Presentation on theme: "Ch Arthropods Video Phylum: Arthropoda Means “jointed legs”"— Presentation transcript:
1Ch. 36 - Arthropods Video Phylum: Arthropoda Means “jointed legs” 75% of all animals belong to this phylumInsects, lobsters, crabs, spiders, millipedes, & centipedesVideo
2Characteristics of Arthropods 1. Appendages – legs, antennae2 appendages per segment2. Open circulatory system3. Digestive system4. Ventral nervous system5. Exoskeleton – protection & desiccationMade of chitinVideo
3What is molting?Shedding of the exoskeletonWhy do animals molt?Every time an animal molts it enlarges or grows
4What are some advantages & disadvantages of molting? Protection, prevents desiccationMust molt to grow, vulnerable after it molts
5Crustacea subphylum Video Crayfish, lobsters, crab, sow bugs, daphnia.Mainly aquaticCrayfish Characteristics2 main body parts1. Cephalothorax – head & thorax2. Abdomen – 7 segmentsLast segment is the telsonVideo
6Appendages of the Crayfish 1. Chelipeds – pinchers2. Antennules – smaller (inside)3. Antenna – larger (outside)4. Walking legs – 4 along the thorax5. Swimmerets – along the abdomen6. Uropod – outside the telson
7Digestive & Excretory Systems First the crayfish tears the food with their maxillae & maxillipeds.They chew their food with their mandiblesThe food passes through the esophagus to the stomach.
8The digestive glands absorb nutrients, then the undigested material enters the intestine, and then exits the anus.Green glands are also used in the excretory system to remove waste; much like kidneys.
9Circulatory & Respiratory Systems Open Circulatory SystemDorsal heart that pumps blood to the body cavity to bath the organs. It is then pumped to the gills.What do the gills do?Large surface area for gas exchangeThe gills are attached to each walking leg
10Nervous SystemVentral nerve cordBrainSense receptors antennules, antennae, & compound eyesA compound eye has many lensesDo you have a compound eye?
11Usually mate in the fall Reproductive SystemUsually mate in the fallThe male uses its swimmerets to transfer sperm to the female, where she keeps the sperm until spring.The eggs are then fertilized and kept along the female’s swimmerets until they hatch.
12Chelicerae - subphylum Class: ArachnidaSpiders, mites, scorpionsMany use stingers or fangs with poison.How do spiders catch their prey?with webs or “trap doors”Scorpions hunt at night and hide during the day.Video
13Only a few scorpions are poisonous enough to kill humans. Mites and ticks are the most abundant in this class.Ticks are parasitic and some carry diseases.Lyme’s diseaseRocky mountain spotted fever.Spider mites can damage and wipe out fruit trees or other trees.
14Structure of a spider 2 segments 1. Cephalothorax 2. Abdomen Chelicerae – hollow fangsPedipaps – aid in chewing8 legs & eyesSpiracles – openings for respiration
15Video Book lung – air sacs in the abdomen for respiration. Malpighian tubules – kidney-like excretory system. Removes wastes.Spinnerets – spins silk for websCan also be used as silk balloons to fly away in young spiders.Black widow & Brown Recluse2 poisonous spiders in KansasVideo
16Uniramia - subphylum Video 2 classes 1. Diplopoda – millipedes Means “thousand feet”2 pair of legs per segment2. Chilopoda – centipedesMeans “hundred feet”1 pair of legs per segmentSome are poisonousVideo
17Insects – 2nd Part of Ch. 39 Video Most diverse and largest number of species of any class of organism.They were present on earth before the dinosaurs, over 300 million years ago.Differences from other arthropods1. 3 body segments head, thorax, abdomenVideo
182. Head has 1 pair of antennae 3. Thorax has 3 pairs of legs & 1 or 2 pair of wings.4. No wings or legs attached to the abdomen.
19Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ArthropodaClass: Insecta (700,000 + species named)What makes insect so successful?Lots of them – adapt very wellGreat diversity – several typesReproduce rapidlySmall size & ability to fly (most)
20Benefit of insects? Video 1. Pollination – plants can’t reproduce without insects. We need plants to survive.2. Food – for other animals. Several animals rely on insects as a source of food.3. Industrial uses – silk & honeyWhat is the study of insects called? (E.C)EntomologyVideo
21Grasshopper External Structures 3 Body Parts:1. HeadLabium – grasps the food ( bottom lip)Mandible – chews the food (jaws)Labrum – holds the food (upper lip)Maxilla – extra jaws2. Thorax3 pairs of legs (6 total)2 pair of wings usually
223 parts to the thorax1. Prothorax – pair of walking legs2. Mesothorax. – pair of walking legs3. Metathorax – pair of jumping legsForewings are attached to the mesothoraxHindwings are attached to the metathorax
233. AbdomenSpiracle – for respirationTympanum – for hearing (eardrum)Ovipositors – holds it eggs
24GrasshopperInternal Structures Digestive SystemWhat do grasshoppers eat?What are the mouth parts?Food passage: esophaguscrop (storage) gizzard (grind) midgut (digested) hindgut (rectum & colon) out the anus
25Circulatory SystemOpen Circulatory SystemAn aorta is a large vessel that carries the blood on the dorsal side.2 Hearts along the aorta
26Respiratory SystemNo lungs or gillsUse spiracles – openings along the abdomenThe spiracles lead to the tracheaNervous SystemBrain connected to a ventral nerve cordHas simple and complex eyes
27Have antennaeTympanum for sensing soundReproductive SystemThe male deposits sperm into the seminal receptacle, which stores the sperm.The female uses its ovipositors to deposit her eggs in the ground.
28Types of Metamorphosis Incomplete Metamorphosis1. Egg2. Nymph – immature form of an adult3. Adult – able to reproduce (wings)
29Video Complete Metamorphosis 1. Egg 2. Larvae – catepillar stage 3. Pupa – cocoon protects the pupa4. Adult – emerges from the pupa (butterfly)Video
30Defenses of Insects What ways do insects use defenses? 1. Stinger or bite – bee, wasp, ants2. Camouflage – blend into their surroundings.Ex. Grasshopper, praying manthesisVideo3. Warning coloration – alert other animals that the insect might be poisonous.
31Insect Behavior Division of Labor among Bees 1. Worker bee – female bees, most abundant. (8,000) - sterile2. Drone – male bees (100)3. Queen bee – the only fertile femaleCHARACTERISTIS OF EACH BEEVideo
32The worker bee produces royal jelly to feed the queen bee The worker also secretes wax to make the hive.The produces a pheromone called queen factor, which makes the other females sterile.Round Dance – tells the other bees food is within 50 metersWaggle Dance – tells the other bees food is greater than 50 meters.