2INTRODUCTIONA warehouse is a commercial building for storage of goods. Warehouses are used by manufacturers, importers, exporters, wholesalers, transport businesses, customs, etc. They are usually large plain buildings in industrial areas of cities and towns. They usually have loading docks to load and unload goods from trucks. Sometimes warehouses load and unload goods directly from railways, airports, or seaports. They often have cranes and forklifts for moving goods, which are usually placed on ISO standard pallets loaded into pallet racks.
3PRODUCTION BASEDDISTRIBUTION BASEDFULFILLMENT/ CONSOLIDATION WAREHOUSESWAREHOUSES PROVIDING VALUE ADDED SERVICESTYPES OF WAREHOUSECROSS DOCKING AND TRANSLOADING WAREHOUSESBREAK BULK WAREHOUSESSTORAGE WAREHOUSESREFRIGERATED WAREHOUSES
4Types of WarehousesProduction Warehouses.Warehouses involving in production , A production type ware house requires storage spaces for both raw material and final finished product, packing unit and other miscellaneous supporting spaces depending on the type of product to be of produced.Distribution WarehousesWarehouses performing distribution services on behalf of their customersThis type of warehouse requires huge storage spaces may be refrigerated /non -referigerative type based on the productFulfillment/ Consolidation WarehousesWarehouses where products are generally received in large quantities and shippedout in a large number of smaller mixed shipments. Such pick and pack operationsrequire special inventory management and picking procedures.Warehouses Providing Value Added ServicesWarehouses providing a wide range of value added services. This requires thewarehouse to apply labor and, in some cases, special equipment to the customer’sproducts, such as repackaging, further processing, or labeling.Cross Docking and Transloading WarehousesWarehouses that provide cross dock and trans-loading services. Container orrailcar tracking is generally important. These services often require temporary storagewith charges adjusted for free days or a grace period.
5Break Bulk WarehousesWarehouses that receive product in bulk, often by railcar, and then repackage the product based on customer requirements. In the case of containers with imported products, this generally requires the inspection and relabeling of product. Generally, special billing rules apply.Storage Warehouses Warehouses which store product for periodic delivery to a manufacturer or distribution center.This is often associated with providing just in time delivery of the product to the consignee. This could be imported raw materials or items used in the manufacturing process, such as cans or subassemblies. Items are generally tracked by lot, with the lot often being specified for delivery. Handling, storage and accessorial charges are similar to distribution warehouses.Refrigerated WarehousesRefrigerated warehouses often require more detailed tracking of product and special billing procedures. Handling charges often involve a table of decreasing charges based on volume. Often each transaction is subject to a minimum charge. And, storage charges are generally billed based on anniversary dates.
6ENERGY EFFICIENT WAREHOUSE DESIGN SHOULD Be designed with passive solar concepts, solar geometry, and building load requirements in mind.Providing thermal insulation in walls, ceilings, and floors to cut down the heat .Provide Vents in the roof allow rising heat to escapePossess light colored roof to reflect a large percentage of solar radiation, reducing HVAC loads, and energy consumption. When a large roof area is anticipated, this effect can be significant, especially for temperature controlled warehouses. Greater heat reflection will increase worker productivity in the summer.Consider specifying white painted metal roof decking, thereby increasing ceiling surface reflectivity, lighting efficiency, and worker comfort without any added energy cost.Allow natural lighting where possible. Provide lighting controls that turn off lights when sufficient daylight exists. Consider dimming controls that continuously adjust lighting levels to respond to daylight conditions.Use energy-efficient fixtures, systems, and appliances, e.g., motion sensor instant-on lighting systems, wherever feasible.
7Consider installing CO2 sensors to provide real time monitoring of air quality. Using water saving fixture like low flush WC, urinals etc.Design appropriate system for reusing and recycling material . i.e., for treating waste water treatment STP, reusing treated water landscapingMeasures to be taken to avoid any type of noise pollution by giving appropriated acoustical treatment.Incorporate proper signage to clearly warn of hazards or to direct personnel to take precaution. The specific strategy for the warehouses signs must be determined early in the facility design process.Possess non-slip surface treatments on floors subject to wetting, such as outdoor docks, to eliminate slips and falls to personnel.Be designed with fire sprinkler systems engineered to cover the specific commodity classification in the specific storage configuration for the planned warehouse. The adequacy of the sprinkler system must be evaluated when changes occur that can increase the hazard classification, such as introducing a new product line, using a different packaging material, or changing from wood pallets to plastic pallets.Include appropriate security systems incorporated into the overall warehouse design.Landscape irrigation is often well-suited to using alternative sources of water, such as grey water, harvested rainwater, or even treated wastewater.
8Design elements that could be adopted PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGNWindows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. This is called PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN or CLIMATIC DESIGN because, unlike active solar heating systems, it doesn't involve the use of mechanical and electrical devices.The key to designing a passive solar building is to best take advantage of the local climate. Elements to be considered include window placement and glazing type, thermal insulation, thermal mass, and shading.Passive solar design techniques can be applied most easily to new buildings, but existing buildings can be adapted or "retrofitted .Design elements that could be adoptedExtending the building dimension along the east/west axisAdequately sizing windows to face the midday sun in the winter, and be shaded in the summer.Minimizing windows on other sides, especially western windows.Erecting correctly sized, latitude-specific roof overhangs, or shading elements (shrubbery, trees,trellises, fences, shutters, etc.)
9Heating and cooling costs amount to 50% to 70% of the energy used THERMAL INSULATIONHeating and cooling costs amount to 50% to 70% of the energy usedin warehouse. rigid polyurethane one of today’s most effective insulation materials available for roof and wall insulation, insulated windows and doors and air barrier sealant.Polyurethane have one of the highest insulating R values per inch of all commercially available products today. With typical values in the range of R 5.6 to R 8 per inch, it is possible to have thinner walls and lower profile roofs while maximizing efficiency, increasing space utilization and reducing operating costs.Entry doors having a rigid polyurethane foam core help inhibit sound and add insulation value that further reduces heating and cooling energy needs.Polyurethane foam sealants, applied on-site, expand to fill energy wasting, air-infiltrating gaps around window frames, plumbing pipes, and electrical outlets.“Reflective” plastic coverings over polyurethane foam-insulated roofs bounce sunlight and radiant heat away from a building, helping the structure stay cool and reducing energy use for air conditioning.
10Thickness to Match 2" of PIR/PUR The widely used "R-value" measurement simply refers to thermal "resistance value" - that is, a measure of insulation's ability to impede heat flow, thereby keeping hot or cold air outside. A higher R-value means that insulation works more efficiently. Increasing the thickness of an insulation layer increases R value.Insulation MaterialR-value RangeThickness to Match 2" of PIR/PURPIR / PURR /inch2 inchesPolystyreneR /inch3.1 inchesCellulose/inch3.7 inchesFiberglass BattR /inch4.0 inchesOSB Sheathing10.9 inchesPlywoodR 1.25/inchConcrete BlockR 0.25/inch54 inchesBrickR 0.2/inch68 inches
113. VENTS FOR WAREHOUSESA large building, such as a warehouse, can absorb large amounts of direct solar heat, hot air infiltration from outside, and internal heat production from machines, appliances and people. Installing large electric ventilation systems can work but these are quite costly. Other methods, using passive solar energy, can make a noticeable difference in cooling a building and can save money as well. Using natural convection currents, the Venturi principle, and other methods can help to efficiently cool and ventilate a building.Open roof vents and windows at ground level. By opening roof vents and windows low on the structure of a building, you can use natural convection currents to assist in cooling and ventilating a warehouse or large building. This method of cooling is called the "stack effect." The stack effect takes advantage of hot air being less dense, rising and then exiting a building through openings towards the ceiling. When hot air rises due to natural convection currents, it leaves behind an area of slightly less air pressure. As the pressure and temperature want to reach equilibrium, new, fresh air will suction into the building through windows that are at or near ground level. The greater the difference in height between the point of air intake and exit, the greater the convection current, ventilation and cooling.
12Install smaller windows on the windward side of the building Install smaller windows on the windward side of the building. As air tends to move from higher to lower pressure, a slight suction can be initiated on the inside of a small windward window, creating a higher flow of air into the building. When this is paired with a convection current, it increases the flow of air from lower, smaller windows and up through roof vents.Install a solar chimney on top of roof vents to further increase the convection current that pulls hot air out of a building. The greater the distance between cool-air intake and hot-air exit, the greater the convection flow. A solar chimney is a chimney designed to feed hot air up and out of a building. If a solar chimney is black or a dark color, it will absorb more solar light and therefore heat. Insulating the solar chimney will further heat it. As this air temperature further increases within the solar chimney, the convection current will increase. Install a spinning wind turbine on top of the solar chimney that uses openings opposite the wind to further increase the suction of hot air outside the roof of the building.Install a wind scoop on top of the roof vents. If the warehouse is surrounded by wind-obstructing objects, such as other buildings or hills, a wind scoop can be used to capture a heavy wind at or above roof level. This method is used in densely populated areas in Africa and the Middle East to siphon cool winds down from above roof level. The air and wind at this level is also more free of contaminants, such as dust, found at ground level. A wind scoop will not be effective in areas without prevalent winds
134. LIGHTING CONTROLS / DIMMERS Lighting is one area that must be examined for sustained cost-saving and energy saving opportunities. These types of facilities are wasting lighting energy, and lots of it, by over-lighting work areas and overpowering lamp fixtures (HID or fluorescent). control each lighting fixture with an efficient lighting controller and solid-state dimming ballast. A typical warehouse or manufacturing facility may have hundreds or thousands of lighting fixtures, depending on square footage .With a user-friendly, distributed lighting control system, a plant or warehouse can save up to 75 percent in Lighting energy usage and costs by optimizing light outputDim according to occupancy, schedules and daylightIn industrial manufacturing and warehousing environments, effective yet simple controls that optimize light output for each section while minimizing energy usage can deliver significant energy savings. With a flexible lighting control system, stockrooms can be lit at a minimum when there is no activity, and light output increased when someone enters the area. Unoccupied meeting rooms may be completely dark until people enter the room.Without a distributed lighting control system, facility lights will remain on at full intensity for entire shifts, sometimes 24-hours-per-day, wasting energy and running up electricity bills. This is particularly wasteful when most plants have different areas requiring varying amounts of light output per task. For example, assembly areas, inspection departments, conference rooms and administrative office areas all require different light output.
14use sky tunnels /skylights to maximize use of natural lighting. 5. USE ENERGY-EFFICIENT FIXTURES, SYSTEMS, AND APPLIANCES, E.G., MOTION SENSOR INSTANT-ON LIGHTING SYSTEMS, WHEREVER FEASIBLE.Install Natural Lighting to improve overall Light levels. This will assist the quality control procedures to be carried out more effectively, improve staff comfort and reduce the expenditure on energy such as Electricity.use sky tunnels /skylights to maximize use of natural lighting.Efficient lighting fixtures for high bay warehouse should be used like metal halide ,high out put fluorescent , LED s etc by evaluating their efficiencies for the warehouse.Motion sensors and instant light on systems can be used in case of LEDS and high output fluorescents.CONSIDER INSTALLING CO2 SENSORS TO PROVIDE REAL TIME MONITORING OF AIR QUALITY.Carbon Dioxide (CO2) sensors can be used to control CO2 generation, ventilation or other cooling and heating equipment. Ventilation control by CO2 monitoring is a viable and energy efficient way of controlling ventilation to target the flow rates based on actual occupancy, rather than the traditional approach of providing fixed ventilation based on maximum occupancy.Carbon Dioxide (CO2) sensors also allows zone control in applications with variable occupancy and even the transfer of preconditioned air from under occupied spaces.
15Carbon Monoxide (CO) detectors are designed for use in enclosed garages, loading docks, warehouses and other areas where toxic carbon monoxide fumes may build up and are available in a range of sensitivities from 0-50ppm to ppm.7. USING WATER SAVING FIXTURE LIKE LOW FLUSH WC, URINALS ETC.Water efficiency can be classified into three major categories:InteriorsExteriorsStorm water reuseWAYS OF EFFICIENT UTILIZATION OF WATER IN THE INTERIORS1) USING WATER LESS URINALSUsing waterless urinals is quite common in the West but this concept is rejected in the Asian countries. The major advantage of using waterless urinals is that it saves on average 20,000 to 45,000 gallons of water a year.Working of water less urinalUrine flows down the bowl of the urinal past a debris-catching strainer.The urine then passes through a sealing liquid.The urine sinks through the sealing liquid and the oil floats on top of the layer of urine below.Any air bubbles rise to the top and escape leaving the urine in a relatively low oxygen environment.Odor is therefore trapped below the oil layer .
16Here are the three major objectives of using tap magic: USING LOW FLUSH, ULTRA LOW FLUSH AND DUAL FLUSH WCSLOW FLUSH WC’Suses less water about 6liters or 1.6 gallons per flush.DUAL FLUSH WC’SIt has a light- and a heavy-duty flush.Working of Dual Flush ToiletLIQUID FLUSHuses a little over 3/4 of a gallon of water to flush liquid waste away.It consists of the small amount of water already in the bowl.SOLID FLUSHuses about a gallon and a half of water to flush solid waste away.It consists of small amount of water in the bowl as well as some released in from the tank.TAP MAGICHere are the three major objectives of using tap magic:Replaces the existing tap insert and provides an automatic dual flow outlet.Opening the tap a little gives a strong but water-saving spray for hand washingOpening the tap further bypasses the spray mode to fill the basin quickly; savings of over 50%
17USE OF AERATORSObjectives of using aerators which play a role in water efficiency:Mixes air into the water stream.This maintains steady pressure so the flow has an even, full shower spray.Because air is mixed in with the water, the water temperature can cool down a bit towards the floor of the shower.
18Our area of study for exteriors can be divided into three parts: Sustainable LandscapingDrip Irrigation SystemXeriscapingWater Efficient Landscaping accounts to attaining five main objectives:Proper planning and use the landSoil analysis to efficiently utilize it for the purposeAppropriate Plant Species selectionEfficient Irrigation SystemProper use of mulches to attain efficiencyEfficient Landscaping Techniques to achieve water efficiencyUse of bio-swales and rain gardens should be done for the reduction of the stormwater runoff.Water reuse can be brought about by utilizing wetlands for the filtering of waste water.Proper selection of trees is very important as it serves as an important element in Bio-climatic Architecture which is one of important principle of Green Architecture.Trees should be selected on the basis of their purpose. For example, Shading purpose, trees acting as wind breaks.Recycling of materials should be considered as a top priority. Materials such as glass, rubber from tires should be recycled to create landscape products.
19DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM | EFFICIENT IRRIGATION SYSTEM Drip Irrigation System is one of the most sophisticated and efficient irrigation system. This system involves a network of sprinklers all throughout the field. The sprinklers are positioned at the base of the plant stem.Drip Irrigation SystemThe sprinkler drip system works on the principle of Low energy. The water from the sprinklers is delivered to the root zone of the plants. The main advantage of using Drip Irrigation is that the water is delivered to the roots drop by drop and hence is water efficient.
20XERISCAPINGXeriscaping is the term derived from the greek word “Xerox” which means dry. Covering the land with landscaping that utilizes very less water.The selection of plants should be such that they provide beauty and enhance the aesthetic appeal of the place as well as follow the principle of water efficiency which is our main objective.IMPORTANT FUNDAMENTALS FOR LANDSCAPINGGroup plants according to their water needs, so that we could decide on what type of irrigation system would suffice.Preference for the use of native and low-water-use plants to prevent excess water usage.Limit turf areas to those needed for practical uses.Use efficient irrigation systems, for example, Drip Irrigation System.Schedule irrigation wisely to prevent wastage of water.Make sure soil is analyzed properly and is healthy.Mulching of soil is important.Regular maintenance should be carried out.
21STORM WATER REUSE.As well as the range of ‘planned’ or purpose-developed reuse discussed in earliersections of this paper, there is also widespread unplanned storm water reuse andunplanned groundwater recharge which exists in our urban areas. Examples of suchunplanned reuse include the following:Roof drainage directed to gardens and lawns;Runoff from roads and paved areas directed onto grassed areas;Overflowing gutters and storm systems under heavy rainfall; andInfiltration to subsurface aquifers from open drainage channels and ex filtration from Storm sewers
229. RECYCLE AND REUSERecycled Content: Products with identifiable recycled content, including postindustrial content with a preference for postconsumer content.Natural, plentiful or renewable: Materials harvested from sustainably managed sources and preferably have an independent certification (e.g., certified wood) and are certified by an independent third party.Resource efficient manufacturing process: Products manufactured with resource-efficient processes including reducing energy consumption, minimizing waste (recycled, recyclable and or source reduced product packaging), and reducing greenhouse gases.Locally available: Building materials, components, and systems found locally or regionally saving energy and resources in transportation to the project site.Salvaged, refurbished, or remanufactured: Includes saving a material from disposal and renovating, repairing, restoring, or generally improving the appearance, performance, quality, functionality, or value of a product.Reusable or recyclable: Select materials that can be easily dismantled and reused or recycled at the end of their useful life.Recycled or recyclable product packaging: Products enclosed in recycled content or recyclable packaging.Durable: Materials that are longer lasting or are comparable to conventional products with long life expectancies
2310. MATERIAL EFFICIENCY DURING CONSTRUCTION 1) Use building materials and products that are extracted and manufactured within the region, thereby supporting the regional economy and reducing the environmental impacts resulting from transportation.2) Reuse building materials and products in order to reduce demand for virgin materials and to reduce waste, thereby reducing impacts associated with the extraction and processing of virgin resources.3) Divert construction, demolition, and land clearing debris from landfill disposal .Redirect recyclable recovered resources back to the manufacturing process. Redirect reusable materials to appropriate sites.4) Reuse existing building stock, conserve resources, retain cultural resources, reduce waste and reduce environmental impacts of new buildings as they relate to materials manufacturing and transport.
2411. CONSTRUCTION WASTE RECYCLE consists of unwanted material produced directly or incidentally by the construction or industries.This includes building materials such as insulation, nails, electrical wiring, and rebar, as well as waste originating from site preparation such as dredging materials, tree stumps, and rubble. construction waste may contain lead, asbestos, or other hazardous substances.Much building waste is made up of materials such as bricks, concrete and wood damaged or unused for various reasons during construction. Observational research has shown that this can be as high as 10 to 15% of the materials that go into a building, a much higher percentage than the 2.5-5% usually assumed by quantity surveyors and the construction industry. Since considerable variability exists between construction sites, there is much opportunity for reducing this waste.Certain components of construction waste such as plasterboard are hazardous once landfilled. Plasterboard is broken down in landfill conditions releasing hydrogen sulfide, a toxic gas.There is the potential to recycle many elements of construction waste. Often roll-off containers are used to transport the waste. Rubble can be crushed and reused in construction projects. Waste wood can also be recovered and recycled