again.
119 If in doubt, go around after the First Bounce! When the bounce occurs, level off, and Re-Land the Airplane normally if sufficient runway length remains.If in doubt, go around after the First Bounce!