Presentation on theme: "Asiatic honey bee and I 招衡 “Eddie” Hang Chio, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:
1Asiatic honey bee and I 招衡 “Eddie” Hang Chio, Ph.D. Applied Sciences ProfessorDept. of EntomologyNational Taiwan University招衡
2Asiatic honey bee, Apis cerana They are cousins of Apis mellifera but noticeable smaller
3Distribution of Apis cerana MacaoIt can be found in southern and southeastern Asia, such as China, India, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Papua New Guinea.
4Unique Characters of Apis cerana They form smaller coloniesAbsconding behaviorNest defenseNest thermoregulationThermal defenseMajor Pests
5They form smaller colonies Apis cerana forms smaller colonies that hardly fill up a single brood chamber.
6Absconding behaviorAbsconding behavior means that these species abandon the current nest and move towards new location where there is abundant nectar and pollen supply available and again build new nest.
7Nest defenseApis cerana are more inclined to retreat inside than to attack an intruder passing near their nest.Incense sticks instead of smokerare good enough to calm downthe hive and no protective veil orclothes are needed.
8Nest thermoregulation Apis cerana colonies maintain their brood temperature in the range of 33–35.5 °C even while ambient temperatures vary between 12 and 36 °C. They use the head-in-tail-out position to draw ambient air into the hive while Apis mellifera use the head-out-tail-in position to draw hot air out.**Bee Culture: Jan ThermoregulationHead-in-tail-out position
9Thermal defenseWhen an Apis cerana hive is invaded by the Japanese giant hornet about 500 Japanese honey bees (A. cerana japonica) surround the hornet and vibrate their flight muscles until the temperature is raised to 47 °C (117 °F), heating the hornet to death, but keeping the temperature still under their own lethal limit (48–50 °C). European honey bees (A. mellifera) lack this behavior.
10PestsApis cerana exhibits more careful grooming than A. mellifera, and thus has an effective defense mechanism against Varroa.These local bees have few pests except the toad that can devastate a colony over night.
11Second generation bee keeper become Entomologist My father started beekeeping in 1950 and kept bees for over 30 years.Eddie Chio in Macao in 1964
12Second generation bee keeper become Entomologist-cont. I spent many weekends helping my father caring the bees when I was in high school. I believe that was why I majored in Entomology at the National Taiwan University (BS and MS) and at the University of Illinois (Ph.D)
13Second generation bee keeper become Entomologist-cont. In 1971, I was studying honey bee’s behavior at the Department of Plant Pathology and Entomology, National Taiwan University. A phone call from the President Chiang’s office injected unexpected excitement into my young Entomology career.
14Keeping bees for President Chiang Kai-Shek in Taiwan In 1971, Chef Chan from the Shilin Official Residence (士林官邸) contacted the administration of the National Taiwan University for honey bees.
15Two dear associates of President Chiang Kai-Shek Chef ChanCaptain Kao
16President Chiang needs honey bees Administration of the National Taiwan UniversityChef ChanCollege of AgricultureDept. of Plant Pathology and EntomologyDivision of EntomologyEddie Chio
17Keeping bees for President Chiang Kai-Shek in Taiwan-cont. Chef Chan told me that, President Chiang did not trust any honey from the market and decided to harvest his own honey from his own bees. They took 2 hives out of my 4 and told me they would keep bees at the Shilin Presidential residence.
18Keeping bees for President Chiang Kai-Shek in Taiwan-cont. Shilin Presidential Residence(AKA Shilin Official Residence)Taiwan
19Keeping bees for President Chiang Kai-Shek in Taiwan-cont. I thought that was the end of the story. But later they told me their gardener was not familiar with Apis mellifera. The gardener kept Apis cerana before. They need helps.
20Keeping bees for President Chiang Kai-Shek in Taiwan-cont. I ended up caring for President Chiang’s bees at the Shilin Presidential Residence from 1971 to 1972.
21Keeping bees for President Chiang Kai-Shek in Taiwan-cont. The Shilin Presidential Residence, stretching 9.28 hectares, was heavily militarized, fortified, and closed to the public until 1996
22Keeping bees for President Chiang Kai-Shek in Taiwan-cont. From the entrance to the garden, it was approximately only 200 yards but there were military bunkers and blockhouse. I must be one of the few civilians, if not the first one, allowed inside this Presidential Residence in the early 70s.Blockhouse in front of the residence
23Keeping bees for President Chiang Kai-Shek in Taiwan-cont. Inside the barracks, there were army of tradesmen. All bee keeping equipment were made by them.
26In 1972, couple hundred pounds of honey were extracted In 1972, couple hundred pounds of honey were extracted. As you know, honey is very good for constipation, but consuming too much honey at one time could trigger diarrhea. I was worry sick about such side-effect on the old and feeble President. He was 85 at that time.
27Lucky break!No report about any one developed diarrhea after eating the honey that I extracted.I left Taiwan in 1972 and President Chiang passed away at age 88 in 1975.
28Shilin Official Residence opened for public since 1966 Shilin Official Residence opened for public since It is now one of the best gardens in Taipei and becomes very popular during the weekends.
29Personal notes about Bee Keeping Bee Keeping opened up many doors for me including my Entomology career and a unique opportunity to care for the royal bees in TaiwanBee Keeping connects me well with my fatherBee Keeping is a journey not a destinationBee Keeping is more art than science
30Acknowledge:Thanks for Jerry and Tracy for the arrangement and your attention