2Action Learning A problem solving process that involves: Small team and coachWorking on real problems and taking actionGroup and individual learningquestions, questioning insight, and curiosity as the foundation of action learning. L = P + Q + R. “The power of action learning comesfrom the many ways it develops the skills and habits of questioning, listening, andreflection. The term action learning implies intentional learning; Revans famously described learning (L) as the result of “programmed knowledge” (P)and questioning insight (Q). Skillful and frequent question asking begins with awareness as well as curiosity. from answer-driven problem solvers tomore thoughtful, strategic, collaborative, and inquiry-based ones—Draws on concrete experience & reflection on that
4Discourse: Conversation; verbal exchange DialogueDiscussionMonologueTalking is also referred to as discourse – or verbal exchange. While most discourse can be entertaining or informative – it isn’t always useful in creating ideas, getting to the root cause or resolving differences. Monologue is one-way transmission – great for experts to provide information not for exchange of ideas; Discussion is involves two way transmission, but it doesn’t necessarily mean that information was received (for various reasons); Dialogue involves respectful listening with empathy and full exchange of ideas, but may not necessarily have a clear purpose beyond understanding the issues;
5Dialectic:Dialectic (also dialectics and the dialectical method) is a method of argument for resolving disagreement that has been central to Indian and European philosophy since antiquity. The word dialectic originated in ancient Greece, and was made popular by Plato in the Socratic dialogues. The dialectical method is dialogue between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject, who wish to establish the truth of the matter by dialogue, with reasoned arguments. Dialectics is different from debate, wherein the debaters are committed to their points of view, and mean to win the debate, either by persuading the opponent, proving their argument correct, or proving the opponent's argument incorrect – thus, either a judge or a jury must decide who wins the debate. Dialectics is also different from rhetoric, wherein the speaker uses logos, pathos, or ethos to persuade listeners to take their side of the argumentPurposeful dialogue with a goal of examining thinking, creating knowledge and fostering deeper understanding
6Questioning and Reflection Questions help us to:learn new information and to clarify issuesdiverge and examine problemsdiscover new ideas and insightslisten, to stand back, reflect, and gain new perspectives
7Attributes of Great Questions Do not have a preconceived answer in mindAre fresh questions to evaluate the same data in new waysAre supportive, insightful, and challengingCreate clarity - open doors in the mind and get people to think more deeplyChallenge and test assumptions - explore why and howAre open endedGreat questions send the message that other peoples ideas are welcome and maybe better than yours. Help people to think analytically and critically . Help people to see things is new ways. Helps create clarity – explain what happened.
8How Action Learning Differs from Other Problem-solving Groups Questions precede answers; dialogue over discussion and debateLearning and team development as important as solving the problemMembership not reserved to experts or involved peopleCoach works learning opportunitiesConsensus on problemSkill DevelopmentUrgent and complex problems requiring unique systems thinkingGroups charged with implementing the solution as well as solving the problems
9Action Learning Process Formation of the groupPresentation of the problem or task to the groupReframing the problemConsensus on the problemCapturing the learning pointsImplementing the plans & assessing the resultsDeveloping the action strategies & plansDetermining the goals
10Action Learning Team Small group (4-8 participants) Learning Coach Problem PresenterTeam MembersLearning CoachFocus on Individual Skill DevelopmentEach member uses questions from critical thinking modelOther members note demonstrated skillFocus on Group LearningReflect on actions to improve future sessionsReflect on learning to identify insights
11PMT-401: Action LearningPurpose: Use of action learning as a problem solving method with PMT-401 case studiesStudents conduct an 80-minute action learning set in small group:TritonNatomaTHAADFaculty are Action Learning coachesGuide the activityEnforce the rulesFocus attention to the power of questions as being at the source of answers and solutionsProvide practice of another tool for problem solvingRespond to students feedback on wanting small group time for case study
122 Ground RulesStatements only in response to questions; anyone can ask questions of anyone elseAction learning coach has authority to intervene at anytime to identify a learning experience
13Action Learning Outcomes Action TypesAction CriteriaStrategies or next stepsSpecificGather additional information or resourcesMeasurableAchievableRecommendationsRealisticImplementation stepsTime Bound
14Seven Questions Exercise Goal: Ask and answer seven questions in a row about today’s Quincy case`Questioner: Asks the first question about the last case study you had today. Follow-up questions build exactly on the last statement made by the responder.Observer: Keeps count of the questions. Interrupts if the question does not build on the statement made or if the responder answers more than the question asked or answers something other than the question asked. If the rules are broken – the question count goes back to one.Responder: Only responds to the question asked.
15The Power of Questions“Asking questions is not only a quest for solutions, but also an opportunity to explore.”MARQUARDTOpen-ended QuestionsIn action learning, questions are not only seeking answers. Rather, they are seeking to godeeper, to understand, to respond to what is being asked, to give it thought. Askingquestions is not only a quest for solutions but also an opportunity to explore.”(Marquardt, 1999, pp )Closed QuestionsYes/No Question
16Critical Thinking Elements of Thought Purpose: What are we trying to accomplish? What is our central aim? Purpose?Information: What information are you using in coming to that conclusion? What experience have you had to support this claim? What information do we need to settle the question?Assumptions: What are we/you taking for granted? What assumption led to that conclusion?Questions: What question are you raising? What question are you addressing?Implications/Consequenc es: If someone accepted your position, what would be the implications? What are you implying?Inferences/Conclusions: How did you reach this conclusion? Is there another way to interpret the information?Points of View: From what point of view are you looking at this issue? Is there another point of view we should consider?Concepts: What is the main idea here? Could you explain this idea?
17Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards Clarity: Could you elaborate further on that point? Could you express that point in another way? Could you give me an illustration? Could you give me an example?Accuracy: Is that really true? How could we check that? How could we find out if that is true?Depth: How does your answer address the complexities in the question? How are you taking into account the problems in the question? Is that dealing with the most significant factors? Breadth: Do we need to consider another point of view? Is there another way to look at this question? What would this look like from a conservative standpoint? What would this look like from the point of view of...? Precision: Could you give me more details? Could you be more specific?Relevance: How is that connected to the question? How does that bear on the issue?Logic: Does this really make sense? Does that follow from what you said? How does that follow?