3II. The Reform Impulse Utopian Communities The Shakers About 100 reform communities were established in the decades before the Civil WarNearly all the communities set out to reorganize society on a cooperative basis, hoping to restore social harmony to a world of excessive individualism, and to narrow the widening gap between rich and poorSocialism and communism entered the languageThe ShakersThe Shakers were the most successful of the religious communities and had a significant impact on the outside worldShakers believed men and women were spiritually equalThey abandoned private property and traditional family lifecelibacy
4II. The Reform Impulse (con’t) OneidaThe founder of Oneida, John Noyes, preached that he and his followers had become so perfect that they had achieved a state of complete “purity of heart,” or sinlessnessNoyes and followers abandoned private property and traditional family lifecomplex marriageOneida was an extremely dictatorial environmentWorldly CommunitiesNew England transcendentalists established Brook Farm to demonstrate that manual and intellectual labor could coexist harmoniouslyAlthough it was an exciting miniature university, Brook Farm failed in part because many intellectuals disliked farm labor
5II. The Reform Impulse (con’t) The OwenitesThe most important secular communitarian was Robert OwenOwen promoted communitarianism as a peaceful means of ensuring that workers received the full value of their laborAt New Harmony, Owen championed women’s rights and educationOther short-lived secular communities included those established by Joseph Warren
6II. The Reform Impulse (con’t) Religion and ReformSome reform movements drew their inspiration from the religious revivalism of the Second Great AwakeningThe revivals popularized the outlook known as “perfectionism,” which saw both individuals and society at large as capable of indefinite improvementUnder the impact of the revivals, older reform efforts moved in a new, radical directionprohibition, pacifism, and abolition
7II. The Reform Impulse (con’t) Reform and Its CriticsTo members of the North’s emerging middle-class culture, reform became a badge of respectabilityMany Americans saw the reform impulse as an attack on their own freedomDrinking was a hotly debated issueCatholics rallied against the temperance movementReformers and FreedomThe vision of freedom expressed by the reform movements was liberating and controlling at the same time
8II. The Reform Impulse (con’t) The Invention of the AsylumAmericans embarked on a program of institution buildingjailspoorhousesasylumsorphanagesThese institutions were inspired by the conviction that those who passed through their doors could eventually be released to become productive, self-disciplined citizens
9II. The Reform Impulse (con’t) The Common SchoolA tax-supported state public school system was widely adoptedHorace Mann was the era’s leading educational reformerMann believed that education would “equalize the conditions of men”Avenue for social advancementOpportunity for character buildingCommon schools provided career opportunities for women, but widened the divide between North and South
10III. The Crusade Against Slavery ColonizationThe American Colonization Society promoted the gradual abolition of slavery and the settlement of black Americans in AfricaLiberiaLike Indian removal, colonization rested on the premise that America was fundamentally a white societyMost African-Americans adamantly opposed the idea of colonizationInsisted that blacks were Americans, entitled to the same rights enjoyed by whites
11III. The Crusade Against Slavery (con’t) Militant AbolitionismA new generation of reformers demanded immediate abolitionBelieved that slavery was both sinful and a violation of the Declaration of IndependenceDavid Walker’s An Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World was a passionate indictment of slavery and racial prejudice
12III. The Crusade Against Slavery (con’t) The Emergence of GarrisonThe appearance in 1831 of The Liberator, William Lloyd Garrison’s weekly journal published in Boston, gave the new type of abolitionism a permanent voiceSome of Garrison’s ideas were too radical, but his call for immediate abolition was echoed by manyGarrison rejected colonizationSpreading the Abolitionist MessageAbolitionists recognized the democratic potential in the production of printed materialTheodore Weld helped to create the abolitionists’ mass constituency
13III. The Crusade Against Slavery (con’t) He used the methods of the religious revivals and said slavery was a sinIdentifying slavery as a sin was essential to replacing the traditional strategies of gradual emancipation and colonization with immediate abolitionNearly all abolitionists, despite their militant language, rejected violence as a means of ending slaveryAbolitionists and the Idea of FreedomAbolitionists repudiated the idea of “wage slavery” popularized by the era’s labor movementOnly slavery deprived human beings of their “grand central right— the inherent right of self-ownership”
14III. The Crusade Against Slavery (con’t) A New Vision of AmericaThe antislavery movement sought to reinvigorate the idea of freedom as a truly universal entitlementInsisted that blacks were fellow countrymen, not foreigners or a permanently inferior casteAbolitionists disagreed over the usefulness of the ConstitutionAbolitionists consciously identified their movement with the revolutionary heritageThe Liberty Bell
15IV. Black and White Abolitionism Black AbolitionistsFrom its inception, blacks played a leading role in the antislavery movementStowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin gave the abolitionist message a powerful human appealAlthough the movement was racially integrated, whites relegated blacks to secondary positionsAbolitionists launched legal and political battles against racial discrimination in the NorthBlack abolitionists developed an understanding of freedom that went well beyond the usage of most of their white contemporariesAttacked the intellectual foundations of racism
16IV. Black and White Abolitionism (con’t) Liberty and SlaveryAt every opportunity, black abolitionists rejected the nation’s pretensions as a land of libertyBlack abolitionists articulated the ideal of color-blind citizenshipFrederick Douglass on the Fourth of JulySlavery and Civil LibertiesAbolitionism aroused violent hostility from northerners who feared that the movement threatened to disrupt the Union, interfere with profits wrested from slave labor, and overturn white supremacy
17IV. Black and White Abolitionism (con’t) Editor Elijah Lovejoy was killed by a mob while defending his pressMob attacks and attempts to limit abolitionists’ freedom of speech convinced many northerners that slavery was incompatible with the democratic liberties of white AmericansThe fight for the right to debate slavery openly and without reprisal led abolitionists to elevate “free opinion” to a central place in what Garrison called the “gospel of freedom”
18V. The Origins of Feminism The Rise of the Public WomanWomen were instrumental in the abolition movementThe public sphere was open to women in ways government and party politics were notWomen and Free SpeechWomen lectured in public about abolitionGrimké sistersFrances WrightMaria Stewart
19V. The Origins of Feminism (con’t) The Grimké sisters argued against the idea that taking part in assemblies, demonstrations, and lectures was unfeminineLetters on the Equality of the Sexes (1838)equal pay for equal workWomen’s RightsElizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott organized the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848Raised the issue of women’s suffrage for the first timeThe Declaration of Sentiments condemned the entire structure of inequality
20V. The Origins of Feminism (con’t) Feminism and FreedomLacking broad backing at home, early feminists found allies abroadWomen deserved the range of individual choices, the possibility of self-realization, that constituted the essence of freedomMargaret Fuller sought to apply to women the transcendentalist idea that freedom meant a quest for personal development
21V. The Origins of Feminism (con’t) Women and WorkThe participants at Seneca Falls rejected the identification of the home as women’s “sphere”the “bloomer” costumeThe movement posed a fundamental challenge to some of their society’s central beliefsThe Slavery of SexThe concept of the “slavery of sex” empowered the women’s movement to develop an all-encompassing critique of male authority and their own subordinationMarriage and slavery became a powerful rhetorical tool for feminists
22V. The Origins of Feminism (con’t) “Social Freedom”The demand that women should enjoy the rights to regulate their own sexual activity and procreation and to be protected by the state against violence at the hands of their husbands challenged the notion that claims to justice, freedom, and individual rights should stop at the household’s doorThe issue of women’s private freedom revealed underlying differences within the movement for women’s rights
23V. The Origins of Feminism (con’t) The Abolitionist SchismWhen organized abolitionism split into two branches in 1840, the immediate cause was a dispute over the proper role of women in antislavery workAmerican Antislavery SocietyAmerican and Foreign Antislavery SocietyThe Liberty Party was established in hopes of making abolitionism a political movement
24Utopian Communities, Mid-Nineteenth Century • pg. 426
25fig12_03.jpgPage 428: The Crisis, a publication by the communitarian Robert Owen and his son, Robert Dale Owen. The cover depicts Owen’s vision of a planned socialist community.Credit: New York Public Library.
26fig12_05.jpgPage 431: A temperance banner from around 1850 depicts a young man torn between a woman in white, who illustrates female purity, and a temptress, who offers him a drink of liquor.Credit: Reproduced from the Collection of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZC2-586.
27fig12_06.jpgPage 432: A German Beer Garden on Sunday Evening, an engraving from Harper’s Weekly, October 15, German and Irish immigrants resented efforts of temperance reformers to prohibit the sale of alcoholic beverages.Credit: Corbis.
28fig12_09.jpgPage 436: The masthead of William Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator, with engravings of scenes of slavery and freedom.Credit: Reproduced from the Collection of the Library of Congress.
29fig12_10ab.jpgPage 437 left: Pages from an abolitionist book for children. Abolitionists sought to convince young and old of the evils of slavery.Credit: The Boston Athenaeum, TBMR VEP.An 847. The Anti-Slavery Alphabet, a children's book (1847).
30fig12_10cd.jpgPage 437 right: Pages from an abolitionist book for children. Abolitionists sought to convince young and old of the evils of slavery.Credit: The Boston Athenaeum, TBMR VEP.An 847. The Anti-Slavery Alphabet, a children's book (1847).
31fig12_11.jpgPage 440: Slave Market of America, an engraving produced by the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1836, illustrates how abolitionists sought to identify their cause with American traditions, even as they mocked the nation’s claim to be a “land of the free.”Credit: Reproduced from the Collections of the Library of Congress, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, LC USZ
32fig12_13.jpgPage 442: The frontispiece of the 1848 edition of David Walker’s Appeal and Henry Highland Garnet’s Address to the Slaves depicts a black figure receiving “liberty” and “justice” from heaven.Credit: Library of Congress, LC-USZ
33fig12_15.jpgPage 443: An illustration from Types of Mankind, an 1854 book by the physicians and racial theorists Josiah C. Nott and George R. Gliddon, who argued that blacks formed a separate species, midway between whites and chimpanzees. Abolitionists sought to counter the pseudoscientific defenses of slavery and racism."Credit: Library of Congress, Call #GN23.N
34fig12_14.jpgPage 444 top: Am I Not a Man and a Brother? The most common abolitionist depiction of a slave, this image not only presents African-Americans as unthreatening individuals seeking white assistance but also calls upon white Americans to recognize blacks as fellow men unjustly held in bondage.Credit: Reproduced from the Collections of the Library of Congress, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, LC-USZC
35fig12_19.jpgPage 446: The May Session of the Woman’s Rights Convention, a cartoon published in Harper’s Weekly, June 11, A female orator addresses the audience of men and women, while hecklers in the balcony disrupt the proceedings.Credit: Library of Congress.
36fig12_20.jpgPage 449: Portrait of feminist Margaret Fuller (1810–1850) from an undated daguerreotype.Credit: Bettmann/Corbis.
37fig12_21.jpgPage 451: Woman’s Emancipation, a satirical engraving from Harper’s Monthly, August 1851, illustrating the much-ridiculed “Bloomer” costume.Credit: Bettmann/Corbis.
38fig12_22.jpgPage 452: Am I Not a Woman and a Sister?, an illustration from The Liberator, Identifying with the plight of the female slave enabled free women to see more clearly the inequalities they themselves faced.Credit: Bettmann/Corbis.
39fig12_23.jpgPage 454: An abolitionist lithograph depicting the trains “immediate emancipation” (with The Liberator as its front wheel) and the Liberty Party pulling into a railroad station. The Herald of Freedom and American Standard were antislavery newspapers.Credit: Reproduced from the Collection of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ
41Give Me Liberty! An American History End chap. 12W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-OwnedThis concludes the Norton Media LibrarySlide Set for Chapter 12Give Me Liberty!An American HistorybyEric Foner